Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Psicoperspectivas]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0718-692420210002&lang=es vol. 20 num. 2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[Aportes de la Psicología Comunitaria al fortalecimiento de la justicia social, democracia, bienestar y desarrollo sustentable]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242021000200001&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es <![CDATA[Evaluación participativa de la dinámica psicosocial comunitaria desde la perspectiva del fortalecimiento comunitario]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242021000200005&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen Desde la perspectiva de la Psicología Comunitaria latinoamericana, que coloca acento en análisis y fomento de los procesos de fortalecimiento comunitario, se acompaña una investigación acción participativa con el objetivo de colaborar en mejorar la capacidad de organización y acción colectiva en un barrio de la comuna de Temuco. En ese marco, en este artículo se caracteriza una estrategia de evaluación de la dinámica psicosocial comunitaria. La estrategia de producción de datos consideró métodos mixtos y metodologías participativas, que incluyó devoluciones sistemáticas. Se sistematiza el proceso metodológico y se proponen criterios para la evaluación participativa de la dinámica psicosocial comunitaria, aspecto de importancia en comunidades que han visto debilitadas las condiciones para la acción colectiva. Se concluye que este sistema integrado de evaluación es un aporte a las comunidades, pues les permite focalizar su atención, análisis e intervención en estas dinámicas, proporcionando evidencia y orientaciones para ello. Aporta también a programas de la política pública que con frecuencia omiten los componentes psicosociales de la dinámica comunitaria como un aspecto gravitante para movilizar procesos y recursos para mejorar condiciones de vida.<hr/>Abstract From the perspective of Latin American Community Psychology, which stresses the analysis and promotion of community strengthening processes, a Participatory Action Research is presented, with the aim of contributing to improve the capacity for organization and collective action in a neighborhood in Temuco. In this framework, this article depicts an evaluation strategy of community psychosocial dynamics. The strategy for data collection considered mixed methods and participatory methodologies, which included systematic reports to the community. The methodological process is systematized, and criteria are suggested for the participatory evaluation of community psychosocial dynamics, which is an important aspect for communities that have experienced weakened conditions for collective action. It is concluded that this integrated evaluation system is useful for communities, given that it allows them to focus their attention, analysis and intervention on these dynamics, providing evidence and guidelines for this purpose. It is also a contribution for public policies programmes, which often omit the psychosocial elements of community dynamics, as a pivotal aspect for the mobilization of processes and resources to improve life conditions. <![CDATA[Social support for homeless people: Interface with health, human rights and subjective dimension]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242021000200018&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumo As discussões sobre o apoio social e suas relações com as dimensões saúde, direitos humanos e dimensão subjetiva na vida das pessoas em situação de rua (PSR) são relevantes diante do crescimento dessa população em todas as cidades do Brasil e do mundo com a pandemia do COVID-19. Objetivou-se, com essa pesquisa, analisar o apoio social de PSR de Fortaleza (Ceará/Brasil), a partir das dimensões saúde, direitos humanos e subjetiva. A pesquisa foi realizada com a aplicação de 236 questionários válidos a pessoas que viviam nas ruas de Fortaleza no ano de 2019. As fontes de apoio social mais buscadas pelas PSR foram Deus, Centro Pop e Amigos em situação de rua e aquelas menos buscadas foram os CAPS, o Movimento Nacional da População de Rua (MNPR) e as Comunidades Terapêuticas. Os processos de humilhação e vergonha foram vivenciados repercutindo nas dimensões saúde, direitos humanos e subjetiva. As PSR sofrem alta discriminação e não são consideradas como sujeitos de direitos, o que revela o descaso do Estado na proposição de políticas públicas.<hr/>Abstract The discussions on social support and its relations with health, human rights and subjective dimensions in the lives of homeless people are relevant in view of the growth of this population in all cities of Brazil and the world with the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this research was to analyze the social support of homeless people in Fortaleza (Ceará, Brazil), considering these three dimensions. The research was carried out with the application of 236 valid questionnaires to people living on the streets of Fortaleza in 2019. The most sought-after sources of social support by the homeless people were God, the Pop Center and Homeless Friends, and those less sought after were CAPS, the National Movement of the Homeless Population (MNPR) and the Therapeutic Communities. The processes of humiliation and shame were experienced with repercussions in health, human rights and subjective dimensions. Homeless people suffer high discrimination and is not considered as rights subjects, which reveals the State's disregard in proposing public policies. <![CDATA[Promotion of community mental health in a vulnerable territory: Challenges and possibilities]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242021000200030&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen O presente artigo descreve uma experiência registrada durante um estágio profissional em Psicologia e Saúde Coletiva. Neste trabalho, objetivamos relatar a experiência acontecida com foco na promoção de espaços vivenciais e dialógicos entre ensino/serviços/comunidade voltados para a produção de saberes e práticas de fortalecimento dos vínculos comunitários, desenvolvimento de redes de apoio e à promoção da saúde mental. Foram preconizadas metodologias participativas na condução dos processos de levantamento das necessidades de saúde do território, planejamento das ações, execução e avaliação com base nos pressupostos ontoepistemológicos e categorias analíticas da psicologia comunitária. Vimos que no território as relações comunitárias são atravessadas pelos efeitos psicossociais da desigualdade e pelo medo que fragilizam o tecer da vida em comum e, nesse contexto, assinalamos a importância de facilitar o aprimoramento das relações comunitárias com vistas à superação das iniquidades sociais em saúde. Percebemos que a valorização da história, memória e linguagem local, bem como, a ética-estética da arte são elementos potentes na facilitação do processo de produção de cuidado de si e do outro.<hr/>Abstract This article reports a supervised internship in Psychology and Public Health. In this work, we aim to report the experience that happened with a focus on the promotion of living and dialogical spaces between teaching/services/community focused on the production of knowledge and practices to strengthen community bonds, development of support networks and promotion of mental health. Participatory methodologies were recommended in conducting the processes for surveying the health needs of the territory, planning actions, executing and evaluating based on onto epistemological assumptions and analytical categories of community psychology. We saw that in the territory community relations are crossed by the psychosocial effects of inequality and by the fear affection that weaken the weave of life in common and, in this context, we point out the importance of facilitating the improvement of community relations with a view to overcoming social inequities in health. We perceive that the valorization of history, memory and local language, as well as the ethics-aesthetics of art are potent elements in facilitating the process of producing care for oneself and the other. <![CDATA[Relación entre sentido de comunidad, bienestar, salud mental y género en adolescentes escolarizados]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242021000200041&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen La finalidad del presente estudio fue indagar acerca del nivel de sentido de comunidad percibido en los contextos escolares y su relación con el bienestar y la salud mental de adolescentes escolarizados; considerando además el género como categoría relevante. Participaron 2839 estudiantes provenientes de 11 establecimientos educacionales municipales de Calama (Chile), quienes cursaban entre 6o. básico y 4o. medio, y cuyas edades fluctuaban entre 11 y 18 años. Se evaluó el sentido de comunidad, el nivel de bienestar y las dificultades en salud mental a través de los instrumentos SCI-2, Kidscreen-27 y PSC-17, respectivamente. Para el análisis de datos se efectuaron pruebas t de student, ANOVA de un factor y regresiones lineales múltiples. los resultados muestran que el sentido de comunidad, el bienestar y la salud mental son mejores en estudiantes que cursan enseñanza básica y en aquellos de género masculino. También se encontró que el sentido de comunidad predice el bienestar como la salud mental en adolescentes. Para concluir se reflexiona acerca de la relevancia del sentido de comunidad en el bienestar y la salud mental de adolescentes escolarizados.<hr/>Abstract This research aimed to inquire about the level of Sense of Community perceived in school contexts and its relationship with the well-being and mental health of adolescents, also considering gender as a relevant category. 2839 students from 11 municipal educational establishments in the commune of Calama (Chile) participated, between 6th grade and 12th grade, and aged between 11 and 18 years old. Sense of community, well-being and mental health difficulties were assessed through the SCI-2, Kidscreen-27 and PSC-17 scales, respectively. For the analysis, Student's t-tests, one way ANOVA and multiple linear regressions were performed. The results show that sense of community, well-being and mental health are better in elementary school students and male students. It was also found that sense of community predicts well-being and mental health in adolescents. It is concluded with the relevance of the sense of community in adolescents' well-being and mental health in school contexts. <![CDATA[The production of mental health care: A quilombist community perspective]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242021000200055&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumo Este artigo apresenta uma perspectiva comunitária quilombista sobre a produção do cuidado em saúde mental na atenção psicossocial. Trata-se de uma pesquisa etnográfica realizada na cidade de Juazeiro, Estado da Bahia (Brasil). O texto registra parte da história de uma mulher preta, nordestina e "louca". Através do relato etnográfico, construído a partir do diário de campo e de uma entrevista com uma usuária do Centro de Atenção Psicossocial, descreve um episódio que passa a marcar sua trajetória e move sua relação com o sofrimento e psiquiatrização da vida. Sob a marca do racismo, sua reivindicação em defesa da vida institucionaliza seu direito à maternidade em duas vias: a violência obstétrica e a produção da loucura. Considera-se que o racismo cria e define o sofrimento, a loucura e a morte das mulheres pretas. Neste contexto, em que raça, gênero e classe coordenam as linhas entre vida e morte, é fundamental que o cuidado e a articulação das redes possam incorporar o “quilombismo” como uma referência ética, estética, política e comunitária, capaz de constituir-se como estratégia para a atenção psicossocial.<hr/>Abstract This article presents a community quilombista perspective on the production of mental health care in psychosocial care. It is an ethnographic research conducted in the city of Juazeiro, State of Bahia (Brazil). The text registers part of the story of a black, northeastern and mentally ill woman. Through the ethnographic report, built from the field diary and an interview with a user of the Psychosocial Care Center, it describes an episode that marks her trajectory and moves her relationship with suffering and psychiatrization of life. Under the mark of racism, her claim in defense of life institutionalizes her right to maternity in two ways: obstetric violence and the production of madness. Racism is considered to create and define the suffering, madness, and death of black women. In this context, where race, gender, and class coordinate the lines between life and death, it is fundamental that care and articulation of networks can incorporate "quilombism" as an ethical, aesthetic, political, and community reference, capable of constituting itself as a strategy for psychosocial care. <![CDATA[Politización comunitaria de mujeres hinchas de fútbol: El caso de Nuestra Cruzada]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242021000200067&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen En un contexto de alta politización de la sociedad chilena y donde las problemáticas de género se han vuelto centrales en el debate público, se han generado espacios de politización comunitaria de mujeres hinchas de fútbol para abordar la violencia y la exclusión hacia las mujeres tanto en el fútbol como en la sociedad en general. En este trabajo se presentan los resultados de una investigación desarrollada con integrantes de agrupación Nuestra Cruzada cuyo objetivo fue comprender la politización comunitaria que se desarrolla en dicha agrupación. A través de la observación participante y la revisión de documentos, se obtuvieron como resultados principales que la agrupación permite a sus integrantes estar juntas tanto en el fútbol como en diversas luchas socio-políticas, transformando al estadio y la galería en espacios de resistencia contra el machismo y el patriarcado, pero también actuando en las calles en diversas manifestaciones feministas y sociales en general. Como conclusión constatamos la importancia de la politización comunitaria de las mujeres en el fútbol para los procesos de contestación y transformación social en curso.<hr/>Abstract In a context of high politicization of Chilean society and where gender issues have become central in the public debate, spaces of community politicization of women soccer fans have been created to tackle violence and exclusion towards women both in the soccer as in society in general. In this paper, the results of an investigation carried out with members of the Nuestra Cruzada group are presented, the objective of which was to understand the community politicization that takes place in said group. Through participant observation and review of group documents, the main results were that the group allows its members to be together both in football and in various socio-political struggles, transforming the stadium and the gallery into spaces of fighting against the male chauvinism and patriarchy, but also acting in the streets in various feminist and social struggles in general. In conclusion, we confirm the importance of the community politicization of women in soccer for the ongoing processes of contestation and social transformation. <![CDATA[Conflicto socioambiental, participación ciudadana y disputa territorial: La mirada de la Psicología Ambiental Comunitaria]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242021000200079&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen El planeta sufre un fenómeno de calentamiento global y cambio climático en que el modelo de desarrollo capitalista neoliberal tiene gran responsabilidad como actor principal de las problemáticas socioambientales que nos llevan a una nueva era de extinción. En Chile, bajo el modelo actual, se multiplican los conflictos en que se disputa el territorio y las valoraciones que se hacen de éste y los bienes comunes que allí existen. En la presente investigación, con la mirada de la Psicología Ambiental Comunitaria y el mapeo colectivo como herramienta metodológica, junto al movimiento socioambiental “No a la Termoeléctrica de Quebradilla”, La Ligua (Región de Valparaíso, Chile), se describen y analizan los conflictos socioambientales que ocurren en la Provincia de Petorca, junto a las prácticas de participación ciudadana que realizan las comunidades defendiendo su territorio. Como resultado, emerge desde la comunidad a partir del conflicto, una acción colectiva organizada que estimula la construcción sostenible del territorio que los habitantes han generado por décadas e interpela a autoridades e instituciones, deteniendo un proyecto catalogado como nocivo para el ecosistema y las iniciativas productivas locales.<hr/>Abstract The planet is suffering a phenomenon of global warming and climate change in which the neoliberal capitalist development model has great responsibility as the main actor of the socio-environmental problems that are leading us to a new era of extinction. In Chile, under the current model, the conflicts in which the territory is disputed as well as the valuations that are made of it and the common goods existing there are multiplying. The present research, with the perspective of the Community Environmental Psychology, and the collective mapping as a methodological tool, together with the Socio Environmental Movement “No to Thermoelectric Plant of Quebradilla”, La Ligua (Valparaíso Region, Chile), describes and analyses the socio environmental conflicts that occur in the Province of Petorca, together with the practices of citizen participation that the communities carry out defending their territory. Within the results, out of the conflict an organized collective action emerges from the community, stimulating the sustainable construction of the territory that the inhabitants have generated for decades, and challenging authorities and institutions by stopping a project classified as harmful to the ecosystem and local productive initiatives. <![CDATA[La memoria narrada en experiencias de desenganche escolar: Por un conocimiento situado para la mejora educativa]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242021000200091&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen El objetivo del presente trabajo se centra en el análisis del papel de la memoria en los procesos de narrar las experiencias de desenganche escolar. Se parte de una revisión de la memoria, destacando su dimensión hermenéutica, que le otorga su valor narrativo de carácter epistémico. La memoria narrada ofrece el conocimiento situado que el sujeto epistémico privilegiado construye. Desde este planteamiento, se aborda la memoria en la investigación cualitativa y en los enfoques narrativos, metodología en la que se enmarca el estudio que se presenta. Se han realizado entrevistas etnográficas a adolescentes y a jóvenes que han experimentado desenganche escolar. Los resultados alcanzados nos permiten identificar los enclaves de la memoria que son relevantes en las experiencias de desenganche escolar: partes de disciplina y las expulsiones, profesorado, compañeros y compañeras, asignaturas, exámenes, tránsito de primaria a secundaria e imagen de sí. Este recorrido permite concluir que el conocimiento situado, sostenido en la memoria narrada, puede ayudar a la mejora educativa para garantizar la equidad y la inclusión.<hr/>Abstract The objective of this paper is centered on the analysis of the role of memory in the processes of narrating experiences of school disengagement. It starts from a review of memory, highlighting its hermeneutical dimension, which gives it its narrative value of an epistemic nature. The narrated memory offers the situated knowledge that the privileged epistemic subject constructs. From this approach, memory is approached in qualitative research and in narrative approaches, methodology in which the study presented is framed. Ethnographic interviews have been carried out with teenager and young people who have experienced school disengagement. The results achieved allow us to identify the memory enclaves that are relevant in the experiences of school disengagement: the parts of discipline and expulsions, teachers, classmates, subjects, exams, transition from primary to secondary and self-image. This route allows to conclude that the situated knowledge, sustained in the narrated memory, can help to improve education to guarantee equity and inclusion. <![CDATA[Prácticas de liderazgo medio en coordinadores/as de tercera jornada de la educación de personas jóvenes y adultas en Chile]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-69242021000200104&lng=es&nrm=iso&tlng=es Resumen La educación de personas jóvenes y adultas (EPJA) constituye un permanente reto para la política pública y la gestión educativa en Chile. Esta situación se evidencia en un conjunto variado de desafíos que el fortalecimiento de esta modalidad plantea: la superación de la falta de recursos materiales, la preparación de docentes y de equipos de gestión, el reconocimiento formal y apoyo a los cargos de coordinación existentes en la modalidad, son algunos de ellos. En ese marco, este artículo busca indagar sobre las prácticas de los/as coordinadores/as de establecimientos “EPJA Tercera Jornada”, antiguas escuelas nocturnas, comprendiéndolos/as como actores claves en la gobernanza de la modalidad, a partir de reconocerlos como líderes en el ejercicio de sus funciones. La metodología consideró un levantamiento de información cualitativa a través de entrevistas online a coordinadores y docentes, así como también acompañamientos virtuales. Los principales hallazgos se centran en que los coordinadores desarrollan prácticas simultáneamente vinculadas a la gestión pedagógica, formativa y de gestión de recursos en las instituciones, lo que supera con creces las características que la literatura ha definido como líderes medios.<hr/>Abstract Education for young people and adults (EPJA) constitutes a permanent challenge for public policies and educational management in Chile. This situation is evident in a varied set of challenges posed by the strengthening of this modality: overcoming the lack of material resources, the preparation of teachers and management teams, the formal recognition and support of the existing coordination positions in the modality, are some of them. Under this framework, this article seeks to investigate the practices of adult schools “EPJA Tercera Jornada” in Chile, old night schools, coordinators, understanding them as key actors with regard to the governance and leadership of the modality and not only as middle leaders. The methodology considered for gathering qualitative information through online interviews with coordinators and teachers, as well as virtual accompaniments. The main findings focus on the fact that coordinators develop practices simultaneously linked to pedagogical, training and resource management in the institutions, which far exceeds the characteristics that the literature has defined as middle leaders.