SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.46 número3Descripción de una nueva especie de Salpingus Illiger (Coleoptera: Salpingidae) para ChilePrimer registro de Phylloicus bromeliarium Müller (Trichoptera: Calamoceratidae) en Venezuela índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
Home Pagelista alfabética de revistas  

Servicios Personalizados




Links relacionados

  • En proceso de indezaciónCitado por Google
  • No hay articulos similaresSimilares en SciELO
  • En proceso de indezaciónSimilares en Google


Revista chilena de entomología

versión impresa ISSN 0034-740Xversión On-line ISSN 0718-8994

Rev. chil. entomol. vol.46 no.3 Santiago set. 2020 

Scientific Note

First record of phoretic association between Cordylochernes scorpioides (Linnaeus) (Pseudoscorpiones: Chernetidae) and Hylettus coenobita (Erichson) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) in central Amazon

Primer registro de foresis entre Cordylochernes scorpioides (Linnaeus) (Pseudoscorpiones: Chernetidae) y Hylettus coenobita (Erichson) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae) en la Amazonía Central

Marcus Bevilaqua1 

Matheus M.M. Soares2 

Fabián García3  4 

1Coordenação de Biodiversidade, Laboratório de Sistemática e Ecologia de Coleoptera, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

2Coordenação de Biodiversidade, Laboratório de Diptera, Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia, Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil.

3Coordenação de Zoologia, Laboratório de Aracnologia, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brazil

4Programa de Pós-Graduação em Biodiversidade e Evolução, Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, Belém, Pará, Brazil


We herein report for the first time the phoretic association between the pseudoscorpion Cordylochernes scorpioides (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chernetidae) and the longhorn beetle Hylettus coenobita (Erichson, 1847) (Cerambycidae) in the central Amazon. In addition, this is the first record of pseudoscorpion phoresy for the genus Hylettus Bates, 1864.

Key words: Dispersion; longhorn beetles; Neotropical; phoresis; pseudoscorpions; South America


Se reporta por primera vez la foresis entre el pseudoescorpión Cordylochernes scorpioides (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chernetidae) y el escarabajo de cuernos largos Hylettus coenobita (Erichson, 1847) (Cerambycidae) en la Amazonía central, siendo además el primer registro de foresis con un pseudoescorpión para el género Hylettus Bates, 1864.

Palabras clave: Dispersión; foresis; escarabajos longicornios; Neotrópico; pseudoescorpiones; Sudamérica

Phoresy or phoresis is a non-permanent commensalism-type interaction, where an organism (phoretic individual or phoront) attaches itself to another (host) for dispersion (Houck and O'Connor 1991). There are numerous records, in which arthropods act as phoronts, mites and pseudoscorpions being the most common examples. Pseudoscorpions are an arachnid group with approximately 3,700 described species (Benavides et al. 2019), with length ranging from 1 mm to 2 cm. Tizo-Pedroso and Del-Claro (2007) consider that the reduced size is a limiting factor in dispersal, making phoresy an effective mechanism for the colonization of new habitats.

Poinar et al. (1998) list different cases of phoretic associations involving pseudoscorpions and other arthropods, particularly with insects, where two families of beetles (order Coleoptera) stand out: Cerambycidae and Passalidae. The phoretic behavior is important for gene flow, as evidenced by males monopolizing the beetle's abdomen, among other parts, as a strategic site for inseminating dispersant females (Zeh and Zeh 1992).

Cerambycidae and Passalidae represent most of the studies dealing with phoretic pseudoscorpions in the Brazilian Amazon, initiated by Ellingsen (1905) and several decades later by Beck (1968). These authors reported Cordylochernes scorpioides (Linnaeus, 1758) (Chernetidae) being transported under the elytra of the harlequin beetle Acrocinus longimanus (Linnaeus, 1758) (Cerambycidae). Most studies on interactions of pseudoscorpions with cerambycid beetles are by Aguiar and Bührnheim (1992, 1998, 2010), who reported the occurrence of a phoretic relationship involving the following pseudoscorpion families: Atemnidae, Cheiridiidae, Cheliferidae, Chernetidae, Chthoniidae (including two families that are now being treated as subfamilies, viz. Lechytiinae and Tridenchthoniinae, see Benavides et al. 2019), Geogarypidae and Withiidae.

Aguiar and Bührnheim (2010) observed a certain degree of specificity between the species of longhorn beetle and the species of phoretic pseudoscorpion, making these interactions important as they can be useful in taxonomic, behavioral, evolutionary, and ecological studies. These authors also predicted that new associations will be discovered in the future, considering the paucity of biological studies involving pseudoscorpions in the Neotropical region. The present study is the first record of a phoretic interaction of Cordylochernes scorpioides with the longhorn beetle Hylettus coenobita (Erichson, 1847) in the Brazilian Amazon. The specimens were collected at the Reserva Florestal Adolpho Ducke, near Manaus, Amazonas, Brazil (3°0'27.00” S - 59°56'22.92” W). After in situ photographs were made, the specimens were transported to the Laboratório de Sistemática e Ecologia de Coleoptera (LASEC) of the Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia (INPA), Manaus, where they remained alive for one week for behavioral observations. Finally, the pseudoscorpion was preserved in 70% ethanol and the beetle was anaesthetized, pinned and dried. Both specimens were deposited in the INPA's invertebrate collection. The beetle was identified with the taxonomic keys of Monné (1982, 1988), whilst the pseudoscorpion was identified using the study of van den Tooren (2004).

Photographs in situ were taken with a Nikon D7000 digital camera, equipped with a Nikon 18-105 mm lens, Raynox DCR-250 macro filter and Nikon Sb-700 flash. The images were edited in Adobe Lightroom software version CC 2020 for light and contrast correction; the plates were made using Adobe Photoshop software version CC 2020, according to the guide proposed by Bevilaqua (2020).

A single female specimen of C. scorpioides was found attached to the right antenna of H. coenobita (Fig. 1), demonstrating an active phoretic behavior, according to Vachon (1940) and Athias-Biche (1994). In the field, the pseudoscorpion / longhorn beetle relationship was observed for approximately 1 hour, during which neither of them showed any movement. During transportation to the laboratory, some movement was noticed, the beetle felt uncomfortable with the presence of the pseudoscorpion and often tried to remove it from the antenna with one of its forelegs, however, without success.

The host of C. scorpioides in this study, H. coenobita, is a wood-boring flat-face longhorn beetle, associated with several species of trees, including Couma guianensis Aubl. (Apocynaceae), Conceveiba guianensis Aubl. (Euphorbiaceae), Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg, Brosimum acutifolium acutifolium Huber, B. guianense Huber ex Ducke, B. rubescens Taub., B. utile (Kunth) Pittier, Ficus guianensis Desv. ex Ham. and Perebea mollis (Poepp. & Endl.) Huber (Moraceae) (Monné 2018). The presence of H. coenobita in these trees could 388

indicate a possible habitat also for C. scorpioides, since the habitat of this pseudoscorpion species is spaces under bark or under trunks of decaying trees in the families Moraceae and Apocynaceae (Beier 1948; Zeh and Zeh 1992; van den Tooren 2004; Moura et al. 2018). Previous studies indicate that C. scorpioides is a species commonly associated with longhorn beetles of the subfamilies Lamiinae and Prioninae, and in all cases, were found on the abdomen under the elytra (passive phoretic behavior), particularly in Acrocinus longimanus (Ellingsen 1905; Beier 1948; Beck 1968; Muchmore 1971; Mahnert 1979; Zeh and Zeh 1992; Aguiar and Bührnheim 1992; van den Tooren 2004; Aguiar and Bührnheim 2010), Macrodondia cervicornis (Linnaeus, 1758) (Aguiar and Bührnheim 1992; Aguiar and Bührnheim 2010) and Titanus giganteus (Linnaeus, 1771) (Aguiar and Bührnheim 1998).

Figure 1 A. Longhorn beetle Hylletus coenobita (Erichson, 1847) with a female of Cordylochernes scorpioides (Linnaeus) attached to its right antenna. B. Same, close-up of the pseudoscorpion. 


The first and second authors express their gratitude to Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - Brasil (CAPES) - Finance Code 001 for financial support in the form of scholarships. FG thanks Greenpeace Brazil for the M.Sc. scholarship within the “Programa Tatiana de Carvalho de Incentivo à Pesquisa e Conservação da Biodiversidade na Amazônia”. The authors are also grateful to Talita Viana (Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi), Francisco Eriberto Nascimento, MSc. (Universidade de São Paulo) and Dr. Leonardo Carvalho (Universidade Federal do Piauí) for sending some literature, and to Dr. Aaron T. Dossey (Invertebrate Studies Institute, Inc.; US) for preliminary corrections of the English language. We also thank the reviewer Rammy Martinez for his comments and suggestions, which greatly improved the quality of the originally submitted manuscript.

Literature Cited

Aguiar, N.O. and Bührnheim, P.F. (1992) Pseudoscorpiões foréticos de Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) e ocorrência de Parachelifer lativittatus Chamberlim, 1932 (Pseudoscorpiones, Cheliferidae) na Amazônia. Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi, sér. zool., 8(2): 343- 348. [ Links ]

Aguiar, N.O. and Bührnheim, P.F. (1998) Phoretic pseudoscorpions associated with flying insects in Brazilian Amazônia. The Journal of Arachnology, 26: 452-459. [ Links ]

Aguiar, N.O. and Bührnheim, P.F. (2010) Dispersão por forésia de pseudoscorpiões associados a insetos, na província de Urucu (Coari, Amazonas, Brasil). In: Castellón- Bermúdez, E.G., Ronchi-Teles, B. and Ale-Rocha, R (eds). Entomologia na Amazônia Brasileira. Manaus, Brazil. INPA 2010. Pp. 53-78. [ Links ]

Athias-binche, F. (1994) La phorésie chez les acariens. Aspects adaptatifs et evolutifs. Perpigman, Paris, France: Edition dus Castillet. 178 pp. [ Links ]

Beck, L. (1968) Sôbre a biologia die alguns arachnídeos na floresta tropical da Reserva Ducke (INPA, Manaus/Brasil). 1. Amazoniana: Limnologia et Oecologia Regionalis Systematis Fluminis Amazonas, 1(3): 247-250. [ Links ]

Beier, M. (1948) Phoresie und Phagophilie bei Pseudoscorpionen. Österreichische. Zoologische Zeitschrift, 1: 441-497. [ Links ]

Benavides, L.R., Cosgrove, J.G., Harvey, M.S. and Giribet, G. (2019) Phylogenomic interrogation resolves the backbone of the pseudoscorpiones tree of life. Molecular phylogenetics and Evolution, 139: 106509. DOI: [ Links ]

Bevilaqua, M. (2020) Guide to image editing and production of figures for scientific publications with an emphasis on taxonomy. Zoosystematics and Evolution, 96(1): 139- 158. DOI: [ Links ]

Ellingsen, E. (1905) On some pseudoscorpions from South America in the collection of Prof. F. Silvestri. Zoologischer Anzeiger, 29: 323-328. [ Links ]

Houck, M.A. and O'Connor, B.M. (1991) Ecological and evolutionary significance of phoresy in the Astigmata. Annual Review of Entomology, 36(1): 611-636. [ Links ]

Mahnert, V. (1979) Pseudoskorpione (Arachnida) aus dem Amazonas-Gebiet (Brasilien). Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 86(3): 719-810. [ Links ]

Monné, M.A. (1982) Revisão do gênero Hylettus Bates, 1864 (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae, Acanthocinini). Revista Brasileira de Biologia, 42(1): 95-106. [ Links ]

Monné, M.A. (1988) Novas espécies de Acanthocinini neotropicais. II (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae, Lamiinae). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 32(2): 119-130. [ Links ]

Monné, M.A. (2018) Catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the Neotropical Region. Part II. Subfamily Lamiinae. Accessed May 14, 2020. Available in: Available in: http:// ]

Moura, R.F., Tizo-Pedroso, E. and Del-Claro, K. (2018) Colony size, habitat structure, and prey size shape the predation ecology of a social pseudoscorpion from a tropical savanna. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology, 72(7): 103. [ Links ]

Muchmore, W.B. (1971) On phoresy in pseudoscorpions. Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society, 2(3): 38. [ Links ]

Poinar Jr, G.O., Curcic, B.P. and Cokendolpher, J.C. (1998) Arthropod phoresy involving pseudoscorpions in the past and present. Acta Arachnologica, 47(2): 79-96. [ Links ]

Tizo-Pedroso, E. and Del-Claro, K. (2007) Cooperation in the neotropical pseudoscorpion, Paratemnoides nidificator (Balzan, 1888): feeding and dispersal behavior. Insectes Sociaux, 54(2): 124-131. DOI: [ Links ]

Vachon, M. (1940) Remarques sur la phorésie des pseudoscorpions. Annales de la Société Entomologique de France, 109: 1-18. [ Links ]

van den Tooren, D. (2004) Pseudoscorpions (Pseudoscorpiones) of the genus Cordylochernes (Chernetidae) from Brazil. Zoologische Mededelingen, 78: 275-286. [ Links ]

Zeh, D.W. and Zeh, J.A. (1992) On the function of harlequin beetle-riding in the pseudoscorpion, Cordylochernes scorpioides (Pseudoscorpionida: Chernetidae). The Journal of Arachnology, 20(1): 47-51. [ Links ]

Received: June 22, 2020; Accepted: July 05, 2020

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License