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Revista chilena de cardiología

On-line version ISSN 0718-8560

Abstract

MARTINEZ, Gonzalo et al. Dual anti platelet therapy post PTCA: Duration, Bleeding risk and validation of Scores for predicting risk of bleeding in a Chilean population. Rev Chil Cardiol [online]. 2017, vol.36, n.3, pp.200-208. ISSN 0718-8560.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-85602017000300200.

Background:

Dual antiplatelet therapy (DAT) with aspirin plus clopidogrel or ticagrelor is essential for the prevention of stent thrombosis and new cardiovascular events in patients undergoing PCI. However, DAT is associated with an increased risk of bleeding, more so when it is used for prolonged time periods. Scores (DAPT, PRECISE-DAPT) developed to predict bleeding risk were evaluated in this study.

Method:

The prospective Cardiovascular Prevention database at Catholic University Hospital was used to select patients who underwent PCI followed by DAT during 2015. By phone contact information on bleeding episodes - according to the ISTH classification -, new cardiovascular events and DAT duration were collected. DAPT and PRECISE- DAPT scores were calculated. Student's t test, Fisher exact test and ROC analysis were used. Significance was established at p< 0.05.

Results:

277 patients were included (age 64.2±12.3 y-o, 22.5% women). Hypertension was present in 66.9%, diabetes in 28.6%, smoking habit in 26.9% and renal failure in 5.3%. The indication for PCI was acute coronary syndrome in 63%, 1.4±0.7 stents per patient were implanted and 37% of patients received bare metal stents exclusively. Follow-up extended for 26±3 months. DAT was active for 12.6±7.4 months and 9.3% of patients received oral anticoagulant therapy. There were 35 (15.4%) new cardiovascular events (14 revascularizations, 12 myocardial infarctions, 2 CVA and 7 deaths). Conversely, there were 31 (13.6%) bleeding episodes. According to the TIMI classification, bleeding episodes were severe in 2.2%, mild in 3.9% and minor in 7.4%. In 4% of patients DAT was modified due to bleeding. PRECISE-DAPT score was significantly associated to bleeding episodes (p<0.01). A high score (>25) was associated with a 3-fold risk of bleeding (OR 3.1, CI 1.4-7.1 (p<0.01). Through ROC analysis the best PRECISE-DAPT cutting point in this cohort was 18 (C=0.69). The use of oral anticoagulation increased bleeding risk (OR 3.4 CI 1.2 - 9.5, p=0.02). DAPT and PRECISE-DAPT were significantly correlated (p<0.01).

Conclusion:

Bleeding is a frequent complication of DAT, similar to the risk of new cardiovascular events. PRECISE-DAPT score is useful to estimate the risk of bleeding, although this study suggests that in the studied population the cutting point may be somewhat lower than previously published.

Keywords : Anti platelet therapy; clopidogrel; bleeding; DAPT; PRECISE-DAPT.

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