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Revista chilena de anatomía

versión impresa ISSN 0716-9868

Rev. chil. anat. v.18 n.2 Temuco  2000 



Marcia Consentino Kronka 
Ii-Sei Watanabe 
Marcelo Cavenaghi Pereira da Silva 
Ruberval Armando Lopes
Marisa Semprini



KRONKA, M. C.; WATANABE, I.; SILVA, M. C. P.; LOPES, R. A. & SEMPRINI, M. Palatine mucosa angioarchitecture study of young rabbits using scanning electron microscopy. Rev. Chil. Anat., 18(2):227-230, 2000.

SUMMARY: A few papers have been related to young animal's angioarchitecture. This study tries to contribute to research about development of three-dimensional distribution in masticatory mucosa. The vascular corrosion casts were obtained using low viscosity resin ­ Mercox® CL-2B. We could note specific networks at dome of palatine rugae, inter-rugae areas and labial mucosa. Capillary loops were observed only at transverse palatine rugae.

KEY WORDS: 1. Rabbit; 2. Mercox®; 3. Vascular corrosion cast; 4. Palatine mucosa; 5. Capillary loops. INTRODUCTION

The microvascular system is tissue/organ-specific and its three-dimensional architecture has been related to the functions (MCCUSKEY & KRASOVICH, 1994). Several studies have been described about oral cavity microvascularization. KISHI et al. (1990) observed the oral mucosa microvascular network of connective tissue papillae in adult dogs; PIETTE & LAMETSCHWANDTNER (1995 a, b) described bilaminar zone and articular surface angioarchitecture of mandibular joint and, OJIMA et al. (1996) demonstrated details of tongue's filiform papillae in adult rats. However a few papers have been done about young animals.

The masticatory mucosa related to hard palate and to palatine gingiva is subjected to physical and chemical stimuli during mastication and swallowing (KAJIWARA, 1989). For structure protection, vitality maintenance of palatine mucosa is very important so it is the adequate performance of microvascular system. Thus, the purpose of the present studyis to analyse the three-dimensional arrangement of palatine mucosa microvessels in young rabbits using an association between vascular corrosion casts and scanning electron microscope (SEM).


We used young rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) of both sexes, aging approximately 40 days and weighting about 300 and 380g. The animals were anaesthetized with xilazina (5mg/kg) and ketamine cloridrate (15-20mg/kg). The low viscosity resin (Mercox®Cl-2B Dainippon-ink Co. Ltda) was injected by a polyethylene tube carefully inserted into ascendant aorta. The circulatory system was perfused with 40ml, 37C, heparinized (5000U.I./liter) physiological saline solution. The resin was mixed accordingly to manufacture's instructions.

After the resin cure, at room temperature, palates were dissected out and macerated in 10% sodium hydroxide solution for a few days. Then, they were dried at room temperature too. For scanning electron microscope (JEOL, JSM-6100) observations, the specimens were mounted on metal stubs and sputtered with gold.


Scanning electron microscopy observations of young rabbit palatine mucosa showed complex three-dimensional microvascular pathways. Microvessels with reduced diameters were observed reproducing external morphology of palatine mucosa (Fig.1), including transverse palatine rugae. Larger diameters microvessels were located deeper in vascular corrosion casts (Fig.2).

Fig.1 Vascular corrosion cast revealing an overview of transverse palatine rugae microvascularization (large arrows). Note inter-rugae area (small arrow). X60.

Fig.2 Scanning electron micrograph showing large diameter vessels located deeper in tissues (large arrow). Vascular projections of thin vessels can be observed at palatine rugae surface (small arrows). X120.

Vascular projections defined as capillary loops were distributed all over transverse palatine rugae, labial mucosa and palatine gingiva. Their diameters were approximately 6 and 10 µm (Fig.3). At rugae palatine dome, capillary loops were aligned in parallel lines which were at right angle to rugae long axis (Figs.2 and 4). This kind of angioarchitecture was different from organization detected at palatine raphe and inter-rugae areas, where it could be noted flattened network of superficial microvessels (Fig.5).

Fig.3 Differences between microvascular networks are observed. Angioarchitectures of palatine rugae (arrow) and labial mucosa (*) can be compared. X60.

Fig.4 At high magnification, distribution pattern of capillary loops at palatine rugae dome is observed. Note parallel row arrangement. X170.

Fig.5 Scanning electron micrograph of inter-rugae area. Microvessels are disposed in a flattened network. X230.


STREK et al. (1995) observed an underdevelopment of many filiform papillae in vascular corrosion casts of tongue dorsal mucosa of human fetus. The authors related the immaturity condition to the mastication. SKLADZIEN et al. (1995) also established an association between microvascular underdevelopment of some areas in nasal mucosa and respiratory system inactivity of human fetus. The animals used at the present study, which are considered young specimens although being in postnatal period became evident a complex microvessel architectures. Like us, MAKIYAMA et al. (1998) observed different kinds of capillary networks at tongue papillae angioarchitecture in young rats. The findings exposed here clearly revealed microvascular arrangements specific to considered areas.

IKE (1990) analyzed the hard palatine mucosa of adult rabbits and, like the present paper, noted capillary loops distributing all over palatine rugae surface. Other dissimilar fact is that IKE registered capillary loops at inter-rugae areas. IKE detected distinct capillary loop networks at rugae related to incisive and molar regions. We did not assume this condition.

In spite of being a young animal, palatine mucosa microvessels showed dense and complex three-dimensional arrangements. The capillary loops probably should be related to areas subject to higher friction, functional activity and cellular turn over.

RESUMEN: Pocos trabajos han relatado la angioarquitectura de animales jóvenes. Este estudio contribuye con las investigaciones acerca de la distribución tridimensional de la mucosa palatina en conejos jóvenes usando MEB. La corrosión vascular del molde fue obtenida usando resina de baja densidad - Mercox® CL-2B. No pudimos observar redes específicas en la cúpula de los pliegues palatinos, en los interpliegues y mucosa labial. Fueron observados solamente loops capilares y pliegues transversos palatinos.

KEY WORDS: 1. Conejo; 2. Mercox®; 3. Molde de corrosión vascular; 4. Mucosa palatina; 5. Loops capilar. * Institute of Biomedical Sciences ­ Department of Anatomy, University of São Paulo ­ São Paulo, Brazil.
** Dentistry School, University of São Paulo ­ Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.
This paper was supported by Capes and FAPESP.

Dirección para correspondencia:
Prof. Dr. Ii-Sei Watanabe
Departamento de Anatomia - ICB III
Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 2415
Cidade Universitária
CEP 05508-900
São Paulo - SP

Recibido : 28-06-2000
Aceptado: 03-08-2000


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