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Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia

versão On-line ISSN 0718-686X

Anales Instituto Patagonia (Chile) vol.45 no.3 Punta Arenas dez. 2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-686X2017000300019 

ARTICULOS

Calliphoridae from Chile: Key to the genera and species (Diptera: Oestroidea)

Calliphoridae de Chile: clave para los géneros y especies (Diptera: Oestroidea)

Christian R. GonzálezA 

Lorena LlanosB 

Christopher OsesB 

Mario ElguetaC 

A Instituto de Entomología, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación, Santiago, Chile. E-mail: christian.gonzalez@umce.cl.

B Instituto de Entomología, Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación, Santiago, Chile.

C Área de Entomología, Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Santiago, Chile. E-mail: mario.elgueta@mnhn.cl.

Abstract:

The family Calliphoridae includes around 1,500 species belongs to 150 genera, 126 of them are recorded in the Neotropical and Andean regions. In Chile, the Calliphoridae family comprises 20 species belonged to four subfamilies and twelve genera, three of them are endemic to Chile. A key to all genera and species of blow flies recorded in Chile are provided. The low diversity of blow flies of Chile compared to other countries south of the United States is discussed.

Keywords: Taxonomy; blow flies; key; Patagonia; Chile

Resumen:

La familia Calliphoridae incluye alrededor de 1.500 especies en 150 géneros, 120 de las cuales están citadas para las Regiones Neotropical y Andina. Actualmente, los Calliphoridae de Chile comprenden 20 especies, clasificadas en cuatro subfamilias y 12 géneros con 3 especies endémicas. Se entrega una clave para reconocer géneros y especies de Chile. Se discute la baja diversidad de especies de Calliphoridae comparada con otros países al sur de Estados Unidos.

Palabras clave: taxonomía; califóridos; clave; Patagonia; Chile

INTRODUCTION

The family Calliphoridae was first defined in its present status by Brauer and Bergenstamm (1889). Actually, this family includes more than 1,500 species in approximately 150 genera (Pape et al. 2011; Velásquez et al. 2017). Commonly, is subdivided into 11 subfamilies (Zhang et al.2016); although recently Marinho et al.(2017) raised to family rank the subfamily Mesembrinellinae, a small group of strictly Neotropical calyptrate flies, and as a monophyletic lineage inside Oestroidea.

Six subfamilies of Calliphoridaeoccur south of the United States: Calliphorinae, Chrysomyinae, Luciliinae, Melanomyinae, Polleniinae, and Toxotarsinae (Withworth, 2010). Studies of the family on South America have been mainly focused on Argentina (Mariluis et al.1994), Brazil (Kosmann et al.2013; Pinto de Mello, 2003), Colombia (Amat, 2009; Wolff et al., 2012; Wolff & Kosmann, 2016), Ecuador (Tantawi & Sinclair, 2013) and Venezuela (Velásquez et al. 2017), Whitworth (2010) studied the species present in the West Indies, providing keys and reviewing some species. Withworth, (2012) carried out a revision of the Neotropical species of Calliphora, and Withworth, (2014) conducted the revision of the genus Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830. However, in Chile the taxonomic studies are very few (Mac-Lean & González, 2006).

Mac-Lean and González (2006) provided information available about the 20 species known from Chile, which belong to 13 genera and 3 subfamilies in addition to distribution data and synonymies, citing the genus Chlorobrachycoma Townsed, 1918 that is considered synonymous with SarconesiaBigot, 1857 by Evenhuis et al. (2015). In Chile, the family is represented by only three endemic species (Sarconesia dichroa (Schiner, 1868), Toxotarsus ambrosianus (Lopes, 1961), and T. humeralis(Walker, 1837)) described from material collected in southern South America and the San Ambrosio Island. Other workers Macquart (1843), Blanchard (1852), and Bigot (1857) also described Chilean material. Shannon (1926) describes two new genera of Chile and mentions species of the country. Smart (1937) reported 16 species and six genera from southern South America, and Lopes (1961, 1962) describes new taxa from the country. The first attempt at cataloging the Calliphoridae of Chile was published by Reed (1888), who considered 4 genera and 9 species. Subsequently, Stuardo (1946) cited 8 genera and 14 species, and James (1970) in the catalog for Neotropical species cited 24 species grouped in 13 genera for the country.

The objective of this work is to provide a key for the identification of the adults of the blow flies genera and species known from Chile.

MATERIAL AND methods

838 specimens were studied (383 females and 455 males). The specimens examined are deposited in the collection of the Instituto de Entomología of the Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación (IEUMCE) and Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (MNHN) both in Santiago, Chile. The observation of external characters was supplemented by the original descriptions of the species or revision of type material (Aldrich, 1931), we also consulted additional literature where Chilean material is considered (Dear, 1979; 1985; Carvalho & Ribeiro, 2000; Pinto de Mello, 2003; Amat, 2008; 2009; Carvalho & Mello-Patiu, 2008; Kosmann et al. 2013; Whitworth, 2014). In the key we have adopted the terminology of Cumming & Wood (2009) and Vargas & Wood (2010) for the external morphology. Photographs of the flies were taken using a Nikon trinocular stereomicroscope SMZ 1500 and digital camera DS-Fi2. Depth of field was enhanced by NikonTD ACT-2U software stack multiple images.

In the construction of the key, the genera that only have one species that occurs in Chile independently that these have more than one species worldwide or are monotypic, both names of the genus and the species are included in the same couple. In the first case ( i.e . only one species present in Chilean territory of a genus with more species), the characters that differentiate this species from its congeners are detailed.

RESULTS

Key to the genera and species of blow flies from Chile

1 Dorsum of stem-vein of wing bare (Fig. 1A). Greater ampulla oval (Fig. 1B) …………………. 2

1’ Dorsum of stem-vein of wing with a row of weak setulae (Fig. 1C). Greater ampulla reniform

(Fig. 1D)........................................................................................................................... 4

2(1) Suprasquamal ridge bare. Lower calypter setose. Thorax apparently dull grey or black, no metallic.

Abdomen metallic and blue (Fig. 1E) ……. CalliphoraRobineau-Desvoidy. C. vicinaRobineauDesvoidy (This species differs from the other species of the Calliphorain the following characters: frons

half or more of gena orange to red, katepisternal setae 2:1, basicosta yellow or orange, and wing with

hyaline base).

2’ Suprasquamal ridge with a conspicuous cluster of setulae near the base of the scutellum. Lower

calypter bare above. Thorax and abdomen completely metallic, green or bronze (Fig. 1F) ………………

………..…………............................................................................. LuciliaRobineau-Desvoidy...3

3(2’) Thorax with two post-sutural acrostichal setae. Dark basicosta ……….... L. eximia(Wiedemann)

3’ Thorax with three post-sutural acrostichal setae. Pale (yellowish) basicosta (Fig. 1G) …..………… …………………………………………….............................................................L. sericata (Meigen)

4(1’) Stem-vein of wing bare on ventral surface. Anteroventral edge of the metathoracic spiracle with

a row of setulae ………………….................................................................…………………………. 5

4’ Stem-vein of wing with a row of weak setulae on ventral surface (Fig. 1H). Anteroventral edge of

the metathoracic spiracle without setulae ………........................................................…………….. 12

5(4) Greater ampulla with stiff, erect setae. Lower calypter with pilosity scattered over entire dorsal

surface .... ChrysomyaRobineau-Desvoidy, C. albiceps(Wiedemann) (This species differs from the

other species of the Chrysomyain the following characters: proepisternal seta absent, and at least,

presence of four proepisternal setae).

5’ Greater ampulla bare or at most short pilosity. Lower calypter without pilosity or pilosity restricted

to basal half of dorsal surface (Fig. 1I) ............................................................................................ 6

6(5’) Lower calypter bare in entire dorsal surface .........................................................................7

6’ Lower calypter pilose in basal half of dorsal surface ............................................................ 8

7(6) Mesonotum flattened midway. Greater ampulla covered with short pubescence. Anterior spiracle

blackish to brown …..….... ProtophormiaTownsend, P. terraenovae(Robineau-Desvoidy) (This

species differs from the other species of the Protophormiain the following characters: arista plumose,

with long hairs above and below, postpronotal lobe larger than anterior spiracle).

7’ Mesonotum not flattened. Greater ampulla covered with short pilosity. Anterior spiracle whitish yellow ........................ HemiluciliaBrauer, H. segmentaria(Fabricius) (This species differs from

the other species of the Hemiluciliain the following characters: pale posterior spiracle, postpronotal

lobe, anepisternum and prosternum).

8(6’) Palp filiform, not reaching oral margin (Fig. 2A) ...................... CochliomyiaTownsend ... 9

8’ Palp clavate, reaching the oral margin (Fig. 2B) ................................................................ 10

9(8) Fronto-orbital plates with pale setae (Fig. 2C). Females with proclinate orbital setae. Fifth abdominal

tergite ventrally with dense and clear pilosity. Female abdomen with conspicuous pruinosity. Wing of male

with basicosta orange-yellowish ………….................................................. C. macellaria(Fabricius)

9’ Fronto-orbital plates with dark setae. Females without orbital setae. Fifth abdominal tergite

ventrally with dense and dark pilosity. Female abdomen without conspicuous pruinosity. Wing of male with

basicosta black .…………………….....……………………………………….C. hominivorax(Coquerel)

10(8’) Parafacial plates bare. Dorsocentral presutural setae present .................................

………………………………. ParaluciliaBrauer & Bergenstamm, P. fulvinota(Bigot) (This species

differs from the other species of the Paraluciliain the following characters: mesonotum glossy, prescutum

with silvery-brown pilosity, without vittae).

10’ Parafacial plates setulose in the upper third (Fig. 2D). Dorsocentral presutural setae absent

(Fig. 2E) ……………………………...............................…....... CompsomyiopsTownsend ...11

Fig. 1 A. Calliphora vicina stem-vein bare (scale bar = 0.1 mm). B. Lucilia sericata greater ampulla oval (scale bar = 1.0 mm). C. Sarconesiopsis chilensis stem-vein pilose above (scale bar = 0.1 mm). D. Compsomyiops fulvicrura greater ampulla reniform (scale bar = 0.1 mm). E. Calliphora vicina abdomen metallic blue (scale bar = 1.0 mm). F. Lucilia sericata thorax and abdomen completely metallic green (scale bar = 1.0 mm). G. Lucilia sericata postsutural acrostichal setae (scale bar = 0.5 mm). H. Neta chilensis stem-vein pilose below (scale bar = 0.1 mm). I. Compsomyiops fulvicrura lower calypter bare (scale bar = 0.1 mm). 

Fig. 2 A. Cochliomyia macellaria palp filiform (scale bar = 0.1 mm). B. Calliphora vicina palp clavate (scale bar = 0.5 mm). C. Cochliomyia macellaria fronto-orbital plate with pale setae (scale bar = 0.1 mm). D. Compsomyiops fulvicrura parafacial setulose (scale bar = 0.5 mm). E. Compsomyiops fulvicrura dorsocentral presutural setae absent (scale bar = 0.5 mm). F. Compsomyiops fulvicrura arista plumose (scale bar = 0.1 mm). G. Toxotarsus ambrosianus spiracle white (scale bar = 0.5 mm). H. Toxotarsus ambrosianus lower calypter long (scale bar = 1.0 mm). I. Toxotarsus ambrosianus arista bare (scale bar = 0.5 mm). 

11(10’) Tergites 3-5 with lateral metallic and coppery patches on the dorsal surface. Genae with orange or pale yellow setulae ………………............................................................... C. alvarengai(Mello)

11’ Tergites 3-5 without lateral patches. Genae bare ……….….. C. fulvicrura(Robineau-Desvoidy)

12(4’) Presutural acrostichal setae absent. Katepisternal setae 0:1. Arista with short setae or bare ......

......................................................................................................... ToxotarsusMacquart ... 13

12’ Presutural acrostichal setae present. Katepisternal setae 1:1 or 2:1. Arista always plumose

(Fig. 2F) ........................................................................................................................ 15

13(12) Legs yellow. Spiracles orange. Pre and postacrostichal setae absent ....… T. humeralis(Walker)

13’ Legs brown or black. Thoracic spiracles brown or white (Fig. 2G). Pre and postacrostichal

setae present ………………………..................................................................................... 14

14(13’) Lower calypter long and slender (Fig. 2H). Cell r

4+5

open at wing margin. Dorsocentral setae 2:3.

Thoracic spiracles white. Arista bare (Fig. 2I) ….........…………......…… T. ambrosianus(Lopes)

14’ Lower calypter lobulate. Cell r

4+5

closed. Dorsocentral setae 3:3. Thoracic spiracles brown. Arista

with hairs basally …….............................................……............... T. nigrocyaneus(Walker)

15(12’) Body robust, frequently longer than 20 mm (Fig. 3A). Body and legs exceptionally hairy (Fig. 3B). Male with hind femur swollen and arcuate (curved). Fifth abdominal tergite of female concave

Neta Shannon, N. chilensis (Walker) (This is the only known species of this genus and

for this reason it can be identified by the generic characters).

15’ Body not robust and shorter than 14 mm. Body and legs not exceptionally hairy. Male with hind

femur straight (Fig. 3C). Fifth abdominal tergite of female not concave 16

16(14’) Lower calypter hyaline Sarconesiopsis Townsend ... 17

16’ Lower calypter tinted grey Sarconesia Bigot ...18

17(16) Lower calypter dark brown with margin of the same color (Fig. 3D). Thorax without metallic

reflections with black and gray pruinose stripes (like Sarcophagidae) S. chilensis (Macquart)

17’ Lower calypter brown with margin pale. Thorax metallic blue-green with white or silvery pruinose

stripes reaching the scutellum S. magellanica (Le Guillou)

18(16’) Postsutural acrostichal setae absent S. chlorogaster (Wiedemann)

18’ Postsutural acrostichal setae present 19

19(17’) Four postpronotal setae (Fig. 3E). Intra-alar setae 3:2. Palp dark brown. First flagellomere

blackish (Fig. 3F). Wing slightly yellowish in basal area. Veins brown-yellowish. Calypters yellow

S. versicolor Bigot

19’ Three postpronotal setae. Intra-alar setae 2:2. Palp yellow-reddish. First flagellomere light brown. Wing hyaline. Veins brown. Calypters white S. dichroa (Schiner)

Fig. 3 A. Neta chilensis body (scale bar = 1.0 mm). B. Neta chilensis hind femur hairy (scale bar = 1.0 mm). C. Sarconesiopsis chilensis hind femur straight (scale bar = 0.5 mm). D. Sarconesiopsis chilensis lower calypter dark brown (scale bar = 0.5 mm). E. Sarconesia versicolor postpronotal lobe with four setae (scale bar = 0.1 mm). F. Sarconesia versicolor palp and first flagellomere (scale bar = 0.5 mm). 

DISCUSSION

The diversity of blow flies species reported for Chile is reduced (Mac-Lean & González, 2006), in comparison to other countries in the Andean and Neotropical Regions (Mariluis & Mulieri, 2003; Amat et al. 2009; Kosmann et al. 2013; Velásquez et al. 2017). There are biogeographical, biological, and taxonomical aspects that could be related to the low diversity in Chile. The isolation of Chile could have been an impediment to colonization of some species with greatest distribution in some other areas of South America. At the other hand, there has been an unequal sampling effort at level latitudinal and altitudinal in the country. However, one must bear in mind that collections in areas with scarce knowledge in relation to its Diptera composition, such as high altitude regions of central and southern Chile (e.g. Mariluis & Schnack, 1996; Santibáñez et al. 2008) in addition to the high commercial and tourist traffic that is maintained with Argentina, could increase the number of genera and species reported for Chile.

In South America, the genera Lucilia Robineau-Desvoidy and Calliphora Robineau- Desvoidy are represented by 23 and six species, respectively (Whitworth, 2012, 2014); however, only L. sericata (Meigen, 1826), L. eximia (Wiedemann, 1819), and C. vicina Robineau-

Desvoidy, 1830 widespread species in the Neotropics, have been found in Chile (Reyes, 1967; Saiz et al. 1989; Artigas, 1994; Figueroa- Roa & Linhares, 2002; Mac-Lean & González, 2006; Ortloff et al. 2012; Kosmann et al. 2013).

The genus Chrysomya Robineau-Desvoidy is represented by five species (Kosmann et al. 2013), which were introduced to South America, specifically Brazil, from Africa (Baumgartner & Greenberg, 1984; Dear, 1985), and only C. albiceps, a worldwide species, has been reported for Chile (Mac-Lean & González, 2006; Ortloff et al. 2013). The revision of American species of Chrysomyini by Dear (1985) reported six species for Hemilucilia Brauer, six for Compsomyiops Townsend, four for Cochliomyia Townsend, and three for Paralucilia Brauer & Bergenstamm. For Chile, only H. segmentaria (Fabricius, 1805), C. alvarengai (Mello, 1968), C. fulvicrura (Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830), C. macellaria (Fabricius, 1775) and P. fulvinota (Bigot, 1877) have been reported (Figueroa-Roa & Linhares, 2002; Mac-Lean & González, 2006; Ortloff et al. 2012; Kosmann et al. 2013).

Toxotarsus ambrosianus (Lopes) has been found only on San Ambrosio Island and T. hume ral is (Walker) in coastal areas of the Región del Bío-Bío and Juan Fernández Island, whereas T. nigrocyaneus (Walker, 1837) has been found between lowland Valparaíso and Los Lagos regions, and Argentina (Dear, 1979; Kosmann et al. 2013). The monospecific genus Neta Shannon, represented by N. chllensls (Walker, 1837), is a blow fly that has been reported for Chile, Argentina (Dear, 1979; Reyes & Almonacid, 1984; Figueroa-Roa & Linhares, 2002; Mariluis & Mulieri, 2003; Mac-Lean & González, 2006) and for Bolivia and Perú (Kossmann et al. 2013). The genus Sarconesla Bigot is represented in Chile for S. chlorogaster (Wiedemann, 1831), S. versicolor Bigot and S. dlchroa (Schiner), whereas the genus Sarconeslopsls Townsend incorporates only S. magellanlca (Le Guillou, 1842) and S. chllensls (Macquart, 1843) (Figueroa-Roa & Linhares, 2002; Mac-Lean & González, 2006). S. chlorogaster and S. verslcolor are high altitude species distributed principally in countries in southern South America (Dear, 1979), whereas S. dlchroa is an endemic blow fly of central Chile and Juan Fernandez Islands (Dear, 1979; Mac Lean & Gonzalez, 2006).

This contribution provides a quick tool to identify blow flies present in Chile, particularly important inasmuch as it is not uncommon to see incorrect identifications (Kosmann et al. 2013). The applicability of this key to the fauna of other regions with few collections - for example in the north, in the Andes and in the Cordillera de la Costa is not yet known. Nevertheless, this key will enable researchers to identify most species present in the country and provides a baseline for the development of a more comprehensive key incorporating all species present in Chile.

Acknowledgements:

The authors would like to thank Dr. Stephen M. Smith (Biology, University of Waterloo) for the help in editing the English version and comments on the manuscript.

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Received: August 08, 2017; Accepted: December 08, 2017

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