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Revista ingeniería de construcción

versión On-line ISSN 0718-5073

Rev. ing. constr. vol.26 no.2 Santiago ago. 2011

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-50732011000200002 

Revista Ingeniería de Construcción Vol. 26 N°2, Agosto de 2011 www.ing.puc.cl/ric PAG. 150 - 170.

 

Review of the pavement management system of the Bogotá bike-path network

Revisión del sistema de gestión de pavimentos de la red ciclorrutas de Bogotá

 

Gilberto Martínez Arguelles*1, Luis Guillermo Fuentes**, Lina María Torregroza Aldana***

 

* Universidad de Piloto de Colombia, Bogotá D.C., COLOMBIA.
** Universidad del Norte, Barranquilla, COLOMBIA.
***Ingetec S.A., Bogotá D.C., COLOMBIA

Dirección para Correspondencia


ABSTRACT

The paper presents a review of the Bogota bike-path network management system. The results of the study showed that it is necessary to establish a specific manual for bicycle paths with the potential damage in such structures. The prediction of the distress on the bike paths requires the definition of monitoring sections to feed a database that allows the development of empirical models. The document proposed key elements that must contain an infrastructure management system, such as: models for deterioration development, definition of maintenance standards and social assessment at the stage of prioritizing interventions. These factors should be considered to structure a future version of the bike-path management system. The results of the study showed different topic that must be improved and developed, such as; the definition of a comfort index to bike-path user and the necessity of establishing a maintenance guidebook.

Keywords: Bike-path, pavement management system, maintenance, deterioration models.


 

1. Introduction

Bike-paths in Bogota were planned from a very beginning as elements for public spaces of recreational nature, intended for leisure and promotion of physical activity. The Bike-paths Project was proposed under the Development Project (DP) 1995 -1997 "Formar Ciudad". It was called "red vial de ciclo vías" (Bike-path Network ) and it is considered as one of the Public Space priority projects. Its purpose was to build up a standing bike-path network in the Capital District to organize the storm water drainage system and the green metropolitan system mainly serving, as a recreational network (Instituto de Desarrollo Urbano de Bogotá ((IDU), 2010a). On the other hand, the following District Administration's Development Plan 1998 - 2001, "For Por la Bogotá que Queremos"- included the bike-path network as a core element to become an alternative to improve the mobility of the city. Bike-path topic became relevant ever since and therefore investment in studies, design and bike-path infrastructure construction have been carried out it the last decade, raising Bogota as the south American Capital city with the greatest bike-path network I of 344 km length (IDU, 2010a).

One of the factors that allowed the development and growth of bike-paths in the capital city was the Bike-Path Master Plan (PMC) (IDU, 2010b), defined as a strategy intended to promote daily transportation in Bogota city using bicycles, which purpose was to reduce traffic and to achieve positive social, economical and environmental dividends.

Transportation by means of bicycles alongside the bike-path network plays a fundamental role for Bogota's citizens, since they provide an alternative transportation means for the urban community, mainly for short range distances (IDU, 2010 b). Therefore, besides effective policies promoting the use of bicycles, it is fundamental to maintain the bike-path network in good conditions thus allowing an agile and safe ride to users from departure to arrival points. The investment in bike-path infrastructure is huge, considering the cost for an asphaltic mixture trip of 0.05 m thickness by 2 m width and 344 km length comprising Bogota's bike-path network. This is why the implementation of conservation policies and an adequate management system for Bogota's bike-path network becomes urgent. In this aspect, the IDU in Bogota has implemented a methodology to determine the Condition Index of the Bike-path Network - ICC (IDU y TNM Limited, 1999), further described in the current paper.

Additionally, this paper shows a review on the bike-path network in the Capital District from a Road Infrastructure Management point of view, proposing key elements to be incorporated to the bike-path network management system that will ensure its sustainability.

Taking into account that more than 90% of bike-path network is composed of flexible type pavement structures, the authors present an analysis of the most common structural failures observed on the Bike-path Network and recommendations are proposed as mitigation actions.

2. Description of bike-path infrastructure in Bogotá

The bike-path network in Bogota comprises 344 km along 19 out of 20 communities of the city (Sumapaz location is excluded as it is 100% rural). According to hierarchy, Bogota Bike-Path network is divided into: Primary network, secondary network and a small group known as zone bike-paths (ref. Table 1 and Figure 1).

Table 1. Bogota's bike-path network hierarchy

Figure 1 shows a functional layout proposed by the PMC. The image describes how housing centers are connected to the economical city center by means of different network levels (primary, secondary, complementary and zone networks) and how a housing center is interconnected to similar networks in the city.

Figure 1. Network Functional Layout. Source PMC

 

Every transportation network must fulfill minimum geometry and operational parameters, which are defined on the Bike-path Design Guidelines (MDC) developed under an advisory framework for the implementation of Bike-path Master Plan. Such network comprises a variable section typology located on platforms, environmental courses and spacers. MDC establishes bike-paths section widths of 2.75 m for traffic levels lower than 1500 users/day (both way) and 3.5 m for bike-paths for traffic levels equal or greater than 1500 users/day (both way), always considering 0.5 m clearance over the effective width (see Equation 1).

(1)

Where:

AC: bike-path width
Ae: effective width
H: clearance (MDC considers 0.5 clearance) The minimum width for a one way lane is 2.25 m.

Figures from 2 to 4 show some typical bike-path sections in Bogota City. However, most bike-paths are 2 m width only.

Figure 2. Bike-path section on spacer

 

Figure 3. Bike-path section on platform. Adapted from www.idu.gov.co.

Figure 4. Bike-path section on platform, paving stone surface and asphaltic layer. Adapted from www.idu.gov.co.

3. Infrastructure management system

Bike-paths as any other city infrastructure element must be considered as an assets of the city. Therefore, the fundamental role of responsible authorities is to prevent, detect and correct in due course deterioration underwent by such bike-paths. In order to properly carry out such actions, it is necessary to create a Conservation Action Plan, purpose of any management system implementation, to be considered as a decision-making tool to implement the most adequate actions, considering costs involved and establishing priorities (De Solminihac, 2005, Haas et al., 1994).

Solminihac (2005) stated basic elements configuring the parameters of road infrastructure management:

• Information on network inventory.
• Information on functional and structural conditions of road elements.
• Predictive behavior models during operating life.
• Conservation standards for current and future deterioration.
• Economical evaluation on different conservation and/or rehabilitation alternatives.
• Action plan layout during analysis period.

From above elements, one should highlight that the most complex factors for an agency or state organization are the development and implementation of deterioration models and the elaboration of conservation standards for current and future deterioration. In order to facilitate such task, since 1968 the World Bank has developed the model HDM-Highways Development Management, version III and IV (World Bank, 2000), which is an economical and technical tool for scenario modelling, allowing by means of a software, to carry out simulations on a network or specific project by using deteriorarion models built-in the software, which can be calibrated for economical and geographical conditions in any country.

According to De Solmihihac (2005) statements, a management system for the specific case of a bike-path network should include the six above mentioned aspects, emphazising that conservation standards definition, economical evaluation and action program layout during analysis period are tools depending on available resouces for the network maintainance program, and equally depending on defined maintenance policies. Figure 5 shows the above mentioned group of elements in function of dependance or independance regarding short-term policies established by a government. The first initial aspects: information on network inventory, information on functional and structural conditions and predictive behavior models during operating life are technical parameters that depend on the network own characteristics, on materials employed, on functional attributes (roughness, friction and comfort sensation) and on models developed in function of material types and their durability. Therefore, it is seen that these measures depend on specific parameters, parameters depending on resource availability and also depending on appropriate or inappropriate conservation policies settled by authorities in the studied network.

Figure 5. Elements depending on a road management system in a government decision making process

4. Current bike-path network management system in Bogotá

The bike-path management system in Bogota is based on a data base feedback by IDU, by means of the elaboration of an initial infrastructure inventory and data periodically registered (inventory carried out every two years as minimum), including parameters indicating functional condition and surface deterioration (IDU and TNM Ltd. (1999)).

The Management System in Bogota assigns an identification code to each infrastructure element (platform, pavement carriage way, spacer and bike-path), which is known as Road Identification Code (CIV) that is geo-referenced in IDU's data base and can be looked up from a GIS platform system (Geographical Information System), as shown in Figure 6.

Figure 6. IDU Geo-reference System in Bogotá

 

Figure 7 shows an identification layout on the geometric characteristics of a pike-path belt, as well as number of lanes, width, length and surface type.

Figure 7. Location and geometry of bike-path (IDU, 1999)

 

Data obtained from bike-path network inventory are the following:

• International Roughness Index - IRI
• Distress type
• Distress severity
• Distress extent
• Surface type
• Geometry

The distresses considered for the determination of Surface Bike-path Index are shown in Table 2. Such distresses are the same as those on the distress list used for determining vehicle pavement condition index. However, it is necessary to make clear that distress as well as deterioration mechanisms for vehicular pavement are quite different from failures in bike-path networks. Different studies have identified the failure conditions for bike-path networks focusing on superficial defects and mobility conditions (geometry and maneuverability) (Gharaibeh et al., 1998).

Table 2. Bike-paths Distress List

From the distress survey, a Distress Index (FI) is established, which is calculated based on distress area and converted into percentages regarding the complete area of the studied (segment).

By considering the failure area percentage and its severity level, deduct values are calculated from different curves for each failure type. These curves were calibrated for the specific conditions of Bogota city. A curve example is shown in Figure 8. Such evaluation model is based on a PAVER methodology developed by Shahin et al., (1990).

Figure 8. Deduct value v/s bleeding failure area (adapted from IDU, 2010c). (Adapted from IDU, 2010c)

Once distress weighted are obtained from the curve (pn), the index IF can be calculated with the equation 2.

(2)

From distress survey results a Distress Index (IF) can be obtained per a bike-path segment, which related with IRI measurements provides a Bike-path Condition Index-ICC (IDU (2010c)), by using the Equation 3.

(3)

ICC is in function of IF and IRI, providing a single indicator for the functional condition and surface condition of the bike-path.

5. Analysis and review of existing management model

The existing management model can be observed in Figure 9. It is composed of different modules: data collection (inventory), information storage in data base, an evaluation model to quantify the pavement condition, a costs modulus and finally a modulus that includes the maintenance intervention alternatives.

Figura 9. Existing Management Model for bike-path network

5.1 Review of existing model

Considering that failure lists are based on the same methodology developed for the pavement inventory of Bogota road network and do not correspond to a research conducted to detect failures of bike-path nature, they can be considered as practical reference in order to achieve standard criteria for failure nomenclature. On the other hand, failure lists differ from reality as far as deterioration mechanisms of a bike-path with different type of surface courses are concerned.

Assuming that the bike-path has been properly built from optimum quality materials and adequate constructive processes, it becomes necessary to analyze - for instance - one of the typical structures defined in the MDC (see Figure 10). Generally, the structures used on the bike-path network are composed by a surface treatment with bituminous materials or, in most cases, by a layer of dense warm mixture of 5 cm thickness.

For Bogota MDC (IDU, 2010b) states that the above mentioned pavement structure must be regular, waterproof, skid-proof and present a good appearance. On the other hand, it would be wise to add durability parameters to above mentioned characteristics.

Figure 10. Typical structure of a bike-path belt on flexible pavement. Adapted from MDC

MDC clearly indicates that, from a structural point of view, a bike-path is not susceptible to undergo high levels of stress, therefore one could eliminate from the failure list those originated by repetitive stresses, such as: displacements, settlements and crocodile cracking (associated to fatigue damage). However, it is possible to observe such type of failures since they can be originated by poor constructive processes, poor quality materials and bike-path network external agent effects.

From Figures 11 to 13, some of the most common failures are shown; however, they are not included in the existing failure list for bike-path network.

Figure 11. Cracking concentrated on demarcation line

 

Figure 12. Crossover cracking caused by sub-grade line expansion

Figure 13. Raveling on bike-paths caused by climatic changes

 

5.2 Deterioration mechanisms for bike-paths

According to the World Bank (1988), the following aspects are defined as key factors for pavement deterioration:

a. Topography and sub-grade line
b. Material and thickness of pavement layer
c. Drainage (surface and external)
d. Construction and maintenance quality
e. Environmental conditions (rainfall, freezing and solar radiation)
f. Traffic
g. Pavement conditions

For the structure under analysis (see Figure 10), assuming this structure was properly constructed, deterioration associated to environmental changes become especially relevant as it is the predominant factor affecting the bike-path network in Bogota (see Figure 13). By checking up the acquaintance state of photo-chemical ageing on asphaltic mixtures and due to environmental changes, researches conducted by Tia et al, (1988) are found, who states that ultraviolet radiation limits ageing only to depth-first millimeters. Hugo et al. (1985) found hardening effects in depth-first 5 mm and compared them with 2mm even deeper viscosities where no effect is observed due to radiation. Kempt et al. (1981) stated that radiation from "actinic" light affects up to 5 um of asphalt layer. In this sense, it becomes evident that there is no agreement regarding affection depth, taking into account that reported studies have evaluated different types of mixtures under semi-compacted conditions and different exposure periods.

In the context of Colombian asphalts, an investigation on asphaltic mixtures aging have been conducted by Martinez et al, 2005, who by means of the study on a dense asphaltic mixture with 80-100 penetration grade asphalt, and employing accelerated aging techniques in a UV weather meter, determined that ultra-violet radiation affects only up to a 15 mm depth. In the case of bike-paths, the aging affectation of 15 mm is equivalent to 30% of total thickness (50 mm), therefore it shall be considered as a remarkable effect on a course operational life time. Potential maintenance activities would involve surface treatments using anti-aging agents or slurry-micro surfacing treatments. On the other hand, it would be possible to evaluate the implementation of modified asphalts for bike-path constructions, which have proved to provide a thicker coating layer on aggregates due to a higher viscosity compared to a conventional asphaltic cement mixture, and also deliver higher anti-ageing strength (Airey et al., 2002; Elseifi et al., 2003; Airey 2004; Martínez et al., 2006).

Bike-paths are prone to undergo surface wearing-out and deterioration which encourage the achievement of measures providing a quantitative evaluation on the course surface condition and comfort perceived by users.

Currently, the surface condition due to wearing-out (scabbing) is determined by means of a visual inspection (IDU 2010c)). Such process is highly subjective and scarcely repetitive for inventories. In order to evaluate wearing conditions or binder loss in the asphaltic course directly, one must carry out texture measurements on pavement, by means of static methods, such as the sand circle or sand patch methods, outflow mete, circular texture meter (CT meter) are recommended. The sand patch stands out from such methods as a widely accepted and broadcasted standard, due to high amount of historical data available (Flintsch et al, 2005). The evaluation and monitoring on surface macrotexture will guarantee safe operational conditions on bike-paths, since this parameter determines skid resistance on wet condition surfaces (NCHRP, 2009).

On the other hand, the Bike-path Condition Index-ICC (Equation 3) is conditioned to the evaluation of International Roughness Index (IRI) for the segment under study. IRI is a parameter employed to evaluate the quality of bike-path segments, and it is based on the dynamic response from a vibration model simulating a standard quarter-car traveling at 80 km/h on the evaluated surface. The original IRI model is shown in Figure 14.

Figure 14. A quarter-car used for IRI calculation (Modified from Sayers 1995)

 

Based on these concepts it is expected that dynamic response sensed by a biker riding on a surface would be quite different from the one represented by the IRI model, since suspension system and different dynamic parameters of these devices (vehicle - bike) are significantly different. On the other hand the average speed of a bike (estimated in 15 - 20 km/h) is remarkably lower than the speed employed by IRI model. This represent a significant fact since the dynamic response of a vehicle running on a surface is highly sensitive to its speed (Fuentes et al 2010).

In this context, it is advisable to re-evaluate IRI as a control parameter on bike-paths quality conditions, since it lacks of meaning and does not represent the comfort level experienced by a biker when riding on a bike-path. Re-calibrated IRI model should represent the dynamic response for a bicycle riding on a bike segment at an operational speed representative for such devices.

Considering the above, a key element for the effectiveness of a Bike-path Management System (SGC) is the understanding of bike-path deterioration due to environmental changes, such as thermal fatigue on asphaltic courses and hardening due to photo-chemical effect. A deep knowledge of pavement deterioration will allow the implementation of strategies and construction processes intended to reduce the identified deterioration mechanisms. For the planning and assessment of the bike-path network performance, a definition of witness sections is fundamentally required to develop equations and deterioration curves facilitating the evaluation of bike-paths performance, thus providing a significant support for investment plans throughout time, leading to the optimization of district government resources and to the conservation of bike-paths under service conditions fulfilling the standards defined as integral part of district infrastructure policies.

6. Aspects to be implemented to the existing Management System

As a result from the review of existing SCG, weaknesses of the current system were determined and are described from 6.1 to 6.5.

6.1 Information for Inventories

Record information on bike-paths network registered after construction is completed, as well as the information obtained from field surveys for inventory purposes, is not enough to conduct a system analysis regarding deterioration causes and network performance. Since data base does not have information on the bike-path layer thicknesses neither on employed material quality. One failure cause repetitively found is cracking and loss of surface evenness in bike-path network due to trees roots, hence this information must be included in bike-paths inventories. Possible solutions to such pathology will demand a specification regarding the minimum free distance from bike-paths center axle to trees present in the neighborhoods.

In order to complement the existing information on bike-paths inventories, the following variable listing is proposed, as shown in Table 3.

Table 3. Data to be included in bike-path inventories

6.2 Behavior Models

In order to assess bike-paths performance and deterioration, it is essential to define witness sections, which shall be periodically monitored to evaluate the conditions and deterioration speed. Such information will be useful for the development of deterioration models for each segment group under study and they will provide IDU with empirical tools for assessing life time and optimal periods to perform maintenance tasks in advance (George, 2000; Khattak et al,, 2008).

6.3 Conservation standards

Conservations standards provide agencies with precautionary thresholds, alerting the moment or condition when a given network segment requires some kind of maintenance action, thus guaranteeing such zone serviceability. There is no information whether precautionary thresholds have been implemented for bike-path networks, as discussed on 5.2, neither on indicators for failure area percentages or roughness indicators. Hence, a conservation standard intended to evaluate deterioration due to climate changes would be a great contribution.

6.4 Social Assessment

Social assessment is a key element to be considered at the stage of prioritizing interventions and their impact on target community in a bike-path network. (Chamorro et al 2009). It is quite clear that in Bogota, bicycles are not valued in the same manner by all economical stratums, being is an invaluable transportation means for lower class when compared to any other transportation system available in the city (IDU 2010b). Therefore, it becomes unquestionable that all decision-making process shall consider the bike path number of users for a given zone and the kind of use they require from the system (transportation, recreation means, etc.)

6.5 Decision Making Tool

A systematic decision making tool shall bring all variables and system data collected together, so that, by means of the use of optimization techniques, it shall provide priority reports and the type of interventions required to guarantee desired serviceability in accordance to maintenance policies established by the competent authority. The existing management model and the elements to be included in the system are shown in Figure 15.

Figure 15. Existing Management System considering proposed elements based on failures detected

7. Conclusions

This paper has integrally reviewed the existing bike-path management system of Bogota city. The following conclusions were achieved:

a. It is necessary to develop a bike-path failures guideline containing all potential deterioration elements for this kind of structure. Identifying the kind of failures in bike-paths based on a vehicular road guideline is worthless, as it lacks of objectivity, taking into account that origin of the failure and the deterioration levels are quite different.

b. The current system does not include deterioration models or tools required for this purpose. Bike-path deterioration prediction requires the definition of witness sections to feed a data base allowing the development of empiric models for the assessment and prediction of bike-paths deterioration.

c. The bike-path condition index is based on IF and IRI, both parameters created for vehicle roads. It is necessary to develop a Condition Index directly involving parameters related to the comfort of non-motor vehicle users, perhaps including a texture parameter.

d. Complementary elements are proposed to the existing management system to achieve a system counting with the minimum elements considered by an infrastructure management system, such as development of deterioration models, definition of maintenance standards and social assessment during intervention prioritizing stages.

e. Based on the existing information and on the review conducted on bike-path network, surface wearing out on bituminous course mainly due to climate changes became evident as one of the distinctive deterioration mechanism. Therefore one should consider new constructive techniques by using modified asphalts, which deliver higher anti-aging resistance against weathering effects.

f. The results shown in this paper will lead to an adequate and timely intervention of conservation tasks on bike-paths, thus guaranteeing resources investment on segments prioritized by prediction model and by bike-path administration system.

5. References

Airey G. 2004, "Fundamental binder and practical mixture evaluation of polymer modified bituminous materials". The International Journal of Pavement Engineering, Vol 5(3), p 137-151.

Airey G. D., Singleton T. M. y Collop A. C. (2002), "Properties of polymer modified bitumen after rubber-bitumen interaction". Journal of Material in Civil Engineering", Vol 14(4) August 1, p 344-354.

Chamorro A. y Tighe S. L. (2009), Development of a management framework for rural roads in developing countries. Journal of the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC.

De Solminihac H. (2005), Gestión de Infraestructura Vial, Tercera edición. Editorial Alfaomega Grupo Editor, Colombia.

Elseifi M. A., Flintsch G. W. y Al-Qadi I. L. (2003), "Quantitative Effect of Elastomeric Modification on Binder Performance at intermediate and High Temperature", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 15, No 1, p. 32-40.

Flintsch G., De León E. y Medina A. (2005), La macrotextura superficial del pavimento como indicador de calidad en pavimentos flexibles (CD). XIII Congreso Iberolatinoamericano del Asfalto, San José, Costa Rica.

Fuentes L., Gunaratne M. y Hess D. (2010), Evaluation of the Effect of Pavement Roughness on Skid Resistance, ASCE Journal of Transportation Engineering. Volume 136, No 7, pp. 640-653

George K. P. (2000), "MDOT Pavement Management Systems, Prediction models and feedback systems". Department of Civil Engineering The University of Mississippi. Report FHWA/MS-DOT-RD-00-119

Gharaibeh N., Wilson C., Darter M. y Jones G. (1998), Development of a bike path Management System for the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Tranportation Research Record No. 1636 Bicycle and Pedestrian Research 1998. Paper No. 98 -0331

Haas R. W,, R. Hudson y J. P. Zaniewski (1994), Modern Pavement Management. Krieger Publishing Company. Malabar, Florida.

Hugo, F. and Kennedy, T.W. (1985), Surface cracking of asphalt mixtures in Southern Africa, Proc. Assn. Asphalt Paving Technol. 54, 454-501.

Instituto de Desarrollo Urbano de Bogotá (2010a), http://www.idu.gov.co/web/guest/espacio_ciclorutas. Fecha de última visita: Marzo 2010.

Instituto de Desarrollo Urbano de Bogotá (2010b), Plan Maestro de Ciclorrutas. Manual de Diseño de ciclorrutas. http://www.idu.gov.co/web/guest/espacio_ciclo_plan. Fecha de última visita: Marzo 2010.

Instituto de Desarrollo Urbano de Bogotá (2010c), Plan Maestro de Sostenibilidad de la Infraestructura Urbana de Bogotá. http://www.idu.gov.co/web/guest/tramites_doc_planmaestro. Fecha de última visita: Marzo 2010.

Instituto de Desarrollo Urbano de Bogotá (1999), TNM Limited. Plan Maestro de Sostenibilidad Vial IDU - TNM contrato 834 de 1999.

Kemp G.R. y Prodoehl N. H. (1981), A comparison of field and laboratory environments on asphalt durability2, Proc. Assn. Asphalt Paving technol. 50. 492-537.

Khattak M. J., Baladi G. Y., Zhang Z. y Ismail S. (2008), Review of Louisiana's Pavement Management System. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2084, Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washinton, D.C., pp. 18-27.

Martínez G. y Caicedo B. (2005), Efecto de la radiación ultravioleta en el envejecimiento de ligantes y mezclas asfálticas. Congreso Ibero-Latinoamericano del Asfalto CILA XIII, San José de Costa Rica.

Martínez G., Caicedo B., Gonzáles D. y Celis L. (2006), Rheological Behaviour of Asphalt with Crumbed Rubber and other Modifiers. Asphalt Rubber Conference 2006. Palm Springs.

NCHRP (2009), Guide for Pavement Friction Project No. 01-43. Transportation Research Board. National Research Council.

Sayers M. (1995), On the Calculation of International Roughness Index from Longitudinal Road Profile, Transportation Research Record 1501, Transportation Research Board Business Office, Washington, D.C., pp. 1-12.

Shahin M. Y. y Walter J. A. (1990), "Pavement Maintenance Management for Roads and Streets Using the PAVER System". U.S Army Corps of Engineers (USA CERL), Champaign II, Technical Report M-90/05.

World Bank. (2000), Highway Development and Management Series. Volumen 1. Visión General del HDM-4, versión Piarc R101, París.

World Bank. (1988), Road deterioration in developing countries - causes and remedies. Washington.


E-mail: gilberto-martinez@unipiloto.edu.co

Fecha de recepción: 28/ 10/ 2010, Fecha de aceptación: 30/ 03/ 2011.

Airey G. 2004, "Fundamental binder and practical mixture evaluation of polymer modified bituminous materials". The International Journal of Pavement Engineering, Vol 5(3), p 137-151.         [ Links ]

Airey G. D., Singleton T. M. y Collop A. C. (2002), "Properties of polymer modified bitumen after rubber-bitumen interaction". Journal of Material in Civil Engineering", Vol 14(4) August 1, p 344-354.         [ Links ]

Chamorro A. y Tighe S. L. (2009), Development of a management framework for rural roads in developing countries. Journal of the Transportation Research Board of the National Academies, Washington, DC.         [ Links ]

De Solminihac H. (2005), Gestión de Infraestructura Vial, Tercera edición. Editorial Alfaomega Grupo Editor, Colombia.         [ Links ]

Elseifi M. A., Flintsch G. W. y Al-Qadi I. L. (2003), "Quantitative Effect of Elastomeric Modification on Binder Performance at intermediate and High Temperature", Journal of Materials in Civil Engineering, Vol. 15, No 1, p. 32-40.         [ Links ]

Flintsch G., De León E. y Medina A. (2005), La macrotextura superficial del pavimento como indicador de calidad en pavimentos flexibles (CD). XIII Congreso Iberolatinoamericano del Asfalto, San José, Costa Rica.         [ Links ]

Fuentes L., Gunaratne M. y Hess D. (2010), Evaluation of the Effect of Pavement Roughness on Skid Resistance, ASCE Journal of Transportation Engineering. Volume 136, No 7, pp. 640-653         [ Links ]

George K. P. (2000), "MDOT Pavement Management Systems, Prediction models and feedback systems". Department of Civil Engineering The University of Mississippi. Report FHWA/MS-DOT-RD-00-119         [ Links ]

Gharaibeh N., Wilson C., Darter M. y Jones G. (1998), Development of a bike path Management System for the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. Tranportation Research Record No. 1636 Bicycle and Pedestrian Research 1998. Paper No. 98 -0331         [ Links ]

Haas R. W,, R. Hudson y J. P. Zaniewski (1994), Modern Pavement Management. Krieger Publishing Company. Malabar, Florida.         [ Links ]

Hugo, F. and Kennedy, T.W. (1985), Surface cracking of asphalt mixtures in Southern Africa, Proc. Assn. Asphalt Paving Technol. 54, 454-501.        [ Links ]

Instituto de Desarrollo Urbano de Bogotá (2010a), http://www.idu.gov.co/web/guest/espacio_ciclorutas. Fecha de última visita: Marzo 2010.        [ Links ]

Instituto de Desarrollo Urbano de Bogotá (2010b), Plan Maestro de Ciclorrutas. Manual de Diseño de ciclorrutas. http://www.idu.gov.co/web/guest/espacio_ciclo_plan. Fecha de última visita: Marzo 2010.        [ Links ]

Instituto de Desarrollo Urbano de Bogotá (2010c), Plan Maestro de Sostenibilidad de la Infraestructura Urbana de Bogotá. http://www.idu.gov.co/web/guest/tramites_doc_planmaestro. Fecha de última visita: Marzo 2010.         [ Links ]

Instituto de Desarrollo Urbano de Bogotá (1999), TNM Limited. Plan Maestro de Sostenibilidad Vial IDU - TNM contrato 834 de 1999.         [ Links ]

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