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Boletín chileno de parasitología

versión impresa ISSN 0365-9402

Bol. chil. parasitol. v.54 n.3-4 Santiago jul. 1999 

Redescription of Procamallanus mathurai Pande, Bhatia and Rai, 1963 (Camallanidae: Nematoda)

B. Bharatha Lakshmi and M. Sudha
Department of Zoology, Andhra University, Waltair - 530 003, Andra Pradesh, India


Redescription de Procamallanus mathurai (Camallanidae: Nematoda)

Procamallanus mathurai es redescrito y dibujado, sobre la base de un macho y diez hembras extraídas del estómago e intestino del pez de agua dulce Heteropneustes fossilis. La posición preecuatorial de la vulva no había sido descrita antes, el tamaño de las espículas difiere de la descripcion original.

Key words (Palabras clave): Procamallanus mathurai; nematode; stomach (estómago); intestine (intestino); Heteropneustes fossilis.


One male and ten female specimens of the camallanid nematode belonging to the genus Procamallanus, Baylis, 1923, identified as Procamallanus mathurai were obtained from the stomach and intestine of freshwater fishes of Heteropneustes fossilis (Bloch).


The nematodes were fixed in 70% alcohol and preserved in 10% glycerine alcohol. These specimens were cleared in lactophenol or creosote for appropriate observations For enface - view study, the head of parasite was cut with a sharp blade and brougt into the desired position under the cover glass, using creosote on the slide. All measurements are given in millimetres.


Family: Camallanida Raillet et Herny, 1915.
Genus: Procamallanus Baylis, 1923.
Procamallanus mathurai Pande, Bhatia and Rai, 1963. (Fig. 1 and Fig. 2).

Fig. 1. Procamallanus mathurai Pande, Bhatia and Rai, 1963: a) Anterior region of male. b) Region showing vulva. c) Posterior region of male. d) Posterior region of female.

Fig. 2. Procamallanus mathurai Pande, Bhatia and Rai, 1963; a) Anterior region of male. b) Posterior region of male. c) Region showing vulva. d) Posterior region of female.

Material: 1 male and 10 females
Host: Heteropneustes fossilis
Location: Stomach and Intestine
Locality: Kondakarla, Andhra Pradesh
Number of fish examined: 12
Number of fish infected: 7

Type Specimen: Holotype and paratype specimens will be deposited in the department of Zoology, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam, A. P. India.

Small and slender worms. Mouth rounded. Cuticle thin and finely striated. Four submedian cephalic papillae and a pair of lateral amphids. Buccal capsule barrel shaped, smooth and without spiral thickennigs. Oesophagus divided in to an anterior muscular and posterior glandular regions. Vulva preequatorial. Viviparous.

Male: Body 3.5 in length and 0.06 in width. Buccal capsule measures 0.048 x 0.036 without spiral thickenings. Muscular oesophagus 0.084 x 0.036. Glandular oesophagus 0.216 x 0.036. Nerve ring at 156 from anterior and excretory pore 0.26 Caudal alae long. Cuadal papillae twelve pairs (7 + 1 + 4). 7 pairs preanals and one adanal and four pairs postanals. Spicule single and measures 0.384 in length. Gubernaculum Y-shaped with unequal proximal parts, 0.072 long. Tail 0.132 long and terminates in to a spike.

Female: Females measures 5-8 in lenght and 0.132 in width. Buccal capsule measures 0.072 - 0.084 x 0.036 - 0.048 without spiral thickenings. Muscular oesophagus 0.252- 0.300 x 0.06 - 0.072, glandular oesophagus 0.384 - 0.540 x 0.096 - 0.108-. Nerve ring from 0.132 - 0.144 and excretory pore 0.028 - 0.030 from anterior end. Vulva with prominent lips and preequetorial 2-3.5 from anterior end. Uterine branches opposed and filled with developing embryos. Tail 0.11 - 0.136.


Yamaguti (1961) listed about 34 species under the genus Procamallanus, 1923. Sood (1988) provided key to the species of Procamallanus Baylis, 1923 reported from fishes in South Asia. The detailed study of the present material reveals that it belongs to the genus Procamallanus Baylis, 1923. The present specimens come closer to P. maturai of Pande et al., 1963 in having same number of caudal papillae, single spicule, Y shaped gubernaculum with unequal proximal parts smooth buccal capsule and in some body measurements. Vulva is preequatorial which was not described earlier by Pande et al., 1963. It differs from the original description in the size of spicules. Minor differences in body measurements may be considered as intraspecific variations. Hence the present specimens are regarded as P. mathurai. Sood (1967) while redescribing P. daccai, considered P. mathurai synonym of it. Rai (1969) recorded it from the mucosa of H. fossis at Gorakhpur. Rai (1969) also discovered P. mathurai from Clarias batrachus at Gorakhpur and Mathura. P. mathurai has been synonymized with P. spiculogubernaculus by De and Moravec (1980). Sood (1988) did not agree with this synonymity. Sood (1988) in this compilation work describe it under the genus Procamallanus as Procamallanus mathurai which is being followed here. Kondakarla is new locality record for this species.

Comparison of the present species with P. mathurai, Pande Bhatia and Rai, 1963 is given in the Table 1.


Comparison of the present species with P. Mathurai Pande Bhatta and Rai, 1963

Present species
P. mathurai Pande,
Bhatia and Raj, 1963

Body length 3.5 5-8   3.2.-4.1 5-7.8
Width 0.06 0.132   0.09-0.11 0.13-0.15
Buccal capsule 0.048 x 0.036 0.072-0.084 x 0.036-0.048 0.048-0.05 0.05-0.06 x 0.04
Muscular oesophagus 0.084 x 0.036 0.252-0.3 x 0.06-0.072 0.23-0.209 0.3-0.4
Glandular oesophagus 0.216 x 0.036 0.384-0.540 x 0.096-0.108 0.26-0.33 0.37-0.48
Nerve ring 0.156 from anterior end 0.132-0.144 from anterior end 0.12-0.13 from anterior end 0.14-0.16 from anterior end
Caudal Papillae 12 Pairs (7+1+4) - 12 Pairs (7+1+4) -
Caudal alae narrow, long, - narrow -
Spicules Single, 0.384 - Single, 0.25-0.27 -
Gubernaculum 0.072 - 0.6-0.07 -
Vulva - Preequatorial, 2-3.5 from anterior end    
Eggs - Uterus contianing larvae - -
Tail 0.132 0.11-0.136     0.09-0.11
Host   Heteropneustes fossilis   Heteropneustes fossillis
Location   Stomach, intestine   Stomach
Locality   Kondakarla, A.P.   -


The present species, identified as Procamallanus mathurai obtained from the stomach and intestine of fresh water fish Heteropneuste fossilis (Bloch) is redescribed. Position of vulva preequatorial which was not described earlier by Pande et al., 1963 and it differs from the original description in the size of spicules.

Achnowledgements.- The authors are grateful to Prof. Hanumantha Rao and Prof. K Shyamasundari Rtd Professor, Department of Zoology for their help and encouragement. The authors are thankful to the University authorities and the Head of the Department of Zoology for providing necessary facilities.


Baylis, H.A. 1923. Report on a collection of parasitic nematodes, mainly from Egypt. Part I. Ascaridae and Heterakidae. Part II oxyurirae. Part III Camallanidae etc. with a note on prostomayria and an appendix on Acanthocephala. Parasitology, 15: 1-38.

De, N.C. and Moravec, F. 1980. Redescription of the nematode Procamallanus spiculogu-bernaculus with notes o related forms. Vestnik cestoslovenske spolecnosti Zoologicke, 44 () 81-91.

Pande, B.P. Bhatia, B.B. and Rai, P. 1963. On the Camallamid genus Procamallanus Baylis, 1923 in two of the fresh water fishes. Indian Journal of Helminthlogy, 16: 105-108.

Rai, P. 1969. On some of the hitherto known and Unknow nematode parasites in some of the freshwater Siluroid fishes. Indian. J. Helminthology, 21: 94-108.

Sood, M.L. 1967. On some species of the genus Procamallanus Baylis, 1923 from freshwater fishes of India. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. Biological Sciences, 37B (3): 291-303.

Sood, M.L. 1988. Some nematode parasites from freshwater fishes of India. Indian J. Helminthology, 29 (2): 83-110.

Yamaguti, S. 1961. Systema helminthum. The nematodes of vertebrates. Interscience publishers. New York and London, Vol. III. Part I and II, 1-1261.

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