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Idesia (Arica)

versão On-line ISSN 0718-3429

Resumo

BIANCO, Luciana. Main aspects of the nodulation and biological fixation of nitrogen in Fabáceas. Idesia [online]. 2020, vol.38, n.2, pp.21-29. ISSN 0718-3429.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-34292020000200021.

Several investigations have been carried out on nodulation mainly in legumes of agronomic importance. However, several native species still remain completely unexplored. The study of nodulating native legumes will provide key knowledge for the conserva-tion and management of species with adaptation to harsh environmental conditions. Therefore, the purposes of this review are: a) To describe the infection mechanisms of rhizobia associated with Fabaceae known until now, b) To analyze the most important research works reported on nodule morphology and structure, c) synthesize the most significant advances on nodulation in the three sub-families of Fabaceae. It is concluded that to date three infection mechanisms by rhizobia are known: I) The infection threads in the radical hairs that occur in genera such as Acacia, Mimosa and Prosopis belonging to the Mimosoideae sub-family; as well as in Lotus, Medicago and Robinia, belonging to the Papilionoideae sub-family, II) the crack entry mechanism that occurs in legumes of the Dalbergieae tribe, and III) direct infection through the epidermis root characteristic of the Genisteae tribe. As a result of bacterial infection different morphological types of nodules are formed. Regarding the structure, they are constituted by three types of tissues that have a specific function in the nitrogen fixation. In species subjected to unfavorable conditions, changes in structure are observed, such as the formation of periderm and lenticels.

Currently, the sub-family Papilionoideae is the most studied as far as nodulation is concerned, particularly the genera belonging to the tribus Dalbergieae, Desmodieae, Genisteae, Loteae, Millettieae, Phaseoleae, Sophoreae and Trifolieae.

Palavras-chave : Legumes; Natives; Nodules; Rhizobia.

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