Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Austral journal of veterinary sciences]]> vol. 54 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Adhesion mechanisms of <em>Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae</em> to the porcine respiratory system and biofilm formation]]> ABSTRACT: Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of porcine pleuropneumonia, a highly contagious disease of pigs characterised by fibrinohaemorrhagic necrotising pneumonia. Although it has been well controlled in some developed countries, outbreaks can occur in pigs of all ages in contact with asymptomatic carriers, leading to significant economic losses to the swine industry due to the high morbidity and mortality rates. Adhesion is a critical step in the colonisation of the swine respiratory tract and the pathogenesis of the porcine pleuropneumonia; however, a literature review of this process is not available to date. Therefore, this review aims to provide information regarding the molecules that have been described in the adhesion of A. pleuropneumoniae to cells and tissues of the porcine respiratory tract. Since adhesion is the first step in biofilm formation, we included a section to describe the genes involved in this process; some of these genes could participate directly or indirectly in the adhesion of A. pleuropneumoniae to the porcine respiratory system. Although the role of biofilms in porcine pleuropneumonia is still not clear, these molecules could be considered in the future as candidates for vaccine development. <![CDATA[Characterisation of dairy female calf management practices in southern Chile]]> ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to characterise husbandry and technical-productive practices at the calf rearing stage in dairy farms in Los Lagos Region, southern Chile. A face-to-face survey was applied to 22 dairy farms in Los Lagos Region in 2017. All farms performed artificial calf rearing under either of two systems: total barn confinement (48%) or a mixed system that considers the first stage with confinement and the second stage in open-air paddocks (52%). More than half (52%) of the farms supplied fresh colostrum to the calf from its dam and the rest of the farms used bottle or oesophageal tube. Only 30% of the farms evaluated colostrum quality using colostrometer (densimeter) or refractometer. After the colostrum supply, milk replacers, waste milk, or a mixture of both were used for calf feeding. Most of the farms (66.7%) did not have automated milk-feeding systems and used bottles (88.9%) and buckets (11.1%) instead. On average, calves were handled by 1.5 caretakers (SD: 0.63) of which 63.4% (SD: 40.2) were men. The average age for caretakers was 43.9 years (SD: 12.7), with 23.8% being less than 35 years old. Overall, results from this study can be used to identify key managements that could improve calves’ rearing productive traits. <![CDATA[Virulence and antimicrobial resistance of <em>Escherichia coli</em> isolated from chicken meat, beef, and raw milk]]> ABSTRACT. Two hundred and thirty-five strains of E. coli were recovered from beef, chicken meat, and raw milk sold in butcher shops and markets in the town of Jijel, East Algeria. A PCR investigation revealed the predominance of bacterial strains with extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) genes (19.91%). Enteroaggregative (EAEC) and enteroinvasive (EIEC) bacteria were also detected. Strains from phylogenetic groups A and B1 were the most common; they accounted for 62.35% and 21.17% in chicken meat, 67.53% and 16.88% in raw milk and 64.38% and 25.97% in beef, respectively, followed by the strains from phylogenetic groups B2 and D. Moreover, E. coli from phylogenetic group D was more abundant in chicken than in beef or raw milk samples (P&lt;0.05). Antibiogram results revealed the presence of three major antibiotic-susceptibility groups and more than a hundred antibiotypes. Between 50% and 70% of strains were resistant to antibiotics of the first group (ampicillin, amoxicillin, trimethoprim, sulfonamide and tetracycline), 20% to 50% to antibiotics of the second group (amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid, kanamycin, streptomycin, ciprofloxacin, flumequine and neomycin) and less than 20% to those of the third group (cephalothin, gentamicin and colistin). Additionally, the resistance to flumequine, trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim and tetracycline was more frequent in chicken meat strains than in those from beef and milk. It is important to point out that the strains carrying more than two virulence factors belonged to the B2 or D phylogenetic groups and had weaker resistance to antibiotics. The strains from the A and B1 groups had fewer virulence factors and showed high resistance to antibiotics. <![CDATA[Current attitudes towards the use of perioperative analgesics in small animals by Uruguayan veterinarians]]> ABSTRACT: In recent decades, several articles have reported significant progress regarding pain treatment in veterinary medicine. This study aims to analyse the attitudes of veterinarians working in small animal practices in Uruguay towards the use of analgesics during the perioperative period. Veterinarians in charge of clinics performing surgeries were interviewed, including clinics located in the capital city, Montevideo (n=59) and the rest of the country (n=81), based on data obtained from the National Veterinary Census in 2010. Most interviews were conducted in person, and if not possible, they were carried out through video calls. According to gender, 54% of interviewees were women and 46% were men, with 95% of them practising in urban areas. The most used drugs were nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), with dipyrone (89%) being the most popular. Amongst opioids, pure agonists presented minimal inclusion in analgesic treatment (13%), with tramadol (93%) being the most used opioid. Drugs belonging to other groups were less mentioned. Thirty-eight per cent of the respondents considered that their training in pain management was inadequate. Veterinarians categorised the intensity of pain caused by several surgical procedures as “severe”, however, they used weak opioids such as tramadol or NSAIDs as a single therapy to treat most cases. The scarce use of analgesic drugs and techniques that provide profound analgesia (such as mu-opioid receptor agonists) by Uruguayan veterinarians reveals the need for open discussion, adjustment of attitudes and continuing education on pain management. <![CDATA[Force-sensitive resistors to measure the distribution of weight in the pads of sound dogs in static standing position]]> ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to measure how weight is distributed in the pads of each of the 4 limbs of dogs and evaluate the intra-investigator reproducibility and inter-investigator reliability of the measurement method. Eight dogs were examined 3 times a day by 3 investigators at 1 week intervals for 3 weeks to determine the weight distribution to each of the pads. The force-sensitive resistor was used for measurement and specific software (PetLAB2) was used to calculate the weight applied to each pad. The intra-investigator reproducibility showed moderate to good reliability (ICC range, 0.575-0.873) and the inter-investigator reliability was moderate (ICC range, 0.525-0.746). Based on this study, it can be observed whether the weight distributed to each pad approaches the normal value after treatment in patients with orthopaedic and neurologic diseases. It is expected that this experimental method will be one of the objective indicators to evaluate the degree of recovery in patients with orthopaedic and neurologic diseases. <![CDATA[Report of <em>Oslerus rostratus</em> (Strongylida: Filaroididae) in cats from the Canary Islands, Spain]]> ABSTRACT Metastrongylid species infecting wild and domestic cats worldwide are increasingly being reported. Between 2017 and 2019, a total of 202 faecal samples of domestic cats from the island of Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain) were analysed by microscopy and molecular techniques. Morphological analyses showed that 8.91% (18/202) of the faecal samples presented first stage larvae (L1) of metastrongylid species. Total DNA was isolated and tested by PCR targeting a 508 bp fragment of the ITS-2 gene. The nucleotide sequences obtained showed high homology (100%) with the species Oslerus rostratus. This work contributes to the knowledge of the wide distribution of O. rostratus worldwide, being Tenerife (Canary Islands, Spain), close to the African continent, the new geographic location for this metastrongylid species. Further molecular studies involving new geographic areas from the island of Tenerife, as well as neighbouring islands, are needed to provide relevant insight and better understand the epidemiology of O. rostratus and other metastrongylid species in wild and domestic cats from the Canary Islands.