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Ciencia e investigación agraria

versión On-line ISSN 0718-1620

Cienc. Inv. Agr. vol.43 no.2 Santiago mayo 2016

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-16202016000200004 

ANIMAL PRODUCTION / RESEARCH PAPER

 

Use of incremental levels of dehydrated olive cake in lamb diets as an alternative for grazing systems in the central dryland area in Chile: The effect on carcass traits of Suffolk Down lambs

Uso de niveles incrementales de alperujo deshidratado de oliva en dietas de cordero como una alternativa para sistemas de producción a pastoreo en la zona de secano central de Chile. Efecto sobre las características de la canal en corderos Suffolk Down

 

Patricio Pérez1, Fernando Squella2, Claudio Aguilar3, María José Idalsoaga1, Raúl Vera3, María Sol Morales1, Mario Maino1, and Juan Ignacio Egaña1

1 Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias y Pecuarias, Universidad de Chile. Santa Rosa 11.735, La Pintana, Santiago, Chile.
2 Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Centro Experimental Hidango. Camino a Topocalma s/n, Litueche, Región de O'Higgins, Chile.
3 Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile. Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, San Joaquín, Santiago, Chile.

Corresponding author: pperez@uchile.cl


Abstract

P. Pérez, F. Squella, C. Aguilar, M.J. Idalsoaga, R. Vera, M.S. Morales, M. Maino, and J.I. Egaña. 2016. Use of incremental levels of dehydrated olive cake in lamb diets as alternative for grazing systems in central dryland area in Chile. The effect on carcass traits of Suffolk Down lambs. Cien. Inv. Agr. 43(2):213-221. To evaluate increased levels of dehydrated olive cake (DOC) in lambs ration on main carcass traits, 40 Suffolk Down male lambs (75.8 ± 7.4 days of age, 24.5 ± 3.1 kg live weight) were randomly assigned to one of five treatment groups. Four experimental isoenergetic and isoproteic diets were used with different levels of DOC: 0, 16, 32 and 48%, and an un-weaned group were kept with their mothers on grazing. Lambs had 8 days of adaptation to the diets, which were gradually introduced along with good quality alfalfa hay. During 47 days of the experiment, the lambs were confined in individual pens (1.4 m2) and subsequently slaughtered at 123 ± 7 days with an average live weight of 32.56 ± 2.62 kg. The live weight at slaughter (LWS), hot carcass weight, cold carcass weight, commercial yield (CY), real dressing percentage (RDP), body components weight (blood, hide, head, legs, full and empty digestive tract, and viscera), rib eye area (REA), back fat thickness (BFT), renal pelvic fat weight, and commercial cutting yield (CCY) were recorded. Additionally, the tissue composition and its ratios were calculated from the shoulder and leg. The carcass traits, CY, RDP, and REA decreased and BFT increased with increasing amounts of DOC in the diet (P≤0.05). No significant differences (P>0.05) in CCY, tissue composition and ratios among the tissues of the shoulder and leg joints were detected. The addition of DOC to the diet did not affect the quality of the lamb carcass.

Key words: Lambs, olive cake, carcass traits.


Resumen

P. Pérez, F. Squella, C. Aguilar, M.J. Idalsoaga, R. Vera, M.S. Morales, M. Maino y J.I. Egaña. 2016. Uso de niveles incrementales de alperujo deshidratado de oliva en dietas de cordero como una alternativa para sistemas de producción a pastoreo en la zona de secano central de Chile. Efecto sobre las características de la canal en corderos Suffolk Down. Cien. Inv. Agr. 43(2):213-221. Se evaluó la inclusión de alperujo deshidratado de oliva (ADO) en la ración de corderos sobre las principales características de la canal, utilizando 40 corderos Suffolk Down (75,8 ± 7,4 días de edad, 24,5 ± 3,1 kg peso vivo). ADO se incluyó en cuatro dietas: Dieta control con 0% ADO (DC), DC con 16, 32 y 48% ADO, más un grupo a pastoreo que se mantuvo con sus madres. Durante el ensayo (47 días), los corderos se mantuvieron en corrales individuales (1,4 m2). Los corderos fueron sacrificados a los 123 ± 7 días, y peso vivo promedio de 32,56 ± 2,62 kg. Al sacrificio se registró: peso vivo, peso de la canal caliente, peso de la canal fría, rendimiento comercial (RC), rendimiento verdadero de la canal (RV), peso de los componentes del cuerpo (sangre, piel, cabeza, piernas, el tracto digestivo lleno y vacío, y vísceras), área del ojo del lomo (AOL), espesor de grasa dorsal (EGD), peso de grasa peri-renal y rendimiento de corte comercial (RCC). Adicionalmente, en espaldilla (E) y pierna (P) se estudiaron los componentes del tejido (CT) y sus proporciones (PT). El incremento de ADO en la dieta causó una disminución de RC, RV y AOL y un aumento de EGD (P<0,05). No se detectaron diferencias (P>0,05) en RCC, ni en CT y PT de H y P. La adición de ADO a dietas de corderos, en los niveles utilizados en este trabajo, no afectó la calidad de la canal de cordero.


Introduction

Sheep production in Chile is based primarily on natural prairie grass, presenting wide seasonal and annual fluctuations in nutritive quantity and quality (Pérez et al, 2002; Pérez et al, 2007). Supplementation with common feeds is not suitable because of the relatively high price of grains. The use of an available agro-industrial byproduct could reduce the impact of waste production and provide a low-cost animal feed alternative (Beken and Sahin, 2011), reducing the dependence on grains that are used for human consumption. Among the agricultural by-products eligible for animal feed, wastes from olive oil production, such as olive cake (OC), present a possible feed option. Olive cake is defined as the mixture of the olive juice and olive-pomace that is obtained from the oil extraction process by a two-phase decantation system. The use of OC as a feed could potentially result in a healthier fatty acids profile in animals (Molina and Yañez, 2007; Vera et al., 2009). Olive plantations have experienced high growth in the region under study; therefore, the by-product availability from olives produced in this region is growing (Chileoliva, 2011). In addition, sheep production is the predominant animal production activity in this region. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding increased levels of olive cake in complete diets on the main carcass traits of lambs.

Material and methods

This research was conducted at the Experimental Center Hidango (34° 06' S; 71° 47' O) from Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA) and the Faculty of Veterinarian and Livestock Sciences of the Universidad de Chile (33° 35' 59.787'' S; 70° 37' 37.576'' O). Forty Suffolk Down male lambs, with a mean initial age of 75.8±7.4 days and an initial body weight of 24.5±3. 1kg were randomly assigned to one of the following five dietary treatments: unweaned lambs fed in natural prairies alongside their mothers (GT) (a usual practice for farm sheep); control diet (CD) of alfalfa hay, maize grain, molasses, soybean meal, bicarbonate and mineral salts (Table 1); dehydrated olive cake (DOC) replacing 16% of the CD (TA16); DOC replacing 32% of the CD (TA32); and DOC replacing 48% of the CD (TA48). The Control diet, TA16, TA32 and TA48 were isoenergetic and isoproteic (2.5 Mcal MEkg-1 DM and 140 g of crude protein kg-1 DM), and the offered feed met the maintenance and growth requirements, providing an average daily gain of 300 gd-1 (NRC, 2007). The lambs were fed in individual cages. The lambs in the GT group grazed a pasture composed of Hypochaeris radicata (33%), Trifolium glomeratum (21%), Bromus hordeaceus (13%), Vulpia bromoides (8%), Hordeum berteroanum (6%), Lolium rigidum (5%), and traces of other species associated with Acacia caven. During an 8-day adaptation period, the treatment diets were gradually included along with alfalfa hay. The experimental period lasted 47 days. The lambs were weighed every 7 days prior to the morning feeding.

 

Table 1. Composition of the complete experimental rations with increased levels of
dehydrated olive cake (fresh basis, g).

CD: Control diet.
TA16: Control diet replaced with 16% of dehydrated olive cake.
TA32: Control diet replaced with 32% of dehydrated olive cake.
TA48: Control diet replaced with 48% of dehydrated olive cake.

 

At the end of the experimental period, the lambs were transported to a commercial slaughterhouse and fasted (only water was available) for 12 h prior to slaughter. After weighing (LWS), the lambs were electrically stunned and slaughtered according to standard commercial procedures. The weight of the hot carcass (HCW), blood, kidney and kidney fat, feet (cuts at tarsal - metatarsal and carpal - metacarpal articulations), hide, full and empty gastrointestinal tracts, liver, heart, lungs (including trachea) and head (cut at the occipital - atlantoaxial articulation) were determined according to procedures previously described (Pérez et al, 2002; Pérez et al, 2007). The empty body weight (EBW) was calculated by subtracting the weight of the gastrointestinal contents (full minus empty gastrointestinal tract) from the LWS (Pérez et al, 2002; Pérez et al, 2007; Ekiz et al., 2013). Carcass yield (CY) was calculated as the hot carcass weight (HCW) divided by the LWS, and the real dressing percentage (RDP) was calculated as the HCW divided by the EBW (Velasco et al, 2000; Pérez et al, 2007). Two hours after slaughter, the carcasses were halved longitudinally with a band saw. Each half carcass (HC) was cut between the 12th and 13th ribs. Fat depth (BFT) and rib eye area (REA) were measured after cutting. The BFT was measured over the cut surface of the Longissimus thoracis et lumborum muscle at the level of the 12th rib with a ruler (Pérez et al, 2002). The REA was measured using an LI - COR portable area meter (LI - 300 A) after tracing the transverse section of the eye muscle (Longissimus muscle) at the 12/13 ribs position (Dhanda et al, 2003; Pérez et al., 2007). The HCs were split into joints (chops, leg, thorax, shoulder and neck) according to the Chilean standard jointing procedure for lambs (INN, 2000; Pérez et al, 2007). The legs and shoulders from the left half of each carcass were packed in polyethylene bags, frozen at -25 °C and dissected 1 to 2 months later, as described by Cuthbertson et al. (1972). From the dissections, the following four groups of tissues were obtained: muscle, total fat (subcutaneous and intermuscular), bone and residues (lymphatic ganglia, large blood vessel and nerves, and tendons and joints capsules) (Ekiz et al., 2013) and the shrink losses were measured.

Each component was weighed using a balance with a 0.05 g sensitivity. The shrink losses were estimated as the differences between the initial and final weights of the anatomy pieces. These data were used to calculate the percentage of the tissue components of the shoulder and leg joint.

A completely random design for the treatment variables was conducted using a one-way analysis of variance, and significant differences between the groups were detected by Tukey-Kramer tests (Kaps and Lamberson, 2009). The data were expressed as the means and standard deviation. The mathematical model used was Yij = μ + Ti + Eij, where Y was the observation i of the treatment j, μ was the overall mean, Tij was the fixed effect of treatment i and εij was the random error with a mean of 0 and a variance of σ2. Significant differences were accepted at P≤0.05.

Results and discussion

Main carcass traits

The results obtained for the main carcass traits are presented in Table 2. The LWS, HCW, CCW, EBW and KKCF were not significantly different (P>0.05) among the treatment groups. There were significant differences (P≤0.05) in CY between the CD and GT groups, therefore, the olive cake level did not affect this yield. For RDP, TA48 was not significantly different (P>0.05) among all treatments, while the GT group presented significantly higher values (P≤0.05) than the CD group for TA16 and TA32.

 

Table 2. Effect of the dietary treatments with increased levels of dehydrated olive cake
on the main carcass traits of Suffolk Down lambs. (mean ± standard deviation).

Different letters (Tukey test) in the same row indicate significant differences among
groups (P≤0.05).
GT: natural pasture, CD: control diet and, TA16, TA32 and TA48. CD with increased
dehydrated olive cake amounts: 16, 32
and 48%, respectively.
LWS: live weight at sacrifice, HCW: hot carcass weight, CCW: cold carcass weight,
EBW: empty body weight, CY: carcass yield, RDP: real dressing percentage, REA: rib
eye area, BFT: back fat thickness, KKCF: renal pelvic fat weight

 

The results obtained for CY were similar to those reported by Owaimer et al. (2004), who did not find any effect from the inclusion of olive cake on CY at an inclusion level of 12%. In regard to the other carcass traits, Miočet al. (2007) found that lambs receiving the highest olive cake diet (30%) presented lower HCW and carcass yield than those fed the control diet or a diet with 15% of olive cake. Aboayasha et al. (1982), Belibasakis (1985) and Abo Omar and Gavoret (1995) included olive cake in levels of 20 to 25% and did not find any negative effects on body weight; while Owaimer et al. (2004) found no effect on the hot carcass weight when a 12% olive cake diet was fed. According to the results of our study, the levels of olive cake reached 48% yet exhibited no effects on the live weight and the HCW of the lambs.

The differences in carcass traits observed between the GT and TA groups can be attributed to other possible factors, such as the weaning of the lambs that were confined during the study (TA16, TA32, TA48 and CD). Vergara et al. (1993) and Cañeque et al. (1998) found higher commercial yield in lambs staying with their mothers until they were slaughtered, which was similar to the present results. Nevertheless, they did not find any differences in the real yield. Meanwhile, Cañeque et al. (1998) obtained higher cold and hot carcass weights and higher empty live weight in suckling lambs, which was similar to the results from the current study, although their differences were not significant.

On the other hand, there were no differences in REA between the GT and TA16 treatment groups with means that were significantly greater for this trait (P≤0.05) compared to the TA32 and TA48 groups. The CD value was not significantly different among the treatment groups. The treatments with a higher inclusion of DOC exhibited smaller REA values. Owaimer et al. (2004) found a significant decrease in REA when lambs were fed a complete diet that included 12% olive cake.

For BFT, the GT group showed a significantly lower average than the TA16 and TA32 g groups (P≤0.05). In contrast, TA48 and CD were not significantly different (P>0.05) from the other treatment groups. These values were similar to the results obtained by Borton et al. (2005) and Shingfield et al. (2012), who found differences among lambs fed forage and concentrate diets; lambs fed a forage-based diet exhibited a lower amount of back fat. However, Owaimer et al. (2004) reported that the BFT was significantly lower (P≤0.05) in the carcasses of lambs fed 12% olive cake than in control animals fed complete diets.

Body components

The values obtained for the body components are presented in Table 3. Only the hide, blood, empty digestive tract and tongue were affected by the diet (P≤0.05). Hide was statistically greater in the TA16 and CD groups than in the TA48 group.

 

Table 3. Effect of the dietary treatments with increased levels of dehydrated olive
cake on the body components on the empty live weight of Suffolk Down lambs
(mean ± standard deviation).

GT: natural pasture, CD: control diet and, TA16, TA32 and TA48 CD with increased
dehydrated olive cake amounts: 16, 32 and 48%, respectively.
Different letters (Tukey test) in the same row indicate significant differences among
groups (P≤0.05).

 

The result for blood weight was significantly lower in the TA16 group than in the CD group (P≤0.05); however, no other significant differences were observed among the treatment groups (P>0.05).

Regarding the empty digestive tract weight, the GT group was significantly different from the CD group, while the other treatments exhibited intermediary values. For tongue, the GT and CD treatment groups exhibited lower values than the other treatment groups, but the differences were not significant (P>0.05); There is no logical explanation for this result.

Our results were not in agreement with those reported by Miočet al. (2007), who reported lower weights for the liver, hide and legs and higher weights for the stomach and intestines (P≤0.05) in lambs fed a diet containing 30% olive cake for 50 days. Similarly, Mioč et al. (2007) did not find any differences in lung and heart weights as a result of olive cake addition.

The differences observed for the empty digestive tract were similar to those reported by Cañeque et al. (1998), who obtained higher values for that trait in weaned lambs that remained with their mothers until slaughter.

Commercial joints

The results of the commercial joints are presented in Table 4. All of the variables were affected by the diet. The values obtained and the importance of the different joints were similar to the descriptions by Pérez et al. (2007) in four lamb genotypes slaughtered at 10 and 15 kg live weight, using the same quartering methodology. Generally, the carcass joints percentages were difficult to compare because of the absence of a universal quartering system and remarkable differences even within different regions in the same country.

 

Table 4. Effect of the dietary treatments with increased levels of dehydrated olive cake
on the commercial carcass joints percentage on the left hemichannel from Suffolk Down lambs
(mean ± standard deviation).

GT: natural pasture, CD: control diet and, TA16, TA32 and TA48 CD with increased
dehydrated olive cake amounts: 16, 32 y 48%, respectively.

 

Tissue composition of shoulder and leg

The tissue compositions of the shoulder and leg joints are presented in Table 5. There were no significant differences (P>0.05) among the treatment groups for any of the studied variables or the tissue ratios. These results were in agreement with the report by Pérez et al. (2007) on suckling lambs from different genotypes that were slaughtered at 10 and 15 kg of live body weight. The tissue composition of the leg showed a better composition because it had a higher muscle percentage and a lower fat percentage than the shoulder.

 

Table 5. Effect of the dietary treatments with increased levels of dehydrated olive cake
on the different body component proportions of the shoulder and leg cuts from Suffolk Down
lambs (mean ± standard deviation).

GT: natural pasture, CD: control diet and, TA16, TA32 and TA48 CD with increased dehydrated
olive cake amounts: 16, 32
and 48%, respectively.
IM Fat: intramuscular fat, T Fat: total fat.

 

Ratios among the tissue components

The results of this study are in agreement with Velasco et al. (1998) and Pérez et al. (1998), who did not find significant differences in the muscle/ bone and muscle/fat ratio, respectively, among weaned animals that were confined and those that grazed alongside their mothers until slaughter. Conversely, Owaimer et al. (2004) did not find any differences in the muscle/bone ratio of the entire carcass of lambs fed rations containing 12% of olive cake.

The addition of DOC to the diet did not affect the lamb carcass quality at the levels used in this work.

Acknowledgements

This research was funded by the Fundación para la Innovación Agraria (FIA). Chile, Project PI-C2005-IPO68.

 

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Received: July 27, 2015
Accepted June 7, 2016

 

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