## Services on Demand

## Journal

## Article

## Indicators

- Cited by SciELO
- Access statistics

## Related links

- Cited by Google
- Similars in SciELO
- Similars in Google

## Share

## Proyecciones (Antofagasta)

##
*Print version* ISSN 0716-0917

### Proyecciones (Antofagasta) vol.33 no.4 Antofagasta Dec. 2014

#### http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0716-09172014000400003

**The upper open monophonic number of a graph**

**A. P. Santhakumaran **

**M. Mahendran**

*Hindustan University*

*India *

**ABSTRACT**

*For a connected graph G of order n,a subset S of vertices of G is a monophonic set of G if each vertex v in G lies on a x-y monophonic path for some elements x and y in S. The minimum cardinality of a monophonic set of G is defined as the monophonic number of G, denoted by m(G). A monophonic set of cardinality m(G) is called a m-set of G.A set S of vertices of a connected graph G is an open monophonic set of G if for each vertex v in G ,either v is an extreme vertex of G and v G S,or v is an internal vertex of a x-y mono-phonic path for some x,y G S. An open monophonic set of minimum cardinality is a minimum open monophonic set and this cardinality is the open monophonic number, om(G). An open monophonic set S of vertices in a connected graph G is a minimal open monophonic .set if no proper subset of S is an open monophonic set of G.The upper open monophonic number om+* (G) *is the maximum cardinality of a minimal open monophonic set of G. The upper open monophonic numbers of certain standard graphs are determined. It is proved that for a graph G of order n, om(G) = n if and only if om+(G)= n. Graphs G with om(G) = 2 are characterized. If a graph G has a minimal open monophonic set S of cardinality 3, then S is also a minimum open monophonic set of G and om(G) = 3. For any two positive integers a and b with* 4 < *a* < *b, there exists a connected graph G with om(G) = a and om+(G) = b.*

**2010 Mathematics Subject Classification. 05C12,05C70.**

**Key Words:** *Distance, geodesic, geodetic number, open geodetic number, monophonic number, open monophonic number, upper open monophonic number.*

**REFERENCES**

[1] F. Buckley and F. Harary, Distance in graphs, Addison-Wesley, Redwood city, CA, (1990).

[2] G. Chartrand, E. M. Palmer and P. Zhang, The geodetic number of a graph: A survey, Congr. Numer., 156, pp. 37-58, (2002).

[3] G. Chartrand, F. Harary, H. C. Swart and P. Zhang, Geodomination in graphs, Bulletin of the ICA, 31, pp. 51-59, (2001).

[4] F. Harary, Graph Theory, Addison-Wesley, (1969).

[5] R. Muntean and P. Zhang, On geodomination in graphs, Congr. Numer.,143, pp. 161-174, (2000).

[6] A. P. Santhakumaran and T. Kumari Latha, On the open geodetic number of a graph, SCIENTIA Series A: Mathematical Sciences, Vol.20, pp. 131-142, (2010).

[7] A. P. Santhakumaran and M. Mahendran, The connected open mono-phonic number of a graph, International Journal of Computer Applications (0975-8887), Vol. 80 No. 1, pp. 39-42, (2013).

[8] A. P. Santhakumaran and M. Mahendran, The open monophonic number of a graph, International Journal of Scientific & Engineering Research, Vol. 5 No. 2, pp. 1644-1649, (2014).

**A. P. Santhakumaran**

Department of Mathematics Hindustan University

Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science Padur

Chennai-603 103,

India

e-mail : apskumar1953@yahoo.co.in

**M. Mahendran**

Department of Mathematics Hindustan University

Hindustan Institute of Technology and Science Padur

Chennai-603 103,

India

e-mail : magimani83@gmail.com

**Received : February 2014. Accepted : October 2014**