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Revista de la ciencia del suelo y nutrición vegetal

versión On-line ISSN 0718-2791

R.C. Suelo Nutr. Veg. v.8 n.especial Temuco  2008 


J. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. v8 noespecial 2008 (102-110) 

                              ORAL ABSTRACTS 


Session 1. Ecological Significance of Interactions Among Clay Minerals, Organic Matter and Biota

Soil Moisture Characteristic in Some Low Land Soils

N. Bassirani*

Department of Soil Science, Zabol University, Zabol, I. R. Iran.

*E-mail: N_Bassirani@yahoo. com

Keywords: characteristic, low land, soil moisture.

A model to predict the moisture characteristic of a Low Land soil from some physical and chemical properties such as soil texture (percent of sand, silt, clay) bulk density and organic matter parameters is presented. Soil moisture content in unsaturated soil is reflected by two important factors of Field Capacity (FC) and Permanent Wilting point (PWP) which affect irrigation scheduling and field management. FC and PWP can be estimated from some of the physical and chemical properties of soil. Pressure plate apparatus is usually used for determination of FC and PWP, but this is a time-consuming and laborious procedure. Besides, the apparatus may not be available in many laboratories. For reporting a model to predict soil moisture characteristic, soil samples were taken from 55 locations in Sistan and Baluchestan province of south east Iran (unsaturated Soils). Soil texture, organic matter, bulk density and cation exchange capacity (CEC) were determined. Soil moisture at FC and PWP of the soils were measured with a pressure plate. Simple and multiple regression analyses were used to study the relationships between FC and PWP and soil texture, soil organic matter and bulk density.

Competitive Adsorption of Phosphate and Oxalate on Nano-Ball Allophane with Different Si/Al Ratio

M.A. Elsheikh*. N. Matsue and T. Henmi

Faculty of Agriculture, Ehime University, 3-5-7 Tarumi, Matsuyama 790-8566, Japan.

*E-mail: abdalla@agr. ehime-u.

Keywords: Phosphate; oxalate; nano-ball allophane

The interaction between phosphate and low molecular mass organic acids (LMMOAs) on clay minerals has a great importance for understanding their impacts on minerals dissolution and metal mobility in rhizosphere. The mobility and bioavailability of these ligands depends on characteristics of the mineral surface. Oxalate is a nearly ubiquitous dicarboxylate ligand that occurs in significant concentrations in soils, surface waters, sedimentary basins and chemical processing solutions. Allophane is a short-range ordered hydrous aluminum silicate and a principal material of clay fraction in Andisols and Podzols. Previously, the aluminum silicate had not been believed to have definite morphology and structure, however later on it was proved that allophane, at least separated from volcanic ash soils and weathered pumice grains, have definite hollow spherical morphology (nano-ball with diameter of 3.5 to 5.0 nm). A literature on competitive adsorption between phosphate and LMMOAs in soils showed that previous studies were usually carried out at high concentrations (1-100 mM), and resultant adsorption amounts were much higher than those found in soils. Therefore objective of this study was to investigate competitive adsorption of phosphate and oxalate onto two allophane samples with low and high Si/Al ratio, at low concentration level, using the recent information about detailed morphology and chemical structure of the wall of the aluminum silicate. In order to attain our study purposes, the experiments were carried out by adding different initial concentrations of oxalate (OX) or phosphate (P) (single system), or both at equimolar (binary system) to allophane suspension at various constant pH. Then the Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption equations were used to describe the collected data. In almost cases, adsorption isotherms fitted to the Langmuir equation rather than the Freundlich equation, indicating strong monolayer adsorption of P and OX on allophane. In the single system, Langmuir Xm value (maximum adsorption) for P was much greater than that for OX, on each allophane sample at all pH values. Langmuir K value related to adsorption strength was also greater for P than for OX in all cases. These indicated that the adsorption affinity toward allophane was higher for P than for OX. The amount of adsorption of P on two allophane samples decreased almost linearly with increasing pH from 4 to 8. The amount of adsorption of OX on allophane with low Si/Al also decreased with increasing pH, but that on allophane with high Si/Al had a maximum at pH 5. This is related to change in chemical species of OX with pK2 of 4.3. In binary system, the amount of adsorption of P and OX was lower as compared to that in the corresponding single system. In case of allophane with low Si/Al, the sum of adsorption of P and OX in binary system was higher than that of P in single system. This means OX in the binary system can adsorb the site on allophane where P did not adsorbed in single system. However, in case of allophane with high Si/Al, the sum of adsorption of P and OX in binary system was almost equal to that of P in single system. This indicates that OX in binary system can adsorb only on the site where P adsorbed in single system. The ratio of OX/P adsorbed was smaller than unity in all cases. The ratio decreased with increasing initial concentration, suggesting increasing affinity of P as compared to OX onto allophane with increasing their concentrations.

Soil Organic Carbon Stocks - A Land Quality Indicator of Degraded Agro-Eco- Systems

K.R. Gangadharappa1*, A. Natarajani;!, KJVLNair2, K.S. Anil Kumar2, M.Ramesh2, R. Siddaramappa3 and K. Sudhir4

'Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, HAS, GKVK, Bangalore-5 60065, Karnataka, India.2NBSS & LUP, Regional center, Hebbal, Bangalore-560024, Karnataka, India. 3Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, HAS, GKVK, Bangalore-5 60065, Karnataka, India. 4 Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, HAS, GKVK, Bangalore-5 60065, Karnataka, India. *E-mail:

Keywords: Organic carbon; land quality; degraded agro-eco-systems.

Soil organic matter (SOM) is the primary sink and source of plant nutrients in natural and managed terrestrial ecosystems. It increases the ion exchange, water holding and infiltration capacity, promotes the formation of soil aggregates and is the major energy substrate for the soil fertilizers, those that do not have toxicity, aggregation or erosion problems or those supplied ample irrigation and other management inputs can support crops without much SOM. These situations, which are basically field nutrient culture, are rare and in the majority of soils, SOM is a prerequisite for ecosystem health and productivity (Lai et. ah, 1997). A study was conducted on Characterization and classification of salt affected soils of part of Bellary taluk using Remote sensing techniques. A detailed assessment of land resources was undertaken. Where drastic changes the in land resources and their usage occurred due to the introduction of canal water from Tungabhadra catchment. Using Remote sensing data of IRS-1C, the salt affected soils of Bellary was identified. A total of 15 pedons were excavated to a depth of around 2 meters from agro-eco-systems and characterized for their morphological, physical, chemical and fertility parameters. The study revealed that the area has very deep fine soils with pH and EC ranged from 8.0 to 9.9 and 0.19 to 30.1 d Sm-1 respectively and indicated that soils are moderate to strongly alkaline soil reaction. The soils had high CEC values varied from 29.6 to 82.4 c mol (P+) kg-1, AWC (20.9 to 46.6 k Pa), % Base Saturation (63 to 99%) and able to supply major and micro-nutrients to plant growth. There was dominance of monovalent cations on surface adding to alkalinity and sodicity near the canals and increases salinity and calcareousness towards the streams. The soil organic carbon stocks in the degraded ecosystem revealed that total % organic carbon from all the pedons ranged 3.6 to 22.5.The organic carbon content ranged from 0.09 to 0.98 percent decreased with the soil depth in all the pedons indicating less soil microbes in the lower profiles. Soils of pedon 1, 7, 10, 12 and 14 are having good stock of SOC compared to soils of pedon 4, 8, 9, 13 and 15 respectively. Better SOC stock will promote soil-root microbial interaction helping the sustained productivity of the agro-ecosystem. Similarly poor organic carbon stock will have adverse impact on the soil root microbial interaction leading to total degradation of the system making it not useful for agriculture. The pedons 1 to 15 have been classified into Fine mixed calcareous isohyperthermic Sodic Haplusterts, Fine mixed calcareous isohyperthermic Sodic Haplusterts, Loamy mixed calcareous isohyperthermic Typic Haplustepts, Fine mixed calcareous isohyperthermic Haliic Haplusterts, Fine mixed calcareous isohyperthermic Typic Haplusterts, Clayey mixed calcareous isohyperthermic Vertic Haplustepts, Fine mixed calcareous isohyperthermic Halic Haplusterts, Loamy mixed calcareous isohyperthermic Typic Haplustepts, Fine-loamy mixed calcareous isohyperthermic Typic Haplustepts, Fine mixed calcareous isohyperthermic Sodic Haplusterts, Fine mixed calcareous isohyperthermic Vertic Haplustepts, Fine mixed calcareous isohyperthermic Sodic Haplusterts, Fine mixed calcareous isohyperthermic Vertic Haplustepts, Clayey mixed calcareous isohyperthermic Aquic Haplustepts, Fine mixed calcareous isohyperthermic Fluventic Haplustepts respectively based on the physicochemical characteristics of soils. The land use is preferentially getting changed from sorghum and red gram to corn and red gram with a catch crop of coriander in the first instance; then to paddy alone in two seasons and finally some areas are unsuitable for any agricultural purpose.



R. Lai, J. Kumble and R. Follett. (1997). Land use and Soil C pool in terrestrial ecosystems, p. 1-10 In: R. Lai, J. Kumble, R. Follett & Stewart (Eds), Management of Carbon Sequestration in soils. CRC/Lewis Publishers, Boca Raton, FL.

Conformation, Stability and Activity of Acid Phosphatase during the Interaction with Clay Minerals and Soil Colloids from an Alfisol

Q. Huang*. J. Zhu, X. Qiao, P. Cai and W. Liang

Key Laboratory of Subtropical Agriculture and Environment of Ministry of Agriculture, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, China.

* E-mail:

Keywords: Acid phosphatase; clay minerals; soil colloids.

Conformation, proteolytic stability and enzymatic activity of acid phosphatase on montmorillonite, kaolinite and soil colloids from an Alfisol were studied. The conformation of native and desorbed phosphatase was tested by fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The proteolytic stability and enzymatic activity of free and immobilized phosphatase were determined by biochemical assay and isothermal titration microcalorimetry (ITC), respectively. Most original conformation of phosphatase was preserved by kaolinite and organic soil clay. However, marked changes in conformation of phosphatase were observed when desorbed from montmorillonite and inorganic soil colloid. Higher percentages of a-helixes and (3-sheets were formed for the enzyme molecules desorbed from the surface of montmorillonite and inorganic soil clay. Proteolytic stability of immobilized phosphatase on soil colloids and minerals was higher than that of free enzyme. The catalytic heat of phosphatase was declined after immobilization on soil colloids, indicating the depression of enzymatic activity. The enhancement in proteolytic stability and decrease of enzymatic activity for phosphatase bound on montmorillonite and organic soil clay were greater than that on kaolinite and inorganic soil colloid. The results obtained in this study would be helpful for better understanding of the behavior and fate of phosphatase in soil environments, which is fundamental for the evaluation of soil fertility and quality.

Carbon Mineralization in Particle Size Fractions of a Brookston Clay Loam Soil under No-Tillage and Mouldboard Plough Management

X. Yang1*. Z. Zhang1"2, C. Drury1, W. Reynolds1 and L. Zhao2

'Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, 2585 County Road 20, Harrow, Ontario, Canada NOR 1G0. 2Department of Natural Resource & Environ. Science, Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun, China 130118.


Keywords: Soil size fractions, Soil organic carbon (SOC), Mineralization, Tillage.

The organo-mineral fractions of specific particle sizes often play a significantly different role in the composition and turnover rate soil organic carbon (SOC). However, no data are available on the contents of SOC in organo-mineral particle-size fractions and its turnover rates for heavy textured soils under different tillage management in Southwest Ontario. Hence, the objectives of this study were to: 1) determine the contents of SOC associated with the sand (53-2000 urn), silt (2-53 μm) and clay (<2 μm) size fractions of a Brookston clay loam soil under no-till (NT) and mouldboard plough (MP); and 2) measure SOC mineralization within the sand, silt and clay fractions. Soil samples (0-10 cm) were collected in early November 2007 from a tillage study which was initiated in 1996 by splitting existing (13-y) MP and NT plots in half. One half of 13-y MP plot was converted into new-NT (N- NT) while the remaining half was left intact as long-term MP (L-MP). Similarly, one half of 13-y NT plot was converted to new-MP (N-MP) while the remaining half was left intact as long-term NT (L-NT). Bulk soil was dispersed into sand, silt and clay fractions by applying ultrasound energy at 750 J ml-1 to a 1:4 soikwater suspensions. The SOC content of the particle size fractions was determined and the size fractions were aerobically incubated at 20°C and 30% moisture (w/w) for 29 days. The C-C02 emissions from the samples were measured at day 1, 2, 5, 9, 14, 20 and 29. We found that more SOC was associated with clay than with silt and sand in all tillage treatments. There was more SOC associated with clay (34.2 g C kg-1) and silt (24.1 g C kg-1) under NT than with clay (28.8 C g kg-1) and silt (20.9 g C kg-1) under MP. Similarly, significantly (P < 0.05) more SOC was associated with the sand fraction under NT (7.1 g C kg-1) than under MP (3.7 g C kg-1). For all tillage treatments, carbon mineralization decreased with time. Both No-till soils showed significantly higher mineralization rates than two MP soils. The clay size particles emitted significantly greater C02 relative to the silt and sand fractions. Hence NT produced more SOC in all three particle size fractions relative to MP in the top 10 cm, and that SOC associated with the silt and clay fractions was more labile under NT than under MP.

Artificial Soil Based on Clay Minerals for Use as a Source of Growing Media

B.-G. Kim*. G.-S. Lee, C.-L. Park and H.-S. Jeon

Korea Institute ofGeoscience and Mineral Resources, Korea. *E-mail:

Keywords: Artificial soil; clay minerals; growing media.

Artificial soil for use as a source of growing media has been made by calcinations of clay minerals under controlling pore space. Calcined clay is a granular agglomerate of clay having large surface area and a myriad of small pores. It has a low holding capacity for easily available water (EAW) and a low water buffering capacity (WBC). This research modified physical properties of calcined clay to increase EAW and WBC for possible use as an ideal substitute for plant growing media. To determine proper sizes of unit particles of calcined clay showing a range of matric potential from 1 to 10 kPa, selected feldspar materials with known dimensions were agglomerated and water suction tests were performed on the product. Based on the proper subunit sizes determined, calcined clay was physically modified using kaolin in a two-step process. The first step involved the consolidation of kaolin by mixing with water, drying it, and classifying into required sizes after crashing of the dehydrated material. The second step involved agglomeration of the material in a spherical form using a pan-type pelletizer and baking the product at 900°C for 2 h. The modified calcined clay (MCC) has improved water holding and buffering characteristics, mainly due to the presence of bimodal pore sizes: small pores having about 1 um diameter and large pores of greater than 10 um diam. Water suction tests verified that MCC has higher EAW and WBC than those of the typical ingredients of root substrates commonly used. The MCC, with granular sizes of 2-4 mm diameter, was mixed with Canadian sphagnum peat in various proportions, and the physical and chemical properties of the mixtures as a new source of growing media were characterized.


Soil Contamination with Strontium-90 at the Former Semipalatinsk Nuclear Test Site, Kazakhstan

Y. Kuyanova1*, M. Burkitbayev1 and N. Priest2

'Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Al-Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan. 2AECL Chalk River Laboratory, Ontario, Canada. *E-mail:

Keywords: Soil contamination; strontium; Mollisols.

The territory of the former Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (STS) is uniquely placed for the implementation of environmental studies/investigations. Over a period of past 40 years (1949-1989), at the STS more than 450 nuclear explosions, including atmospheric, above ground and underground tests have been conducted at the STS. The study investigated the level of radiostrontium 90Sr in soil samples collected from the north region of STS. 90Sr is the most biological hazardous fission product and its present in soil and food items grown/produced on contaminated soil may give rise to significant radiation exposure within exposed populations. Soil samples were collected during a 2006 summer expedition to the STS as part of the NATO Science for Piece Project SEMIRAD-2 (SfP 960906) programme. The soil at the area of investigation is of the mollisols type; typical of the dry steppe zone of Kazakhstan. A range of parameters were analyzed for the physical-chemical characterization of the soil samples. These were cation (Mg, K, Na) exchange capacity, exchangeable calcium content, pH value, humus and organic matter content. In addition, X-Ray diffraction analysis has been used for the determination of the mineralogical composition of these soil samples. In order to establish the degree of radiological contamination of the selected area of the STS territory and considering wind transfer to its adjoining territories, strontium contamination was analyzed in the soil samples. This included analysis of its distribution along the soil vertical column and across the soil particle size fraction. Cored soil samples of 15 cm depth were collected and sliced into two centimeter layers. The distribution of 90Sr across soil size fraction was analyzed using the top 5 centimeters fraction of the core. Soil samples pre-treatment including drying, sieving and grinding. 90Sr concentrations were determined by performing Sr separation followed by counting 90Sr by liquid scintillation - in the conventional procedure. The study of vertical distribution of 90Sr in core profiles showed that contamination levels decreased exponentially with increasing depth and significant concentrations of the radionuclide were only present down to a depth of 10 cm below the soil surface were most plants roots are present. The content of 90Sr associated with particles transferred by wind (less than 50 uk) is about 20%. A special sequential extraction experiment has been undertaken to determine the degree of 90Sr binding to different kind of soil minerals. It was found that the water soluble fraction is only 0.4-0.5% and more than 50% of 90Sr is on the strong fixed fraction.


Microbial Functions Related to Soil Quality in a No-Tilled Argiudoll

A. Pidello and E. Perotti*

Laboratorio de Química Biológica- FCV-Consejo de Investigaciones-Universidad Nacional de Rosario- Bd. O. Lagos y Ruta 33-2170-Casilda, Argentina. *E-mail:

Keywords: Soil quality; organic matter; Pseudomonas fluorescens.

Soil quality can be defined according to its capacity to sustain plant and animal productivity, and to maintain or enhance water and air quality. In this way, when new strategic methods of soil conduction are implemented, to improve soil sustaintability, the evolution of the soil quality should be studied. Many indicators of soil quality are used, among them the quantity of the soil organic matter soil (SOM) is the indicator most wide used in no-tilled systems. The main microbial population in agricultural soil is heterotrophic. In general, it is in relation to the SOM. In spite of this relationship, the capability of the SOM to support the microbial functionality is not understood that all yet. There are many gaps in relation to the role of the soil organic-C on the microbial functionality, in particular when the oxidizable-C is accumulated on top of stratificated soil, as the SOM stratification observed in the no-tilled Argiudoll studied by us. This stratification increases the organic compounds with C-atoms that have low oxidation states; so it suggests that their oxidation depends on the habitat's oxido-reduction state. The main objective of this work was to address the following question: in no-tilled soil does the accumulated SOM gives rise to a physico-chemical and biotic stratification?. Three different approaches were made to address this question. First, it was to study the distribution of the oxidizable carbon in relation to the expression of some microbial functions of heterotrophic microorganisms and physico-chemical parameters in the soil profile. This study could show the stratification status at 0-5, 5-15 and 15-25 cm of depth. The second approach was to study the impact of the Pseudomonas fluorescens inoculation, a soil heterotrophic bacterium, in the soil ecosystem of two soil levels. This strategy was performed to relate level-capacity to support microbial activity depending on oxidizable-C. The third approach, oxidizable-C and microbial respiration of soil' aggregates (> 2000, 2000-1000, 1000-250, 250-50, 50-20, < 20 um) at the three selected depths were studied. The employed soil was a Vertic Argiudoll (90 years under conventional tilled and 10 years under continued wheat-soybean-corn no-tilled system). In these studies we employed complementary techniques that signed the SOM quantity and the aptitude for its utilization for soil microorganisms. These were evaluated by changes in oxidizable-C, C02 and N20 production measured by gaseous chromatography, reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyl-tetrazolium-chloride (TTC) and total microorganisms number (acridine-orange stain). Taken as a whole, changes in oxidizable-C stratification and the studied biological parameters evolution were conducted both by stable macro-aggregates and by micro-aggregates, which are less predictable on their physical-chemical and biological behaviors. Nature of this "instability" of micro-aggregates should be studied in depth to ensure o guarantee the success of biotechnological practices, as bacteria inoculation, in no-tilled Argiudoll.

Acknowledgements: This work was support by the FONCYT PICT N°08-07308 (Argentine) and INCO Program N°ERBIC18CT970180 (EU).

Salinity Land Recovering: Effective Technique Using Organic Matter and Calcium Phosphate

C. Kirdmanee*. S. Cha-um, K. Mosaleeyanon, S. Srithundon, R. Jaipheng and P. Wanichananan National Center for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology, National Science and Technology Development Agency, 113 Thailand Science Park, Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120, Thailand. *E-mail:

Keywords: Salinity land; organic matter; calcium phosphate.

Global Warming is currently an undeniable fact that has become a critical issue for economics and environment. An increase in the global temperature will accelerate evaporation rate resulting in higher salinity concentration ( Global Warming will worsen salinity diffusion into the mainland. The salinity areas are spread widely over 397 million hectares in many regions of the world, which is three times larger than agriculture area (FAO, 2000). Phyto-remediation on salinity land is one of the effective strategies to control diffusion of salt and reduction of carbon dioxide to atmosphere leading to less greenhouse effect. However, the lack of salt-tolerant plants and agricultural practice are an important barrier to solve this problem. It is difficult to find out the accurate phenotypic expression and agricultural practice of plant grown under salinity condition because there are many factors related to salinity and environment condition that need to be manipulated and controlled. To overcome the salinity problems in agricultural production, precise, rapid and cheap process of in vitro and ex vitro environmental control system have been innovated and applied in the plant selection and agriculture practice. This understanding was used to modify the environment in the fields during phytoremediation on salinity land. The availability of organic matter for soil rehabilitation was used and monitored as a key factor. More than 200,000 varieties of tropical forest trees, rises, and sugarcanes were identified in vitro and grown in 2,000 hectares in four salt mining areas and salt affected areas. From the field experiment, the salinity concentration decreased from 4-10% NaCl to 0.5-0.8% NaCl in 2-4 years. As a reason of land recovery, the diversity of tropical forest tree, algae, insect, reptile, bird and fish increase. The findings have shown that the rice and sugarcane grown under high organic matter and high calcium phosphate delivered twice yield than those grown under low organic matter and low calcium phosphate. The organic matters demonstrated the high binding capacity of salt ion and water in the soil. Now, farmers are able to grow rice, sugarcane and forest tree with yield in the salinity land under recommended conditions and agricultural practices. This research has offset the equivalent of preventing the distribution of salt by 80,000 metric tons and the release of carbon dioxide emissions by 16,000 metric tons, thus contributing mitigation of salinity distribution and greenhouse effect. It helps the farmer to strengthen their competency in managing fragile ecosystems.


Assessment of Dissolved Organic Matter Quality in Wastewater Irrigated Soils

A. Sánchez-González1*. C. Siebe1, F. del Río-Portilla2 and M. Vera-Martínez3

'instituto de Geología, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México. 2Instituto de Química, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México. 3 Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, México. *E-mail:

Keywords: Organic matter; wastewater; irrigated soils

The wastewater from Mexico City has been used for agricultural irrigation since more than a century. This has increased the total and soluble organic matter concentrations in the soils. The concentration of potentially mineralizable carbon has increased also, suggesting a change in soil organic matter quality. The heavy metals introduced by irrigation accumulate in the top soil and adsorb to the solid soil organic matter (Siebe, 1994). Nevertheless, a correlation between water extractable organic carbon and diverse metallic ions is observed, which indicates that these metals are partially mobile (Herre et ah, 2004) and are absorbed by crops (Siebe, 1994). The aim of this study was to analyze the quantity and quality of dissolved organic matter collected from fields of two representative soil units form the Mezquital Valley, which have been irrigated with wastewater for different periods of time. The sampling was carried out in Leptosol and Vertisol fields from the Mezquital Valley which has been irrigated for 0, 20, 40 and 100 years. In each field, undisturbed soil columns were taken, in three replications, these columns were moved to a greenhouse where the temperature and relative humidity were kept constant (22.3°C and 58%). The dissolved organic matter (DOM) samples were obtained by applying wastewater in a simulated irrigation and collecting the percolates of each column. The E4/E6 ratio was determined with a UV spectrometer (Cary 3E) quantifying the absorbance at 465 and 665 nm. For the infrared analyses compound samples of several percolations were condensed 10 times and freeze-dried. The acquisition of infrared spectra was made in an infrared spectrometer (IRFT Bruker Tensor 27) using tablets made of 0.5-1.0 mg of the freeze dried sample and 300 mg of NaBr. The solid state 13C CPMAS were obtained with a NMR spectrum (Bruker Avance II 300) at 75 MHz in a cylindrical rotor of 4 mm with a speed spin of 5kMz, a contact pulse of 1ms, 90° 1H pulse of 4us and a 11s recycle delay. The DOM from Leptosols increases its size and molecular weight the longer the soils have been under irrigation. In addition these compounds seem to have a limited reactivity as the E4/E6 value and the carboxyl group concentration indicates. On the other hand the structural environmental of the carboxylates (COO) is the same, and the relative distribution of carbon nuclei is similar in all soils irrespective of the irrigation length. In the DOM from Vertisols the wastewater irrigation produces smaller compounds and increases their reactivity as well as the COOH concentration. The structural environment of these functional groups presents a greater diversity. The relative distribution of different kinds of carbon nuclei in the DOM of Vertisols displays an increase in the nucleus from methoxyl, O-alkyls, anomerics and carbonyls.


A. Herre, Ch. Siebe and M. Kaupenjohann. (2004). Water Sci. Technol. 50: 277-284.

Ch. Siebe. (1994). Akkumulation, Mobilitat und Verfilgbarkeit von Schewermetallen in langjahrig mit Abwasser bewasserten Boden Zentralmexikos. Hohenheimer Bodenkundliche Hefte 17, Sttudgart; Instituí fur Bondenkunde und Standortslehre, Universitat Hohenheim.


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