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vol.61 número1NIVELES DE CARGA EN VIÑEDOS JÓVENES CV. CHARDONNAY Y SUS EFECTOS SOBRE PRODUCCIÓN Y CALIDAD DEL VINODETECCIÓN DE UN DEFECTO GENÉTICO EN BOVINOS MEDIANTE UNA PRUEBA DE ADN. índice de autoresíndice de materiabúsqueda de artículos
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Agricultura Técnica

versión impresa ISSN 0365-2807

Resumen

VARGAS M., Robinson  y  UBILLO F., Alejandrina. Toxicity of pesticides on natural enemies of agricultural pests. Agric. Téc. [online]. 2001, vol.61, n.1, pp.35-41. ISSN 0365-2807.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0365-28072001000100004.

A simple, precise and economic method was developed to evaluate the residual toxicity of a pesticide to natural enemies. The highest commercial dose recommended by the manufacturer was sprayed on Petri dishes using a Potter tower or immersing the dishes in a diluted solution of the pesticide. The relative toxicity of a pesticide was compared using mean lethal time (TL50's) in 4 categories. The first category comprised the most toxic responses between 0h< TL50< 2h, and included: Azinphosmethyl on Neoseiulus chilenensis (Dosse) and Phytoseiulus persimilis Athias-Henriot; Chlorfenvinphos on Amitus spiniferus (Brèthes), Lysiphlebus testaceipes (Cresson), Pauridia peregrina Timberlake and Scutellista caerulea (Fonscolombe); Chlorpyrifos on A. spiniferus, L. testaceipes, Metaphycus flavus (Howard); P. peregrina and P. persimilis; Diazinon on M. flavus and P. persimilis; Esfenvalerate on P. persimilis; Formetanate on Orius insidiosus (Say); Imidacloprid on A. spiniferus, L. testaceipes, M. flavus, P. peregrina, S. caerulea; Methamidophos on O. insidiosus; Methomyl on O. insidiosus; Permethrin on N. chilenensis and P. persimilis. The second category consisted of TL50's between 2h< TL50 < 5h and included: Chlorpyrifos on S. caerulea. The third category consisted of TL50's between 5h< TL50< 24h and included: Copper oxychloride on A. spiniferus and L. testaceipes. The fourth category consisted of TL50's after 24h>TL50 and included: Copper oxychloride on S. caerulea. The results of this study agree with those obtained by other researchers who used methods accepted by the International Organization for Biological Control of Noxious Animals and Plants (IOBC), which differ from the methodology utilized in this study. The results suggest that Lethal Time for 50% mortality is a quick, precise and economical method to establish the preliminary toxicity of a pesticide to natural enemies.

Palabras clave : selectivity; ecotoxicology; integrated pest management; beneficial insects; residual toxicity.

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