SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

vol.86 issue2The distress sound of the mother of the snake male Acanthinodera cumingii (Coleoptera, Cerambycidae)JORGE NARCISO ARTIGAS COCH (1929-2022) author indexsubject indexarticles search
Home Pagealphabetic serial listing  

Services on Demand




Related links

  • On index processCited by Google
  • Have no similar articlesSimilars in SciELO
  • On index processSimilars in Google


Gayana (Concepción)

Print version ISSN 0717-652XOn-line version ISSN 0717-6538

Gayana (Concepc.) vol.86 no.2 Concepción Dec. 2022 

Short Communication

First finding of the tick Amblyomma tigrinum parasitizing a Molina’s hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Molina 1782), in South America

Primer hallazgo de la garrapata Amblyomma tigrinum parasitando un chingue, Conepatus chinga en la zona norte-centro de Chile

Jonatan Manqui1  2 

Felipe A. Hernández1  4 

María C. Silva-De LaFuente3 

Gerardo Acosta-Jamett1  4  * 

1Instituto de Medicina Preventiva Veterinaria, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

2Programa de Magíster en Ecología Aplicada, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.

3Escuela de Medicina Veterinaria, Departamento de Ciencias Agrarias, Facultad de Ciencias Agrarias y Forestales, Universidad Católica del Maule, Curicó, Chile.

4Center for Surveillance and Evolution of Infectious Diseases, Facultad de Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Austral de Chile, Valdivia, Chile.


Adult individuals of Amblyomma tigrinum were collected for the first time from a Molina’s hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga), captured in a rural area of north-central Chile, which were described and identified morphologically. There are scarce studies that address the role of the skunk as ectoparasite host; however, the great plasticity of A. tigrinum to inhabit different environments and its strict to moderate specificity for Carnivora order suggest this mephitid as a potentially suitable host for this tick species.

Keywords: Amblyomma tigrinum; Conepatus chinga; rural area


Se colectan por primera vez individuos adultos de Amblyomma tigrinum en un chingue (Conepatus chinga), capturado en área rural del norte-centro de Chile, los cuales fueron descritos e identificados morfológicamente. Existen escasos estudios que aborden el rol del chingue como hospedador de ectoparásitos; sin embargo, la gran plasticidad de A. tigrinum para habitar diferentes ambientes y su especificidad estricta a moderada por el orden Carnivora sugieren a este mefítido como un hospedador potencialmente adecuado para esta especie de garrapata.

Palabras clave: Amblyomma tigrinum; área rural; Conepatus chinga

The family Ixodidae, whose members are commonly known as hard ticks, is composed of 758 species distributed around the world, of which 137 are present in the Neotropics, and are represented by the genera Ixodes, Dermacentor, Haemaphysalis, Rhipicephalus and Amblyomma (Guglielmone et al. 2021). Amblyomma spp. inhabit diverse habitat types throughout their geographic distribution (Nava et al. 2017).

Three species have been described in Chile: adult individuals of A. triste Koch, 1844, recorded in the extreme north of the country, near the border with Perú (Abarca et al. 2012), A. parvitarsum Neumann, 1901, present in the altiplano in Chile (González-Acuña et al. 2004a) and immature individuals of this species were collected in the periarid mediterranean zone bordering the Chilean altiplano (Muñoz-Leal et al. 2014), and A. tigrinum Koch, 1844, which is present from the Coquimbo to Aysén regions (Guglielmone et al. 2021; Abarca et al. 2016). The first record of A. tigrinum in Chile was located in the central-southern zone, with findings of ticks parasitizing wild canids, which was mistakenly identified as A. maculatum by Tagle & Álvarez (1957), and then, corrected by the same authors (Tagle & Álvarez 1959). Adult stages of A. tigrinum are classified as strictly or moderately specific for the order Carnivora (Hoogstraal & Aeschlimann 1982), usually parasitising wild canids and dogs mainly in rural areas (Abarca et al. 2016) and occasionally humans and other hosts (Eberhardt et al. 2020; Nava et al. 2017; Abarca et al. 2016; Abarca et al. 2013; González-Acuña et al. 2003; Muñoz & Casanueva 2002; Guglielmone et al. 2000). While immature stages can be found parasitizing small rodents (Cricetidae and Caviidae) and ground forest feeding birds, constituting crucial hosts for the maintenance of the life cycle of A. tigrinum in natural environments (Nava et al. 2017; Guglielmone & Nava 2010; Nava et al. 2006; González-Acuña et al. 2004b; Guglielmone et al. 2000).

The Molina’s hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga Molina, 1782) is a South American medium-sized mammal belonging to the Mephitidae family, which is distributed across the southern limit of Brazil, northern Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia and central Chile (Kasper et al. 2009), inhabiting shrubby open and rocky hillside habitats (Donadio et al. 2001). In Chile, the species is distributed from Coquimbo to Los Lagos regions (Muñoz-Pedreros & Yáñez 2009). Currently, the scientific literature has been mostly focused in ecological (Kasper et al. 2012; Castillo et al. 2011; Reppucci et al. 2009), dietary (Montalvo et al. 2008; Donadio et al. 2004) and taxonomic (Schiaffini et al. 2013) aspects of Molina’s hog-nosed skunk. While the role of this mammal as endoparasite host has been previously reported (Gómez-Puerta et al. 2012; Gómez- Puerta et al. 2009; Pietrokovsky et al. 1991), there is still scarce evidence on ectoparasite species parasitizing skunks along its native range (Labruna et al. 2005; Almeida et al. 2003).

Here, we documented the first finding of A. tigrinum parasitizing a Molina’s hog-nosed skunk captured at a rural area in north-central Chile. We performed morphological identification and description of collected tick individuals.

The study was conducted in the coastal zone of the Coquimbo region in north-central Chile (71°12’ to 71°40’W, 29°58’ to 30°39’S). The study area poses a semiarid weather with a mean annual rainfall of 126.8 mm, with 90% of rainfall concentrated during winter months (May-September), and warm, dry summers (December-March) (Montecinos et al. 2016). Mean temperature ranges from 12ºC to 18ºC (measured at 2 m above ground nearby the coast), and relative air humidity can reach 90 to 100% at higher altitudes. Field site was a private 31 km2-site inserted into the “El Tangue” ranch, a farm of nearly 45,000 ha situated 10 km south of Tongoy town. The property is characterized by a mosaic of agricultural fields, grasslands, and a mixture of exotic shrub plantations (i.e., Atriplex nummularia Lindl.) and pioneer native vegetation, with small properties scattered along the westward border distance up to 3 km of the field site.

In April 2020, we sampled a male Molina’s hog-nosed skunk to assess their tick loads at the sampling location. Within capture efforts targeting wild foxes, the skunk was captured with a soft leg-hold trap, which was kept active for a minimum of seven consecutive days, baited with tuna and a commercial lure (Murray’s Wolf Urine, West Virginia, USA), and checked at least every six hours to reduce animal stress. After physical immobilization, we anesthetized the skunk with a mixture of ketamine (2.5mg/kg) and dexmedetomidine (70μg/kg), and reverted with atipamezole (350μg/kg), modified from wild carnivore protocols reported by Acosta- Jamett et al. (2010). The skunk was aged as adult based on incisor wear and eruption (Olifiers et al. 2010), while its weight was estimated to be ~3 kg for the calculation of anesthetic doses. While anesthetized, we inspected the animal body coat and collected ticks during 10 minutes. The skunk was released at the site of capture. Ticks were stored into a 2 ml Corning® cryovial (Corning Incorporated, Lowell, Massachusetts, USA), labeled with a unique code and kept with ice packs. After ticks were preliminary identified, sexed and counted, they were placed in liquid nitrogen, transported to the Universidad Austral de Chile in Valdivia, and stored at -80 ºC (for other research purposes). Two ticks were placed into 70% ethanol before definitive morphological characterization. All procedures for animal trapping and handling were approved by Universidad Austral’s Bioethics Committee for Research Animal Use (314/2018 - 315/2018) and Chilean Livestock and Agricultural Service (Resolución Exenta Nº 6184/2019 - 2128/2020).

Two ticks were analyzed morphologically following the key of Estrada-Peña et al. (2005). Ticks were photographed in a scanning electron microscope (SEM) (Hitachi SU3500) utilized Ultra Variable-pressure Detector (UVD), backscattered electrons y cool stage system, and an Euromex (NexiusZoom) stereo microscopic.

We collected a total of nine ticks (eight males and one female), which corresponded to A. tigrinum. The two morphologically analyzed ticks corresponded to males of this species, which have a long and strong spine on coxa I and IV, spur on coxa IV not reaching anus, coxa II and III with a short and obtuse spine (Fig. 1A), one spine on tibiae II to IV (Fig. 1B), spiracular plate comma-shaped (Fig. 1C), ornate scutum (Fig. 2A), absent of tubercles on ventral side of festoons, marginal groove complete (Fig. 2B), mouthparts longer than the base of the capituli (Fig. 2C). (Santa Cruz et al. 2011; Estrada-Peña et al. 2005).

The literature referred to ectoparasites hosted by Molina’s hog-nosed skunk is mostly restricted to records of Ornithodoros brasiliensis Aragao, 1923 (Labruna et al. 2005) and Neotrichodectes spp. (Tricodectidae) (Almeida et al. 2003), being our study the first record of the occurrence of A. tigrinum in this mephitid in Chile and South America. Although adult stages of A. tigrinum typically parasite wild and domestic canids

(Guglielmone et al. 2021), other carnivores belonging to the families Felidae (i.e., Leopardus colocolo Molina, 1782 (Martins et al. 2011), Puma concolor Linnaeus, 1771 and Pathera onca Linnaeus, 1758 (Durden et al. 2006)) and Procyonidae (i.e., Nasua nasua Linnaeus, 1766 (Magalhães-Matos et al. 2017)) can also harbor this tick species; including domestic dogs (Tomassone et al. 2010; Guglielmone et al. 2000) and cats (Guglielmone et al. 2000), and other non-carnivore species as suids, cervids and bovines (Nava et al. 2017; González-Acuña et al. 2006).

FIGURE 1 Amblyomma tigrinum male ventral view in SEM. A. Black arrow: Long and strong spine on coxa I and IV. White arrow: coxa II and III with a short and obtuse spine. Sp: Spiracle. B. Star: one spine on tibiae II. C. Spiracular plate comma-shaped. / Vista ventral del macho de Amblyomma tigrinum en SEM. A. Flecha negra: Espina larga y pronunciada en las coxas I y IV. Flecha blanca: coxa II y III con una espina corta y obtusa. Sp: Espiráculo. B. Estrella: una espina en las tibias II. C. Placa espiracular en forma de coma. 

FIGURE 2 Amblyomma tigrinum male. A. Dorsal view in stereo microscopic, s: ornate scutum. B. Dorsal view in SEM, Black arrow: Marginal groove complete, f: Festoons. C. Ventral view in SEM, p: Palps, h: Hypostome. / Macho de Amblyomma tigrinum. A. Vista dorsal en microscopio estereoscópico, s: escutum ornamentado. B. Vista dorsal en SEM, Flecha negra: Surco marginal completo, f: Festones. C. Vista ventral en SEM, p: Palpos, h: Hipostoma. 

Given the plasticity of A. tigrinum to thrive across areas with contrasting climatic conditions across its geographic distribution (Mendoza-Uribe & Chávez-Chorocco 2004; Guglielmone et al. 2000), and tick moderate specificity for canid hosts (Hoogstraal & Aeschlimann 1982), may support Molina’s hog-nosed skunk as a potentially suitable A. tigrinum host. Indeed, previous studies have characterized the wild carnivore community inhabiting the study area, which is compounded mostly by canids as culpeo (Lycalopex culpaeus Molina, 1782) and chilla (Lycalopex griseus Gray, 1837) foxes that inhabit the study area (Hernández et al. 2021); both fox species have been reported to harbor A. tigrinum and they co-occur with Molina’s hog-nosed skunk across this zone (data not published); perhaps suggesting potential cross-species tick infestation from environments they share. Our finding contributes to expand the records about other carnivore species acting as A. tigrinum hosts, which may have certain epidemiological interest considering this tick species may act as vector of zoonotic infectious agents (Romer et al. 2014; Abarca et al. 2013; Pacheco et al. 2013).


The authors would like to thank the staff of the “El Tangue” farm, particularly Mr. Aquiles Campos, who provided logistical support and access to the farm. This work was funded by ANID/CONICYT Fondecyt Regular Nº 1180119 and ANID/CONICYT Fondequip Proyect EQM Nº 170124. FAH was funded by ANID/CONICYT Fondecyt Postdoctorado Nº 3180111.

Author contributions

JM and FAH conceived the ideas of the study, and carried out the field work and sampling. JM and MCS analyzed the collected ticks. JM and FAH led the writing of the manuscript. GAJ obtained the funding for this study. All authors revised the manuscript, contributed critically to the drafts and approved the final version for publication.


Abarca, K., López, J., Acosta-Jamett, G., Lepe, P., Soares, J., Labruna, M. 2012. A third Amblyomma species and the first tick-borne Rickettsia in Chile. Journal of Medical Entomology 49(1): 219-222. [ Links ]

Abarca, K., López, J., Acosta-Jamett, G., Martínez-Valdebenito, C. 2013. Detection of Rickettsia andeanae in two regions of Chile. Revista Chilena de Infectología 30(4): 388-394. [ Links ]

Abarca, K., Gárate, D., López, J., Acosta-Jamett, G. 2016. Flea and ticks species from dogs in urban and rural areas in four districts in Chile. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 48(2): 109-115. [ Links ]

Acosta-Jamett, G., Astorga-Arancibia, F., Cunningham, A. 2010. Comparison of chemical immobilization methods in wild foxes (Pseudalopex griseus and Pseudalopex culpaeus) in Chile. Journal of Wildlife Diseases 46(4): 1204-1213. [ Links ]

Almeida, M., Linardi, P., Costa, J. 2003. The type specimens of chewing lice (Insecta, Mallophaga) deposited in the entomological collection of Instituto Oswald Cruz, Rio de Janeiro, RL, Brazil. Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz 98(2): 233-240. [ Links ]

Castillo, D., Lucherini, M., Luengos-Vidal, E., Manfredi, C., Casanave, E. 2011. Spatial organization of Molina’s hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga) in two landscapes of the Pampas grassland of Argentina. Canadian Journal of Zoology 89(3): 229-238. [ Links ]

Donadio, E., Di Martino, S., Aubonea, M., Novaro, A. 2001. Activity patterns, home-range, and habitat selection of the common hog-nosed skunk, Conepatus chinga (Mammmalia, Mustelidae), in northwestern Patagonia. Mammalia 65(1): 49-54. [ Links ]

Donadio, E., Di Martino, S., Aubonea, M., Novaro, A. 2004. Feeding ecology of the Andean hog-nosed skunk (Conepatus chinga) in areas under different land use in north-western Patagonia. Journal of Arid Environments 56(4): 709-718. [ Links ]

Durden, L., Cunningham, M., McBride, R., Ferree, B. 2006. Ectoparasites of free-ranging pumas and jaguars in the Paraguayan Chaco. Veterinary Parasitology 137(1-2): 189-193. [ Links ]

Estrada-Peña, A., Venzal, J., Mangold, A., Cafrune, M., Guglielmone, A. 2005. The Amblyomma maculatum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae: Amblyomminae) tick group: diagnostic characters, description of the larva of A. parvitarsum Neumann, 1901, 16S rDNA sequences, distribution and hosts. Systematic Parasitology 60(2): 99-112. [ Links ]

Gómez-Puerta, L., Ticona, D., López-Urbina, M., González, A. 2009. The Andean hog-nosed skunk Conepatus chinga Molina, 1782 as a new definitive host for Spirometra erinacei Faust, Campbell & Kellog, 1929. Veterinary Parasitology 160(3-4): 334-336. [ Links ]

Gómez-Puerta, L., Ticona, D., López-Urbina, M., González, A. 2012. A new species of Atriotaenia (Cestoda: Anoplocephalidae) from the Hog-Nosed Skunk Conepatus chinga (Carnivora: Mephitidae) in Peru. Journal of Parasitology 98(4): 806-809. [ Links ]

González-Acuña, D., Venzal, J., Keirans, J., Guglielmone, A. 2003. The genus Amblyomma Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae) in Chile, with new records of A. argentinae Neumann, 1904 and A. tigrinum Koch, 1844. Systematic and Applied Acarology 8(1): 85-88. [ Links ]

González-Acuña, D., Venzal, J., Fabry, M., Guglielmone, A. 2004a. Liolaemus jamesi (Boulanger, 1891) (Reptilia: Tropiduridae), a host for the larva of Amblyomma parvitarsum Neumann, 1901 (Acari: Ixodidae). Systematic & Applied Acarology 9(1): 33-36. [ Links ]

González-Acuña, D., Venzal, J., Skewes-Ramm, O., Rubilar- Contreras, L., Daugschies, A., Guglielmone, A. 2004b. First record of immature stages of Amblyomma tigrinum (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild birds in Chile. Experimental and Applied Acarology 33: 153-156. [ Links ]

González-Acuña, D., Valenzuela, G., Moreno, L., Ardiles, K., Guglielmone, A. 2006. Nuevos hospedadores para las garrapatas Amblyomma tigrinum y Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Acari: Ixodidae) en Chile. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 38(3): 273-275. [ Links ]

Guglielmone, A., Mangold, A., Luciani, C., Viñabal, A. 2000. Amblyomma tigrinum (Acari: Ixodidae) in relation to phytogeography of central-northern Argentina with notes on hosts and seasonal distribution. Experimental and Applied Acarology 24(12): 983-989. [ Links ]

Guglielmone, A., Nava, S., Robbins, R. 2021. Neotropical hard ticks (Acari: Ixodida: Ixodidae) a critical analysis of their taxonomy, distribution, and host relationships. Springer International Publishing. 486 pp. [ Links ]

Hernández, F., Manqui, J., Mejías, C., Acosta-Jamett, G. 2021. Domestic dogs and wild foxes interactions in a wildlife-domestic interface of north-central Chile: implications for multi-host pathogen transmission. Frontiers in Veterinary Sciences 8:631788. [ Links ]

Hoogstraal, H., Aeschlimann, A. 1982. Tick-host specificity. Bulletin de la Société Entomologique Suisse 55: 5-32. [ Links ]

Kasper, C., Fontoura-Rodrigues, M., Cavalcanti, G., Freitas, T., Rodgrigues, T., Oliveira, T., Eizirik, E. 2009. Recent advances in the knowledge of Molina’s Hog-nosed Skunk Conepatus chinga and Striped Hog-nosed Skunk C. semistriatus in South America. Small Carnivore Conservation 41: 25-28. [ Links ]

Kasper, C., Soares, J., Freitas, T. 2012. Differential patterns of home-range, net displacement and resting sites use of Conepatus chinga in southern Brazil. Mammalian Biology 77(5): 358-362. [ Links ]

Labruna, M., Jorge, R., Sana, D., Jacomo, A., Kashivakura, C., Furtado, M., Ferro, C., Perez, S., Silveira, L., Santos, T., Marques, S., Morato, R., Nava, A., Adania, C., Teixeira, R., Gomes, A., Conforti, V., Azevedo, F., Prada, C., Silva, J., Batista, A., Marvulo, M., Morato, R., Alho, C., Pinter, A., Ferreira, P., Ferreira, F., Barros-Battesti, D. 2005. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on wild carnivores in Brazil. Experimental and Applied Acarology 36: 149-163. [ Links ]

Magalhães-Matos, P., Moraes, M., Valim, J., Castro, G., Santos, P., Manier, B., Fonseca, A. 2017. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) and lice (Phthiraptera: Trichodectidae) infesting free- living coatis (Nasua nasua Linnaeus, 1766) with sylvatic and synanthropic habits in the Atlantic rainforest of Southern Brazil. Systematic & Applied Acarology 22(6): 779-784. [ Links ]

Martins, T., Furtado, M., Anah, T., Jácomo, A., Silveira, L., Sollmann, R., Tôrres, N., Labruna, M. 2011. Ticks on free-living wild mammals in Emas National Park, Goiás State, central Brazil. Systematic & Applied Acarology 16(3): 201-206. [ Links ]

Mendoza-Uribe, L., Chávez-Chorocco, J. 2004. Ampliación geográfica de siete especies de Amblyomma (Acari: Ixodidae) y primer reporte de A. oblongoguttatum Koch, 1844 para Perú. Revista peruana de Entomología 44: 69-72. [ Links ]

Montalvo, C., Pessino, M., Bagatto, F. 2008. Taphonomy of the bones of rodents consumed by Andean hog-nosed skunks (Conepatus chinga, Carnivora, Mephitidae) in central Argentina. Journal of Archaeological Science 35(6): 1481-1488. [ Links ]

Montecinos, S., Gutiérrez, J., López-Cortés, F., López, D. 2016. Climatic characteristics of the semi-arid Coquimbo Region in Chile. Journal of Arid Environments 126: 7-11. [ Links ]

Muñoz, L., Casanueva, M. 2002. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) on dogs in Concepción city, Chile. Archivos de Medicina Veterinaria 34(1): 131-134. [ Links ]

Muñoz-Leal, S., González-Acuña, D., Beltrán-Saavedra, L.F., Limachi, J., Guglielmone, A. 2014. Amblyomma parvitarsum (Acari: Ixodidae): localities, hosts and host-parasite ecology. Experimental and Applied Acarology 62(1): 91-104. [ Links ]

Muñoz-Pedreros, A., Yáñez, J. 2009. Mamíferos de Chile. CEA Ediciones, Valdivia, Chile. 571 pp. [ Links ]

Nava, S., Mangold, A., Guglielmone, A. 2006. The natural hosts of larvae and nymphs of Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae). Veterinary Parasitology 140(1-2): 124-132. [ Links ]

Nava, S., Venzal, J., González-Acuña, D., Martins, T., Guglielmone, A. 2017. Ticks of the southern cone of America. Academic Press. 348 pp. [ Links ]

Olifiers, N., de Cassia Bianchi, R., D’Andrea, P., Mourão, G., Gompper, M. 2010. Estimating age of carnivores from the Pantanal region of Brazil. Wildlife Biology 16(4): 389-399. [ Links ]

Pacheco, R., Echaide, I., Alves, R., Beletti, M., Nava, S., Labruna, M. 2013. Coxiella burnetii in ticks, Argentina. Emerging Infectious Diseases 19(2): 344-346. [ Links ]

Pietrokovsky, S., Schweigmann, N., Riarte, A., Alberti, A., Conti, O., Montoya, S., Wisnivesky-Colli, C. 1991. The skunk Conepatus chinga as new host of Trypanosoma cruzi in Argentina. The Journal of Parasitology 77(4): 643-645. [ Links ]

Reppucci, J., Castillo, D., Lucherini, M., Luengos-Vidal, E., Casanave, E. 2009. Interindividual interactions of Molina’s hog-nosed skunks Conepatus chinga in the Pampas grassland of Argentina. Acta Theriologica 54(1): 87-94. [ Links ]

Romer, Y., Nava, S., Govedic, F., Cicuttin, G., Denison, A., Singleton, J., Kelly, A., Kato, C., Paddock, C. 2014. Rickettsia parkeri rickettsiosis in different ecological regions of Argentina and its association with Amblyomma tigrinum as a potential vector. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 91(6): 1156-1160. [ Links ]

Santa Cruz, A., Sarmiento, N., Acuña, M., Comolli, J. 2011. Morfología de Amblyomma tigrinum (Arthropoda: Ixodidae) por microscopía electrónica de barrido. Revista Veterinaria 22(1): 68-71. [ Links ]

Schiaffini, M., Gabrielli, M., Prevosti, F., Cardoso, Y., Castillo, D., Bo, R., Casanave, E., Lizarralde, M. 2013. Taxonomic status of southern South American Conepatus (Carnivora: Mephitidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 167(2): 327-344. [ Links ]

Tagle, I., Alvarez, V. 1957. Existencia de Amblyomma maculatum Koch 1844 en zorros de Chile. Boletín Chileno de Parasitología 12(4): 66. [ Links ]

Tagle, I., Alvarez, V. 1959. Rectificación de diagnóstico: Amblyomma tigrinum, Koch en lugar de Amblyomma maculatum, Koch. Boletín Chileno de Parasitología 14: 56-57. [ Links ]

Tomassone, L., Conte, V., Parrilla, G., De Meneghi, D. 2010. Rickettsia infection in dogs and Rickettsia parkeri in Amblyomma tigrinum ticks, Cochabamba department, Bolivia. Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases 10(10): 953-958. [ Links ]

Received: February 28, 2022; Accepted: October 27, 2022

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License