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Revista médica de Chile

versión impresa ISSN 0034-9887

Resumen

CORVALAN R, Alejandro. Epigenetics in the pathogenesis and early detection of gastric cancer. Rev. méd. Chile [online]. 2013, vol.141, n.12, pp.1570-1577. ISSN 0034-9887.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0034-98872013001200011.

Gastric cancer is the first cause of death for cancer in Chile. The recently identified genetic alterations in these tumors have not yielded new biomarkers for the disease. Epigenetics or the study of reversible genomic changes that do not affect protein codifying DNA sequences but cause phenotypic disturbances, is identifying new cancer biomarkers. Specifically, the loss of expression caused by the covalent link of a methyl group to carbon 5 of cytosine (DNA hypermethylation) is extensively evaluated. Performing an epigenetic evaluation of 24 genes, we have identified eight genes associated to the aggressive signet ring cell type gastric cancer, the association between APC hypermethylation and worse prognosis and BRCA1 hypermethylation association with early onset of gastric cancer. The most interesting findings are the hypermethylation of Reprimo gene in plasma as a population biomarker and the tissue over expression of p73 gene (as a consequence of hypomethylation) as a high risk indicator of progression to gastric cancer. All these findings are indicating an important role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis and early detection of gastric cancer.

Palabras clave : Biological markers; Epigenomics; Stomach neoplasms.

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