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Revista chilena de infectología

versión impresa ISSN 0716-1018


FALLEIROS-ARLANT, Luiza Helena et al. Current status of poliomyelitis in Latin America. Rev. chil. infectol. [online]. 2020, vol.37, n.6, pp.701-709. ISSN 0716-1018.

Oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) has been instrumental in controlling the polio epidemic, and stands out for its safety, efficacy, ease of oral administration, and low cost. However, despite these advantages, as it is a live attenuated virus vaccine, there is the possibility of mutations that confer neurovirulence. Therefore, surveillance for acute flaccid paralysis (AFP) is important, whether associated with live vaccines (VAPP) or vaccine-derived viruses (VDPV). In this review we present important data from Latin America in recent years, where data on VDPV of community transmission, of ambiguous origin and associated with immunodeficiencies are reviewed. Due to the presence of VDPV, it is important to strengthen the epidemiological surveillance system for AFP, with data much lower than those recommended in recent years in the Americas. Additionally, it is essential to improve vaccination coverage to reduce the number of infants at risk of acquiring poliomyelitis. Consequently, we present the vaccination coverage rates with the inactivated vaccine against poliovirus (IPV) in the region and analyze the vaccination programs against poliomyelitis in accordance with the recommendations of the Latin American Society of Pediatric Infectious Diseases (SLIPE; minimum 3 doses of IPV) and the WHO Strategic Advisory Expert Group (SAGE) on Immunization (minimum 2 doses of IPV). The study concludes with recommendations from the authors for the change from OPV to exclusive use of IPV, to increase vaccination coverage and to strengthen surveillance for AFP in the region.

Palabras clave : poliovirus; vaccination; Latin America; recommendations.

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