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Revista chilena de obstetricia y ginecología

versión impresa ISSN 0048-766Xversión On-line ISSN 0717-7526

Resumen

BUSTOS-VIDAL, Juan C.  y  HERRERA-ALCAINO, Álvaro. Umbilical artery Doppler in fetuses with Down syndrome. Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. [online]. 2021, vol.86, n.3, pp.258-264. ISSN 0048-766X.  http://dx.doi.org/10.24875/rechog.m21000001.

Introduction:

The most common aneuploidy in live newborns is Down syndrome (DS), in these children growth is decreased, with a frequency of 25-36% of fetal growth restriction (FGR); however, it is not established the role of placental insufficiency. The objective is to study the Doppler of the umbilical artery with pulsatility index (PI) and half peak systolic velocity (hPSV) deceleration time and the possible role of placental insufficiency in fetuses with DS.

Method:

Doppler was performed in fetuses with DS, the umbilical artery and IP and hPSV were measured, and the results were compared with birth weights.

Results:

78 fetuses with DS were studied with 214 Doppler measurements. hPSV and the IP were altered in 71.5% and 65% of the measurements; the incidence of abnormal hPSV increases with gestational age from 28.6% between 15 to 20 weeks, to 89.3% over 36 weeks (p < 0.01), similar figures are observed with respect to the PI. The weight classification was: 24% of FGR, 12% of great for age and 64% of adequate for gestational age (AGA). The last measurement of hPSV before delivery was normal in 17% of the fetuses and was abnormal in 83%, in the case of PI the normal and abnormal values were 27 and 73%, respectively. Birth weight, gestational age, and the percentage of AGA children were significantly higher in the normal Doppler group than in the abnormal Doppler group. The hPSV z-score was markedly altered (−2.23), but the birth weight z-score is slightly decreased (−0.39). Perinatal mortality is 10% and is significantly higher when diastolic flow is absent or reverse.

Conclusions:

The study shows that DS fetuses have a high incidence of abnormal umbilical Doppler measured with IP and hPSV, which suggests severe placental insufficiency, this deterioration seems to start towards the end of the second trimester and increases with gestational age. However, in these fetuses, placental insufficiency causes a discrete drop in fetal growth. As a general hypothesis, we think that there is clear evidence of placental insufficiency in fetuses with DS, but there would be some factor that would protect these fetuses from severe growth restriction.

Palabras clave : Umbilical Doppler; Pulsatility index; Half peak systolic velocity deceleration time; Down syndrome; Placental insufficiency; Fetal growth restriction.

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