Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Austral journal of veterinary sciences]]> vol. 53 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[Ultrasonographic study of the right coronary artery in performance horses]]> ABSTRACT Historically, echocardiography has focused on the assessment of cardiac dimensions and índices of cardiac function. However, when referred to ultrasonographic coronary arteries characterisation in the horse, information is scarce. The purpose of this study was to describe the right coronary artery in both long and short axis and to analyse its variability between horses with different levels of performance. Sixty healthy horses were included in the study. The animals were eventing horses at different levels of performance and were allocated into two groups according to their athletic level. The internal lumen diameter and the area of the right coronary artery (RCA) were measured in the right parasternal long and short axis views in the 3rd and 4th intercostal space respectively, during systole and diastole. The results were compared between groups using the analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student's t-test. The correlation between the physiological parameters and the RCA was assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Statistically significant differences were found when the RCA internal diameter was assessed between groups in both short and long axis. There were no statistically significant differences intra-group when short and long axis measurements were compared between each other. A positive correlation was observed between RCA and age, height, left atrium diameter, aortic valve diameter, sinus of Valsalva diameter, and aorta diameter. In conclusion, the level of training might affect the ultrasound measurement of the RCA in sport horses. Non-invasive echocardiography can be used to consistently assess the size of the right coronary artery in athletic horses in both short and long axis. <![CDATA[Vaccination of nulliparous gilts against porcine epidemic diarrhoea can result in low neutralising antibody titres and high litter mortality]]> ABSTRACT Porcine epidemic diarrhoea (PED) is a disease caused by an alphacoronavirus and the symptoms include watery diarrhoea and vomiting, with more than 80% mortality amongst newborn piglets. The placentation in sows hinders the transference of antibodies to the foetus, therefore, the vaccination of pregnant females and transference of antibodies to piglets through colostrum are essential to protect them against virus particles. The aim of the study was to determine whether vaccination of nulliparous gilts could induce a high colostrum antibody titre and lower litter mortality, in comparison with vaccinated multiparous sows previously exposed to the virus. Samples of colostrum were obtained from 11 nulliparous gilts with two previous vaccinations (inactivated vaccine) and from 9 multiparous sows with three or more vaccinations (inactivated vaccine) that had been exposed to the virus. The IgG antibody titre was determined through anti-PED enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) and the neutralisation of antibodies was evaluated through plaque reduction neutralisation tests (PRNT). The colostrum of nulliparous gilts, when compared to the multiparous sows, presented a lower anti-PED IgG antibody titre as well as fewer neutralising antibodies. Furthermore, the piglets of multiparous sows experienced higher survival in comparison with those of nulliparous gilts (P&lt;0.01), and mortality was dependent on the 'farrowing' variable (P&lt;0.01). In conclusion, these results show that vaccinating nulliparous gilts does not increase the survival of their piglets in comparison with multiparous sows and that the IgG titres and neutralising antibodies are significantly lower in the former. These results suggest that a modified vaccine strategy is needed for nulliparous gilts to increase piglet protection. <![CDATA[Effects of <em>Moringa oleifera</em> and <em>Brosimum alicastrum</em> partial feed substitution in intramuscular fat and adipose tissues and on the expression of lipogenic genes of Mexican hairless pigs]]> ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the effects of the inclusión of ground Moringa oleifera and Brosimum alicastrum leaf meal in the diet of Mexican hairless pigs (MHP) on the amount of intramuscular fat, subcutaneous fat, leg muscle (Biceps femoris) fat, loin muscle (Longissimus dorsi) fat, leg and back fat, and the expression of lipid metabolism genes. Hairless pigs are reared in the Mexican tropics and are characterised by their body and intramuscular fat accumulation. Eighteen male pigs fed for 82 d were randomly allotted to three experimental isoenergetic and isoproteic diets, where M. oleifera or B. alicastrum (six pigs per diet) replaced wheat bran. The diets used were a control diet, a diet with 10% M. oleifera leaf meal, and a diet with 10% ground B. alicastrum leaf meal. The M. oleifera diet decreased (P&lt;0.05) the fat ratio in the Longissimus dorsi muscles, back fat, rib fat, total carcass fat, and the carcass fat: meat ratio. The B. alicastrum diet only decreased fat in the Biceps femoris muscle, back fat, and rib fat. Moringa oleifera and B. alicastrum diets also promoted the overexpression of mRNA from the stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD), fatty acid synthase (FASN), acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (ACACA), sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1) and acyl carrier protein (ACP) lipogenic genes in the Biceps femoris muscle and leg fat (P&lt;0.001). In addition, lower ACACA and SREBP1 mRNA expression in the Longissimus dorsi muscle and back fat (P&lt;0.001) were related to the lower amount of fat in pigs fed M. oleifera and B. alicastrum. The inclusion of Moringa oleifera and Brosimum alicastrum meals 10% in the diet of the pig MHP reduces fat, this is an important finding because fat is abundant in this type of pig. <![CDATA[Effect of the inclusión of herbal phosphatidylcholine on palatability, digestibility and metabolisable energy of the diet in dogs]]> ABSTRACT This study aimed to evalúate the palatability, nutrient digestibility, metabolisable energy (ME) and faecal characteristics of diets in dogs fed increasing levels of herbal phosphatidylcholine (herbal mix) versus an unsupplemented diet (with only 377 mg choline provided by 1 kg food) or choline chloride1 (2000 mg choline/kg food) in 40 adult dogs. In experiment 1, a palatability test was conducted to make two pairwise comparisons: 0 versus 200; and 0 versus 400 mg/kg herbal mix. In experiment 2, a digestibility test was performed to evaluate herbal mix at 0, 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg and 2000 mg choline provided by choline chloride. Results from experiment 1 indicated that the dogs preferred diets containing herbal mix to the unsupplemented diet (P&lt;0.05). In experiment 2, nutrient digestibility and faecal characteristics were not influenced by the treatment (P&lt;0.059). The inclusion of 400 mg/kg of herbal mix increased the ME (quadratic effect, P&lt;0.01). In conclusion, the results of this study indicate that the inclusion of a herbal mix rich in phosphatidylcholine (1.6%) and other methylated metabolites at 400 mg/kg can fully replace choline chloride in dog diets. <![CDATA[Mycoplasmal infection in a guigna <em>(Leopardus guigna)</em> from central Chile]]> ABSTRACT Routine blood analysis indicated the presence of Mycoplasma-like bodies in a guigna (Leopardus guigna). Evidence of infection with Candidatus Mycoplasma haemominutum was found in blood samples using PCR and DNA sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene of Mycoplasma. Mycoplasma spp. are documented in cats but their role in the transmission of Mycoplasma to guigna populations requires investigation.