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Revista chilena de pediatría

versión impresa ISSN 0370-4106

Resumen

CASANELLO, Paola; KRAUSE, Bernardo J; CASTRO-RODRIGUEZ, José A  y  UAUY, Ricardo. Epigenetics and obesity. Rev. chil. pediatr. [online]. 2016, vol.87, n.5, pp.335-342. ISSN 0370-4106.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rchipe.2016.08.009.

Current evidence supports the notion that exposure to various environmental conditions in early life may induce permanent changes in the epigenome that persist throughout the life-course. This article focuses on early changes associated with obesity in adult life. A review is presented on the factors that induce changes in whole genome (DNA) methylation in early life that are associated with adult onset obesity and related disorders. In contrast, reversal of epigenetic changes associated with weight loss in obese subjects has not been demonstrated. This contrasts with well-established associations found between obesity related DNA methylation patterns at birth and adult onset obesity and diabetes. Epigenetic markers may serve to screen indivuals at risk for obesity and assess the effects of interventions in early life that may delay or prevent obesity in early life. This might contribute to lower the obesity-related burden of death and disability at the population level. The available evidence indicates that epigenetic marks are in fact modifiable, based on modifications in the intrauterine environment and changes in food intake, physical activity and dietary patterns patterns during pregnancy and early years of adult life. This offers the opportunity to intervene before conception, during pregnancy, infancy, childhood, and also in later life. There must be documentation on the best preventive actions in terms of diet and physical activity that will modify or revert the adverse epigenetic markers, thus preventing obesity and diabetes in suceptible individuals and populations.

Palabras clave : Epigenetics; Obesity; DNA methylation; Intrauterine programming.

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