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vol.72 número2PATRONES DE DISTRIBUCION ESPACIAL DE LOS MACROINVERTEBRADOS BENTONICOS DE LA CUENCA DEL RIO AYSEN (PATAGONIA CHILENA)PRIMEROS REGISTROS SUDAMERICANOS DE HOLOCNEMUS PLUCHEI (SCOPOLI, 1763) Y SPERMOPHORA SENOCULATA (DUGÉS, 1836) (ARANEAE: PHOLCIDAE) índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
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Gayana (Concepción)

versión impresa ISSN 0717-652Xversión On-line ISSN 0717-6538

Gayana (Concepc.) v.72 n.2 Concepción  2008

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-65382008000200012 

Documento sin título

Gayana 72(2): 258-260-, 2008 Comunicación breve

COMUNICACION BREVE

FIRST RECORD OF XYLOCOPA (SCHONNHERRIA) SPLENDIDULA LEPELETIER 1841 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: XYLOCOPINI) IN THE MEDITERRANEAN ZONE OF CHILE

PRIMER REGISTRO DE XYLOCOPA (SCHONNHERRIA) SPLENDIDULA LEPELETIER 1841 (HYMENOPTERA: APIDAE: XYLOCOPINI) PARA LA ZONA MEDITERRÁNEA DE CHILE

José Montalva1, Leah S. Dudley1, Mary T.K. Arroyo1

1Instituto de Ecología y Biodiversidad (IEB), Departamento de Ciencias Ecológicas, Facultad de Ciencias Universidad de Chile, Casilla 653, Ñuñoa, Santiago, Chile. montalva.jose@gmail.com


RESUMEN

Se reporta la presencia de Xylocopa splendidula para Santiago, Chile. En Marzo de 2007, hembras fueron observadas nidificando en Acacia dealbata Link y entre diciembre 2007 y febrero 2008 fueron observadas forrajeando sobre Parkinsonia apiculataL. Este es el primer registro de la especie para la zona mediterránea de Chile.


Apidae includes three subfamilies: Nomadinae. Apinae and Xylocopinae (Michener2000). Within the subfamily Xylocopinae and its tribe Xylocopini. resides the genus Xylocopa Latreille 1802. Xylocopini are popularly known as "carpenter bees" because they construct nests digging galleries generally within dead hardwood (Michener 1979. 2000; Ospina2000; Schlindwein ei a/. 2003;Ramalho et al. 2004). Members of Xilocopini are also known for their robust and large body size. Unlike bees of other tribes (Manueliini, Allodapini, Ceratini), those of Xylocopini do not have arolia (Chiappa et al. 1990; Michener 2000). The genus Xylocopa is characterized by its virtually absent wing stigma, the marginal cell longer than wide, and the distal end strongly papillate. Additionally, the scape is longer than the second and third flagellar segment combined in the antenna.

Xylocopa contains more than 700 species distributed worldwide (Vicidomini 2002; Schlindwein et al. 2003; Ramalho et al. 2004) grouped into 12 sub genera; 96 species are reported for the Neotropical region (Ospina 2000). The greatest number of species inhabits the tropics (Ramalho et al. 2004). In spite of this great diversity and ample distribution, for Chile, only three species are known; all from the northern part of the country (Arica, Azapa and Putre): Xylocopa {Schonnherria) viridigastra Lepeletier, 1841; Xylocopa {Schonnherria) splendidula splendidula Lepeletier. 1841; and Xylocopa (Neoxylocopa) bruesi Cockerell, 1914 (Michener 2000; Ospina 2000; Ruiz 1929; Toro 1986).

The objective of this note is to report the presence of X. splendidula in central Chile; which for Chile was previously known only from Arica and Azapa (Fig. 1) (Michener 2000; Ospina 2000). This species has a wide distribution in South America, which includes Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, and Peru (Fig. 1) (Silveirae/a/. 2002; Schlindwein et al. 2003).

In March 2007, a female of X. splendidula (Fig. 2) was found constructing a nest in living wood of Acacia dealbata Link, on the Juan Gómez Millas Campus, Universidad de Chile, Ñuñoa, Santiago de Chile, Región Metropolitana (33°27'59.11" S; 70°35'45.97" W). Additionally, during the months of December 2007 and January 2008 five males (Fig. 3) and two females were collected foraging on Parkinsonia aculeata in the same locality. Also in January 2008, nine males were collected near to Estación Mapocho, Santiago de Chile, Región Metropolitana (33°25'52.15" S; 70°39'7.22" W), foraging on Parkinsonia aculeata. Finally, near to Estación Mapocho in July of 2008, a nest in Erythrina falcata Benth. was found (F Rojas com. pers.). The individuals captured are now housed at the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural de Chile and the Instituto de Entomología de la Universidad Metropolitana de Ciencias de la Educación. In addition to the genus characters aforementioned, specimens of X. splendidula have a body size of 14-16 mm, metasoma are brightly metallic with a blue hue. Males can be recognized by the following combination of characters: clypeus and labrum yellow and the mesosoma with short, white hairs.



Figure 1: Distribution of Xylocopa splendidula in South America, including the new records for central Chile (Región Metropolitana, R.M.: 1 Estación Mapocho, 2 Juan Gómez Millas Campus).

Figura 1: Distribución de Xylocopa splendidula en Sudamérica, incluyendo los nuevos registros para Chile central (Región Metropolitana, R.M.: 1 Estación Mapocho, 2 Campus Juan Gómez Mllas).


Females have a relatively narrow pygidial plate with a spine-like form.

Xylocopa splendidula has a disjunct distribución in Chile (Fig. 1). The mechanisms promoting its arrival to central Chile are unknown. Additionally, the separated collection dates and frequency of encounters, suggest that this species is naturalized in central Chile.


Figure 2: Lateral view of a Xylocopa splendidula female. Scale 0.5 cm.

Figura 2: Vista lateral de una hembra de Xylocopa splendidula. Escala 0,5 cm.



Figure 3: Lateral view of a Xylocopa splendidula male. Scale 0.5 cm.

Figura 3: Vista lateral de un macho de Xylocopa splendidula. Escala 0,5 cm.


ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

We acknowledge Arturo Roig Alsina, Luisa Ruz. Elizabeth Chiappa and an anonymous referee for their comments on previous versions of this manuscript. We also acknowledge the Master of Science's scholarship (Project ICM, P05-002).


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chiappa, E., M. Rojas & H. Toro. 1990. Clave para géneros de abejas de Chile (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Revista Chilena de Entomología 18: 61-87.         [ Links ]

Michener, CD. 1979. Biogeography of the bees. Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden 66(3): 277-347.         [ Links ]

Michener, CD. 2000. The Bees of the World. The Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, USA. 913 pp.         [ Links ]

Ospina, M. 2000. Abejas carpinteras (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopinae: Xylocopini) de la Región Neotropical. Biota Colombiana 1(3): 239-252.        [ Links ]

Ramalho, M., M. Batista & M. Silva. 2004. Xylocopa {Monoxylocopa) abbreviata Hurd & Moure (Hymenoptera: Apidae) e Encholirium spectabile (Bromeliaceae): uma associacao estreitano semi-árido do Brasil tropical. Neotropical Entomology 33(4): 417-425.        [ Links ]

Ruiz, P. 1929. Acerca de tres Apidos. Revista Chilena de Historia Natural 33: 300.        [ Links ]

Schlindwein, C., B. Schlumpberger, D. Wittmann & J. Moure. 2003. O género Xylocopa Latreille no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil (Hymenoptera, Anthophoridae). Revista Brasileira de Entomología 47(1): 107-118.        [ Links ]

Silveira, F.A, GA. Meló & E.A. Almeida. 2002. Abelhas Brasileñas sistemática e identificacao. Belo Horizonte, Mnas, Gerais. 253 pp.        [ Links ]

Toro, H. 1986. Lista Preliminar de los Apidos Chilenos (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). Acta Entomológica Chilena 13: 121-132.        [ Links ]

Vicidomini, S. 2002. Sistemática e distribuzione degli Xylocopini (Hymenoptera: Apidae: Xylocopinae): nuove e rare segnalazioni Americane. Annali Museo Cívico Rovereto 16 (2000): 393-400.        [ Links ]

Recibido: 05.06.08

Aceptado: 30.08.08

 

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