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Investigaciones marinas

versión On-line ISSN 0717-7178

Investig. mar. v.30 n.1 supl.Symp Valparaíso ago. 2002 

Sea Level Variations in Callao (12° S) -
Peru 1942 - 2001

Juan Quispe Arce

Hydrography Navy, Oceanografía Física-Mareas,
Dirección de Hidrografía y Navegación,
Av. Gamarra 500, Callao - Lima, Perú,


The Mean Sea Level (MSL) was computed for Callao, based on the hourly heights of tides from analogue information of the Callao Tide Station from 1942 to 2001. The different sea level data of tides were also determined (HW, LW, HHW, LLW, Hgst, Lwst, MSL). A time series of MSL and sea surface temperature in Callao Port (12° S) are analyzed, and the annual cycle, interannual fluctuations and the monthly anomalies studied. Selective results are shown, considering the time series of 1942-2001 in complete form and excluding the years of "El Niño" events.

The series (MSL) is correlated with sea surface temperature, and presented in time scales chosen for the purposes of establishing the variations of MSL over 60 years, and relationships and influences of "Niños" events and current climatic changes, regarding the sea level increment about the Pacific Decadal Ocean oscillation.

Results & Discussion

As a conclusion of this complete series analysis, two very marked stages of the MSL were found. In the first stage from 1942 until halfway through the 1970s, negative sea level anomalies prevailed and in the subsequent period up to 2000, positive anomalies prevailed. The cold periods in the ocean are associated with low MSL, and occurred in 1949-1950, 1954-1956, 1960-1964,1966-1968 and 1973. The MSL in 1988 was relatively low compared to the rest of the second stage. Warm periods and high levels are associated with the "El Niño" events of 1957-58, 1965, 1969, 1972, 1975-76, 1982-83, 1987. The maximum value of the MSL in Callao was observed in January 1983, at 143 cm, and the minimum in October 1955 at 91 cm. However, the minimum annual averages of the series were found in 1964 with a height of 98 cm. The annual average sea level in 1942 was 102 cm, while 30 years later in 1970 the cumulative average was 103 cm. To date, 60 years later, the cumulative average is 107 cm, so we have an increment of 5 cm above the MSL at the origin of 1942.

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