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International Journal of Morphology

On-line version ISSN 0717-9502


BUSTOS OBREGON, Eduardo  and  TORRES -DIAZ, Leandro. Seasonal Reproduction in the Male. Int. J. Morphol. [online]. 2012, vol.30, n.4, pp.1266-1279. ISSN 0717-9502.

There is a surprising interrelationship between environments and adaptation of reproductive behaviour, very evident in seasonal breeders; which may reproduce in long or short days, according to proximal factors, mainly the light photoperiod which triggers photoneuroendocrine changes. These involve photoreceptors, a clock and the neuroendocrine apparatus. Gonadotropins (GT), gonadal development, negative feed back of GT done by sexual steroid, the intervention of the retino-hypothalamic fibers, and suprachiasmatics nucleus as well as melatonine secretion, intervene in this regulation. Of importance is the pulse generator of the hypothalamus (medial eminence) and its control of adenohypofisis for the secretion of LH and FSH. In the testis interstitial endocrine cells (Leydig)(secreting testosterone and also estrogens), establish a feed back loop with the adenohypofisis and hypothalamus in a circuit of long, short and ultra short circuit with neuroendocrine neurons playing a key role. Sustentocyte intratubular (Sertoli)are also important for their trophic, mechanic and metabolic relationships with the germ cells, and the secretions of activine and inhibine, which triggers or inhibits FSH secretions respectively. Sustentocyte also secrete many specifics proteins among which ABP (Androgen Binding Protein) is important because it concentrates 100 fold testosterone in the testicular parenchyme. Tonic secretion by pulses of GT, mainly LH, is due to hypothalamic activity with the control generation of these pulses by puberty. Reproduction in the stallion and the bull are presented as examples.

Keywords : Seasonal breeding; Hypotalamus-Hypophysis-Testes axis; Neuroendocrinology and reproduction; Reproductive features in stallion and bull.

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