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International Journal of Morphology

On-line version ISSN 0717-9502


SINGH, Rajani. Classification and Analysis of Fifth Pair of Sacral Foramina in Indian Dry Sacra. Int. J. Morphol. [online]. 2014, vol.32, n.1, pp.125-130. ISSN 0717-9502.

A sacrum with five pairs of foramina is an anatomical variant resulting from sacralisation of lumbar vertebra at cranial end or sacralisation of coccyx vertebra at caudal end. An unusual gross variation nurtures interest of anatomists and causes concern for clinicians when it mimics pathology. A sacrum with fifth anomalous pair of sacral foramina has been observed which prompted the author to examine the available sacra in the osteology lab of Department of Anatomy KG Medical University Lucknow, UP, India. Of the total sixty six observed sacra, those with five pairs of sacral foramina due to sacralisation of lumbar vertebra were found in eleven cases (16.6%) while those due to sacralisation of coccygeal vertebra were observed in nine cases (13.6%). These sacralisations were classified in five categories to systematise the anatomical study, causes and clinical complications. Sacralisation of lumbar vertebra may compress the fifth sacral nerve causing sciatica and back pain. It may also cause herniation of disc above sacralisation. Sacralisation of coccygeal vertebra may influence the caudal block anaesthesia in surgical procedures and also results in prolonged second stage of labor and perineal tears.

Keywords : Caudal block ; Coccyx; Sacral foramen; Sacrum; Vertebra.

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