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Ius et Praxis

versão On-line ISSN 0718-0012

Resumo

MATUS A., Jean Pierre. El Informe Valech y la tortura masiva y sistemática como crimen contra la humanidad cometido en Chile durante el régimen militar. Su enjuiciamiento desde la perspectiva del derecho penal internacional: Apuntes a propósito de la obra del Prof. Dr. Kai Ambos, Der Allgemeine Teil des Völkerstrafrechts, 2 ed., Duncker und Humblot, Berlín 2004, 1058 páginas. Ius et Praxis [online]. 2005, vol.11, n.1, pp.173-219. ISSN 0718-0012.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-00122005000100007.

This article reviews Prof. Dr. Kai Ambos' book, Der Allgemeine Teil des Völkerstrafrechts, and proposes the application of the main results of this book to the possible trial of the acts of massive and systematic torture carried out in Chile between 1973 and 1990, described in the report of the National Commission on Political Imprisonment and Torture (also known as the Valech Report). We therefore begin by describing and analyzing Prof. Ambos' system for a general part of international penal law, and then torture is analyze as a crime against humanity, subject to the rules of international penal law. Here we determine its main elements (a massive and systematic character), the competent tribunal in Chile for this matters, and the procedure to be applied. We next turn to the description of the facts, as rendered in the Valech Report, which brings us to the conclusion that torture was applied in Chile in a massive and systematic way during the military regime, which supported it through the establishment of a "legalized" repression "machinery". Next, the existence of an individual penal responsibility derived from these facts is determined, followed by the analysis of the main problems of the general part of international penal law which would emerge if those responsible individuals were brought to trial. In this we follow the two-level scheme of analysis proposed by Kai Ambos, namely, discussing first the objective and subjective presuppositions for this responsibility, and then turning to the analysis of the main defenses available to the defendants.

Palavras-chave : Torture; Chile; Valech Report; International Penal Law; Crimes against humanity; War Councils; Military Courts; Judiciary; DINA; CNI; Command responsibility; civil collaborators; non retroactive character; amnesty; statute of limitations.

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