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Gayana (Concepción)

versión impresa ISSN 0717-652Xversión On-line ISSN 0717-6538

Gayana (Concepc.) v.70 n.2 Concepción dic. 2006

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-65382006000200008 

Gayana 70(2): 210-219, 2006


Lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) From species of the families Furnariidae, Tyrannidae, Turdidae and icteridae (Aves: Passeriformes) from Chile

Piojos (Insecta: Phthiraptera) de especies de las familias Furnariidae, Tyrannidae, Turdidae E Icteridae (Aves: Passeriformes) de Chile


Daniel González-Acuña1, Francisco Vergara1, Lucila Moreno1, Carlos Barrientos1,
Karen Ardiles1 & Armando Cicchino2

1Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 537, Chillán, Chile. danigonz@udec.cl

2Laboratorio de parasitología, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Deán Funes 3250, 7600 Mar del Plata, Buenos Aires, Argentina.


ABSTRACT

A total of 185 birds (nine captured alive and 176 preserved in a museum), belonging to the families Furnariidae (n=14), Tyrannidae (n=4), Turdidae (n=24) and Icteridae (n=143) (Aves: Passeriformes) were searched for lice (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae, Menoponidae). The species collected and identified were: Furnaricola titicacae Carriker 1949 from Phleocryptes melanops (Vieillot 1817), and Picicola cuniculariae Cicchino 1981 from Geositta rufipennis fasciata (Burmeister 1860) (Furnariidae); Picicola foedus (Kellogg & Chapman 1899) from Xolmis pyrope (Kittlitz 1830) (Tyrannidae); Brueelia magellanica Cicchino 1986, B. persimilis Cicchino 1987 and Menacanthus eurysternus (Burmeister 1838) from Turdus falcklandii Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Turdidae); Brueelia bonariensis Cicchino and Castro 1996 from Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin 1789), Brueelia marcoi Cicchino & Castro 1996 from Curaeus curaeus (Molina 1782), Myrsidea psittaci Carriker 1955 from Agelaius thilus thilus (Molina 1782), Brueelia boae Cicchino & Castro, 1996 and Menacanthus leistidis Cicchino 1984 from Sturnella loyca (Molina 1782) (Icteridae).

The species B. persimilis Cicchino 1987, M. eurysternus (Burmeister 1838), M. leistidis Cicchino 1984, Myrsidea psittaci Carriker 1955, Furnaricola titicacae Carriker 1949, Picicola foedus (Kellogg & Chapman 1899), P. cuniculariae Cicchino 1981 are new records for Chile. New host-louse records are G. r. fasciata (Burmeister 1860) for P. cuniculariae Cicchino 1981, A. thilus thilus (Molina 1782), for M. psittaci and S. loyca for M. leistidis Carriker 1955 and S. loyca (Molina 1782) for M. leistidis Cicchino 1984. Within Chile, the distribution of Brueelia boae Cicchino & Castro 1996 was extended from the 4th to the 10th Regions, and for B. marcoi Cicchino & Castro 1996 from the 4th to the 12th Regions.

Keywords: lice, Phthiraptera, birds, Passeriformes, Chile.


Resumen

Se analizaron un total de 185 aves (nueve capturadas vivas y 176 preservadas en un museo) correspondientes a las familias Furnariidae (n= 14), Tyrannidae (n= 4), Turdidae (n=24) e Icteridae (n=143). Las especies de piojos aislados e identificados fueron: Furnaricola titicacae Carriker 1949 en Phleocryptes melanops (Vieillot 1817) y Picicola cuniculariae Cicchino 1981 en Geositta rufipennis fasciata (Burmeister 1860) (Furnariidae); Picicola foedus (Kellogg & Chapman 1899) en Xolmis pyrope (Kittlitz 1830) (Tyrannidae); Brueelia magellanica Cicchino 1986, B. persimilis Cicchino 1987 y Menacanthus eurysternus (Burmeister 1838), en Turdus falcklandii Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Turdidae); Brueelia bonariensis Cicchino & Castro 1996 en Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin 1789), Brueelia marcoi Cicchino & Castro 1996 en Curaeus curaeus (Molina 1782), Myrsidea psittaci Carriker 1955 en Agelaius thilus thilus (Molina 1782), Brueelia boae Cicchino & Castro 1996 y Menacanthus leistidis Cicchino 1984 en Sturnella loyca (Molina 1782) (Icteridae).

Las especies Brueelia persimilis Cicchino 1987, Menacanthus eurysternus (Burmeister 1838), M. leistidis Cicchino 1984, Myrsidea psittaci Carriker 1955, Furnaricola titicacae Carriker, 1949, Picicola foedus (Kellogg & Chapman 1899), P. cuniculariae Cicchino 1981 corresponden a nuevas citas para Chile. Nuevos registros de hospedadores son G. r. fasciata (Burmeister 1860) para P. cuniculariae Cicchino, 1981, A. thilus thilus (Molina 1782), para M. psittaci Carriker 1955 y S. loyca (Molina 1782) para M. leistidis Cicchino 1984. Se amplia la distribución de Brueelia boae Cicchino & Castro 1996 desde la IV hasta la X Región de Chile y la de B. marcoi Cicchino & Castro 1996 desde la IV a la XII Región de Chile.

Palabras claves: Piojos, Phthiraptera, aves, Passeriformes, Chile.


INTRODUCTION

There are very few studies of lice (Insecta: Phthiraptera) from passerines collected in Chile. Cicchino (1986) described Brueelia magellanica as a new species from Turdus falcklandii magellanicus Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Turdidae) collected in Coquimbo. Further, Cicchino & Castro (1996) described two new species, Brueelia marcoi from Curaeus curaeus (Molina 1782) (Icteridae) and Brueelia boae from Sturnella loyca (Molina 1782) (Icteridae), both collected in Pumitaqui, Coquimbo (4th Region). Besides those three species records, studies of ectoparasites from members of the families Turdidae and Icteridae as well as from the Furnariidae and Tyrannidae in Chile are non-existent. This paper provides new records as well as new hosts from Chile for louse species previously described from Argentina mainly.

MATERIALS AND METHODS

Mist nets were used to capture: Phleocryptes melanops Vieillot 1817 (n=2) from Lake Santa Elena (8th Region, 36º48'S 72º22'O); Xolmis pyrope (Kittlitz 1830) (n=2) from El Tambo (6th Region, 34º36'S 71º21'O) and Ñuble (8th Region, 36º51'S 72º52'O); Turdus falcklandii (n=3) from San Carlos (8th Region, 36º25'S 71º57'O), Chillán (8th Region, 36º36'S 72º26'O) and Cauquenes (7th Region, 35º57'S 72º19'O); and Molothrus bonariensis (Gmelin 1789) (n=2) from Chillán. Additionally, preserved ornithological specimens kept at the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural (MNHN) in Santiago, Chile, were searched for lice. A total of 176 preserved specimens were examined, of which 12 belong to the Furnariidae, 2 to the Tyrannidae, 21 to the Turdidae, and 141 to the Icteridae. The following bird species, and number of specimens for each species, were examined: 12 Geosita ruffipenis fasciata (Burmeister 1860) (Furnariidae) distributed from the 1st Region to the Metropolitan Region; two X. pyrope (Tyrannidae) from the 6th to the 8th Regions; 21 T. falcklandii (Turdidae) from the 5th to the 11th Regions; 24 M. bonariensis (Icteridae) from the 5th to the 8th Regions; 28 Agelaius thilus thilus (Molina 1782) (Icteridae) from the 5th to the 9th Regions; 36 S. loyca from the 1st to the 12th Regions; and 27 C. curaeus from the 5th to the 11th Regions. Anexo I shows preserved ornithological specimens from the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Chile, including date of collection, record number of birds and place of collection.

The lice collected were preserved in alcohol 70%, and subsequently slide-mounted following the methodology described by Palma (1978): they were cleaned in KOH 20%, neutralised with acetic acid, then treated with increasing concentrations of alcohol (40%, 80% and 100%), clarified during 24 hours in clove oil, and finally were mounted in Canada Balsam on glass slides. Specimen identifications were made by comparison with the identified material deposited in the collection of the Museo de Mar del Plata, Argentina. The material studied was deposited in the Collection of the Departamento de Ciencias Pecuarias, Laboratorio de Zoología, Universidad de Concepción, Chile. Figure 1 shows the administrative divisions of Chile.

RESULTS

A total of 10 species of chewing lice (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae, Menoponidae) from eight hosts belonging to the families Furnariidae, Tyrannidae, Turdidae and Icteridae were recorded. The louse species belong to the genera: Furnaricola Carriker 1944; Picicola Clay & Meinertzhagen 1938; Brueelia Kéler 1936; Menacanthus Neumann 1912; and Myrsidea Waterston 1915. Table I shows the number of each bird species examined for lice, including number and percentage of louse positive birds, species of lice recorded, geographic distribution, numbers of specimens for each louse species, and sex or developmental stage of the lice.


Table I. Birds of the families Furnariidae, Tyrannidae, Turdidae and Icteridae examined for lice, including number and percentage of louse positive birds, species of lice recorded, geographic distribution, numbers of specimens for each louse species, and sex or developmental stage of the lice.

Tabla I. Phthiraptera aislados de aves de las familias Furnariidae, Tyrannidae, Turdidae e Icteridae, se incluye número y porcentaje de aves positivas, especies de Phthiraptera aislados, distribución geográfica, número de ejemplares por especie, estado de desarrollo y sexo.







Figure 1. Political division of Chile showing administrative regions.

Figura 1. División política de Chile y regiones administrativas.




DISCUSSION

The genus Furnaricola is exclusively Neotropical, and includes some 30 species and subspecies that are parasites on suboscine Passeriformes (Thamno-philidae, Furnariidae, Dendrocolaptidae, Rhinocryptidae and Pipridae). It has been studied by Cicchino & Castro (1998b) and Price & Clayton (1993, 1994), but the latter authors consider it to be a synonym of Rallicola Johnston & Harrison 1911. Furnaricola titicacae Carriker 1949, originally described from Phleocryptes melanops schoenobaenus Cabanis & Heine 1859 in Lake Titicaca, Perú, was found in this study parasitizing Phleocryptes melanops melanops in Lake Santa Elena (8th Region, Chile); this report widens its geographic distribution, and represents a first record for Chile.

Picicola contains some 29 known species, which parasitize species of the Piciformes and Passeriformes (Tyrannidae, Furnariidae, Rhynocryptidae and probably Vireonidae). Picicola cuniculariae, originally described from Geositta cunicularia (Vieillot 1816) in Argentina (Cicchino 1981), has enlarged its geographic distribution to include Chile in the present study, and has added Geosita rufipennis fasciata (Philippi & Landbeck 1864) as a new host record. Picicola foedus (Kellogg & Chapman 1899) is a species limited to hosts in the family Tyrannidae (Cicchino & Emerson 1982). The geographic distribution of this louse species, according to its hosts, includes a large part of the North and South American continents, from the United States to Argentina (Cicchino & Emerson 1982). The present record widens its distribution to include Chile and adds Xolmis pyrope (Kittlitz 1830) as a new host for P. foedus (Kellogg & Chapman 1899). Another species of this genus is P. fuscus; Cicchino & Emerson 1982; although not yet recorded in Chile, it is expected to be found on at least 5 species of Cinclodes (C. oustaleti, C. fuscus, C. nigrofumosus, C. patagonicus, C. antarcticus). In addition, four other species collected from Upucerthia dumetaria, Aphrastura spinicauda, Pygarrhichas albogularis (Furnariidae) and Pteroptochos megapodius (Rhinocryptidae) respectively, are under study by one of us (ACC) and probably represent new taxa.

The genus Brueelia includes approximately 276 described species, with some of them polytypical, parasitizing numerous species of Passeriformes, Piciformes, Coraciiformes and Trogoniformes (Cicchino & Castro 1998b). This study includes four species of Brueelia from four different hosts belonging to the families Turdidae and Icteridae. The species Brueelia magellanica, recorded from Turdus falcklandii magellanicus Quoy & Gaimard 1824 (Pumitaqui, Coquimbo, 4th Region) by Cicchino (1986) in its original description, has also been cited by Cicchino & Castro (1998b) for Argentina. The present record enlarges its distribution to Coyhaique (10th Region, 45º35'S 72º03'O). Considering the entire distribution of its host, it is possible that the geographic distribution of B. magellanica is even greater than known at present. Considering the presence of other members of the Turdidae in Chile, the following Brueelia species might also be present: Brueelia chiguanca Cicchino 1986 on Turdus chiguanco and Brueelia persimilis Cicchino 1987 on Turdus amaurochalinus.

Brueelia marcoi was described by Cicchino & Castro (1996) from Curaeus curaeus (Molina 1782), in Huilmo, Coquimbo (4th Region), Chile and recorded from C. curaeus reynoldsi (Sclater 1939) in Argentina by Cicchino & Castro (1998b). In this study, B. marcoi was found on the type host in Tierra del Fuego (12th Region, 53º48'S 69º19'O); consequently its distribution has been enlarged to an area covering from Coquimbo to Tierra del Fuego. Brueelia boae was described by Cicchino & Castro (1996) from Sturnella loyca (Molina 1782), in Santa Rosa, Province La Pampa, Argentina, and in Huilmo, Pumitaqui, Coquimbo (4th Region), Chile. Later, the same authors (1998b) listed Sturnella defilippi (Bonaparte 1850) as another host for B. boae. In this study, B. boae was found on S. loyca (Molina 1782). This record widens its distribution to Llanquihue, Chile (10th Region, 41º15'S 73º00'O). Brueelia bonariensis Cicchino & Castro (1996) was described parasitizing M. bonariensis bonariensis (Gmelin 1789), in Argentina and Paraguay. Here, we report B. bonariensis from the same host in Chile for the first time. Other, still unrecorded species of Brueelia expected to be found on Chilean members of the Icteridae are: Brueelia badia Cicchino & Castro 1996 on Agelaiodes badius, B. ruficapilla Cicchino 1990 on Chrysomus ruficapillus and B. oxypyga (Giebel 1874) on Amblyramphus holosericeus. In addition, two other species, each from Sturnella supercilliaris and Chrysomus thilius, are under study by ACC and represent undescribed taxa.

The genus Menacanthus includes approximately 50 species, some polytypical and others of uncertain status (Cicchino & Castro 1998a). They have been recorded as parasitizing species of Passeriformes, Piciformes, Apodiformes, Coraciiformes, Tinamiformes and Galliformes (Cicchino & Castro 1998a). The species of Menacanthus that parasitize Passeriformes have been reviewed by Price (1975, 1977), and those from Piciformes by Price and Emerson (1975). This study reports Menacanthus eurysternus Burmeister 1838 and Menacanthus leistidis Cicchino 1984 on T. falcklandii Quoy & Gaimard 1824 and S. loyca (Molina 1782), respectively. Worldwide, M. eurysternus parasitizes a great number of host species belonging to several families in the Passeriformes, as well as to some species of Piciformes. Within the Passeriformes, M. eurysternus has been recorded from more than 120 host species in at least 70 genera in 22 families from many countries, including Argentina and Bolivia (Castro & Cicchino 1978, 1996; Cicchino & Castro 1998a). The present study widens its distribution to Chile. M. leistidis was originally described from Sturnella militaris superciliaris (Bonaparte 1850) by Cicchino (1984) in Argentina, being recorded later on S. defilippi for the same country by Cicchino & Castro (1998a). This report widens its distribution to Chile and also records S. loyca as (Molina 1782) as a new host for M. leistidis.

The genus Myrsidea includes over 270 species, with some of them polytypical, that parasitize birds belonging to species of Passeriformes, Piciformes (Ramphastidae), and Trogoniformes (Cicchino & Castro 1998a). Myrsidea psittaci Carriker 1955 was recorded by Cicchino & Castro (1998a) on Agelaius thilus petersi (Laubmann 1934), Agelaius ruficapillus Vieillot 1819, Pseudoleistes virescens (Vieillot 1819), Psuedoleistes guirahuro (Vieillot 1819), Gnorimopsar chopi chopi (Vieillot 1819), Scaphidura oryzivora oryzivora (Gmelin 1788), and Amblyramphus holosericeus (Scopoli 1786) in Argentina; it has also been found by ACC on Molothrus bonariensis bonariensis (Gmelin 1789) in Paraguay. The present report of M. psittaci from A. thilus thilus (Molina 1782) represents both a new record for Chile and a new host for the louse species. Some species of Icteridae are hosts to two species of Myrsidea, as in the case of Chrysomus thilius from Argentina, where M. psittaci and Myrsidea serini (Séguy 1942) have been found coexisting on the same individual host in several occasions (ACC, unpublished). Therefore, we can expect to find more species of Myrsidea on members of the Icteridae in Chile.

With the seven new reports described in this study, the diversity of Phthiraptera in Chile exceeds 135 species and future studies probably will show new findings.


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are grateful to Juan Carlos Torres-Mura (Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Chile) for providing a collection of preserved birds for the present study. We are greatly indebted to both Ricardo Palma and Pedro Linardi for their critical review of the manuscript.


BIBLIOGRAPHY

Castro, D del C. & A. Cicchino. 1978. Contribución al conocimiento de los Malófagos Argentinos III. Sobre algunos Menoponidae de la avifauna bonaerense: Menacanthus eurysternus (Burmeister) y M. pici (Denny) (Insecta: Mallophaga). Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 37(1-4):77-83.         [ Links ]

Castro, D del C. & A. Cicchino. 1996. Algunas Menoponidae (Insecta - Phthiraptera) de aves bonaerenses. Revista de la Asociación de Ciencias Naturales del Litoral 27(2):137-140.         [ Links ]

Cicchino, A. 1981. Contribución al conocimiento de los Malófagos argentinos. XI. Dos nuevas especies del subgénero Picicola (Tyrannicola) Carriker, 1956, parásitas de Funariidae (Aves: Passeriformes). Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 40(1-4):279-283.         [ Links ]

Cicchino, A. 1984. Una nueva especie del género Menacanthus Neumann (Mallophaga, Menoponidae) parásita de Sturnella militaris superciliaris (Bonaparte 1858) (Aves, Passeriformes, Emberizidae, Icterinae). Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 43(1-4):327-328.         [ Links ]

Cicchino, A. 1986. Contribución al conocimiento de los Malófagos Argentinos. XIX. Cuatro nuevas especies del género Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Philoptheridae [sic]) parásitas de especies de Turdus Linné 1758 (Aves, Passeriformes, Muscicapidae, Turdinae). Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 44(1):91-102.         [ Links ]

Cicchino, A. & D. del C. Castro. 1996. Revisión preliminar de las especies del género Brueelia Kéler, 1936 (Phthiraptera, Philopteridae) parásitas de Icterinae (Aves, Passeriformes, Fringillidae). Graellsia 52:3-30.         [ Links ]

Cicchino, A. & D. del C. Castro. 1998a. Amblycera. Capítulo 8. Pp 84-104. En: Morrone, J.J. y S. Coscarón (Editores), Biodiversidad de Artrópodos argentinos, Buenos Aires, Argentina.         [ Links ]

Cicchino, A. & D. del C. Castro. 1998b. Ischnocera. Capítulo 9. Pp 104-124. En: Morrone, J.J. y S. Coscarón (Editores), Biodiversidad de Artrópodos argentinos, Buenos Aires, Argentina.         [ Links ]

Cicchino, A. & K.C. Emerson. 1982. Contribución al conocimiento de los Malófagos argentinos IX. Sobre dos especies del subgénero Picicola (Tyrannicola) Carriker, 1956: P. (T.) foedus Kellogg y Chapman, 1899 y P. (T.) fusca sp. nov. (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae). Neotropica 28(79):51-60.         [ Links ]

Palma, R.L. 1978. Slide-mounting of lice: a detailed description of the Canada Balsam technique. New Zealand Entomologist 6(4):432- 436.         [ Links ]

Price, R.D. 1975. The Menacanthus eurysternus complex (Mallophaga: Menoponidae) of Passeriformes and Piciformes (Aves). Annals of the Entomological Society of America 68:617-622.         [ Links ]

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Price, R.D. & D.H. Clayton. 1993. Review of the species of Rallicola (Phthiraptera: Philopteridae) from the Woodcreepers (Passeriformes: Dendrocolap-tinae). Journal of Medical Entomology 30:35- 46.         [ Links ]

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Fecha de recepción: 10.11.05

Fecha de aceptación: 06.09.06

 

Anexo I. Preserved ornithological specimens from the Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Chile, of the families Furnariidae, Tyrannidae and Turdidae, including date of collection, record number of birds and place of collection.

Anexo I. Colección de reserva del Museo Nacional de Historia Natural, Chile, pertenecientes a las familias Furnariidae, Tyrannidae y Turdidae, se incluye fecha de colección, número de identificación y lugar de colección del ave.






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