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International Journal of Morphology

On-line version ISSN 0717-9502


SHIL, Subrata Kumar et al. Macroanatomy of the Bones of Pelvis and Hind Limb of an Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus). Int. J. Morphol. [online]. 2013, vol.31, n.4, pp.1473-1478. ISSN 0717-9502.

Recent excavated skeleton of an adult female Asian Elephant (Elephas maximus), died in dystokia in Bangladesh was used for macro anatomical study. Some unique morphological features of bones of hind limb were observed. Pelvic canal was more oval and the wings of ilium were wider. Rump slope was about 36°. Angle between femur and tibia was close to 180°. In Femur, the major trochanter was located at the lower level of head. Minor trochanter, fovea capitis and trochanteric ridge were absent. Supracondyloid fossa was shallow but the intercondyloid fossa was deep. Posterior surface of patella possessed a blunt vertical ridge. The articular surfaces of both tibial condyles were clearly concave. The tibia and the fibula were articulated proximally and distally with keeping a wide interosseous space. Instead of tibial tuberosity, there was an elongated triangular depression in proximal part. There were six tarsal bones arranged in three rows. The comparative size of the distal tarsal bones were III+IV > I > II. The comparative lengths of the metatarsal bones were III > II > IV > V> I. Digits I and V were the most vertical and digit III was the most horizontal. The proximal phalanx was the biggest of all.

Keywords : Elephas maximus; Pelvis; Femur; Patella; Tibia; Digit.

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