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Ciencia y enfermería

versión On-line ISSN 0717-9553

Resumen

PAREDES M, PAMELA  y  RIVAS R, EDITH. HOSPITAL NURSING PRACTICE HISTORY, SOUTH OF CHILE (1940-1980). Cienc. enferm. [online]. 2014, vol.20, n.1, pp.9-21. ISSN 0717-9553.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-95532014000100002.

In Chile the historical practice of nurses has been scarcely documented. Objective: To determine the professional practice of registered nurses, years 1940-1980, to reveal the identity and historical memory. Method: Historical, oral history methodology, data collection through semi-structured interview that included stories of life. We chose the years 1940-1980 as context, because we counted on the experiential referents for that age. As validity criteria, the subjectivity, memory and particularity of the source, were considered. Results: The personal context, influences of training values, obedience to the power structures, self-sacrifice and submission. The work environment is characterized by a situation of extreme work and noticeable lack of nurses resulting from inadequate training schools in the country. In the caring role, any deficit in professional development, compliance, and lack of cooperation and blind analysis, due to the high demand for care, epidemics of diarrhea, respiratory problems and accidents. Of particular importance is carrying of some procedures as giving anesthesia, direct assistance in surgery and chemotherapy. The administrative role was characterized by empowerment and service organization, nursing shows a structured, focused on solving problems of a domestic and human resource management. The educator role consisted on formal training for Nursing Assistants offered by the Training Unit of the Hospital. Conclusion: The overall analysis leads us to conclude that the practice and knowledge in the field of health are linked to the historical transformation of the economic production process, receiving in the professional practice a strong influence of social, political and economic contexts that accompany it.

Palabras clave : Nursing; professional practice; history of nursing.

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