Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0718-686X20200003&lang=en vol. 48 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[Algunos indicadores de Anales del Instituto de la Patagonia durante el año de la pandemia COVID-19]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-686X2020000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[Study of artisanal fishermen perception on marine conservation and marine protected areas in Magallanes region]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-686X2020000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: La conservación marina es un desafío complejo y su éxito está generalmente determinado por factores sociales. Consecuentemente, antes de promover la creación de áreas marinas protegidas (AMP), resulta necesario contemplar cuál es la visión de los diferentes actores sociales sobre las mismas, sus percepciones, intereses y expectativas, para minimizar conflictos y lograr el apoyo y la aceptación necesarios para su implementación y manejo efectivo. En este contexto, y en una etapa previa a la creación de un Área Marina Costera Protegida de Múltiples Usos (AMCP-MU) en el Seno Almirantazgo, evaluamos la percepción de pescadores artesanales de la región de Magallanes sobre la conservación de la biodiversidad, las AMP y el proyecto de creación de una nueva AMCP-MU. Se entrevistaron 35 pescadores en caletas de las ciudades de Porvenir, Punta Arenas y Puerto Natales. Los entrevistados demostraron conocimientos elementales sobre las temáticas tratadas que, en general, fueron obtenidas a través de diferentes fuentes y medios. El 43% de los entrevistados percibió a las AMP como zonas cerradas, destinadas a proteger especies y en donde las actividades humanas representan una amenaza para estas, mientras que un 23% indicó que no se trata de zonas necesariamente cerradas y que permiten la realización de ciertas actividades. Respecto a la creación de una AMCP-MU en el Seno Almirantazgo, el 68% de ellos mencionó que no debiera generar restricciones para el desarrollo de sus actividades, como así tampoco para las de otros actores (e.g. sector turístico). En cuanto a la percepción sobre los actores vinculados con la conservación de la biodiversidad en la región, un 54% de los pescadores mostró cierta aprensión frente a los servicios públicos, por su rol de regulación y fiscalización, mientras que el sector del turismo y de las organizaciones no gubernamentales fue visualizado más positivamente. Los resultados de este trabajo contribuyen al entendimiento de la dimensión humana de la conservación marina en Magallanes, resaltan la importancia de la comunicación para encontrar una base común de contacto entre actores con intereses y experiencias culturales diferentes, y brindan antecedentes para el proceso de creación e implementación de AMP.<hr/>Abstract: Marine conservation is a complex challenge and its success is generally determined by social factors. Consequently, before promoting the creation of marine protected areas (MPAs), it is necessary to consider the stakeholder’s vision upon them, their perceptions, interests and expectations, in order to minimize conflicts and achieve the necessary support for their implementation and effective management. In this context, and considering the project to propose the creation of a Multiple-Use Coastal Marine Protected Area (AMCP-MU) in the Almirantazgo Sound, we evaluated the perception of artisanal fishermen from the Magallanes region on the topics of biodiversity conservation, MPAs and the project to create a new AMCP-MU. Thirty-five fishermen were interviewed in different coves from Porvenir, Punta Arenas and Puerto Natales cities. In general, the interviewees demonstrated basic knowledge about the aforementioned topics, which, in general, was obtalned through different means. Forty three percent of the fishermen interviewed, perceived MPAs as closed areas, intended to protect species and were human activities represent a threat to them, while 23% indicated that MPAs are not necessarily closed areas, allowing the development of some activities. Regarding the creation of an AMCP-MU in the Almirantazgo Sound, 68% of the fishermen stated that it should not generate restrictions for the development of their activities, nor for those of other sectors (e.g. tourism sector). In regards of the fishermen’s perception upon the stakeholders linked to biodiversity conservation in the region, 54% of the fishermen showed some apprehension towards public services, due to their regulating and supervising role, while the tourism sector and Non-governmental organization were viewed more positively. The results of this work contribute to the understanding of the human dimension of marine conservation in Magallanes, highlight the importance of communication to find a common ground between diverse actors with different cultural interests and experiences, and provide contextual background for the process of creation and implementation of MPAs. <![CDATA[Freshwater macroinvertebrates from Yendegala National Park, Chile: Tackling knowledge biodiversity gaps in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-686X2020000300023&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: El Parque Nacional Yendegala, ubicado al sur de Tierra del Fuego y al margen de la vertiente oriental de la Cordillera Darwin, es parte de la Reserva de la Biosfera Cabo de Hornos, en la ecorregión subantártica de Magallanes. Este parque nacional del extremo austral de Chile comprende un extenso valle rodeado de cadenas montañosas con ríos de origen glaciar y pluvio-nivales. El presente estudio constituye el primer inventario de macroinvertebrados dulceacuícolas dentro del parque, y compara la composición de especies en tres ríos con bosques ribereños contrastantes. Un río tiene vegetación ribereña dominada coihüe de Magallanes (Nothofagus betuloides), una especie siempreverde. Los bosques ribereños de los otros dos ríos están dominados por especies arbóreas caducifolias, uno por ñirre (N. antarctica) y el otro por lenga (N. pumilio). El río con vegetación ribereña dominada por lenga presentó una diversidad de macroinvertebrados significativamente mayor que en los ríos con vegetación ribereña dominada por ñirre y coihüe. La composición comunitaria de macroinvertebrados presenta algunas afinidades con la reportada para otras áreas dentro de la reserva con composición vegetacional similar, como Isla Navarino o el Parque Nacional Alberto de Agostini. La influencia de la vegetación ribereña y otras variables ambientales deben ser estudiadas a través de otros enfoques. De esta manera, emerge la necesidad de estudios que complementen el inventario aquí presentado, aportando a una caracterización que permita la evaluación de patrones ecológicos de los macroinvertebrados acuáticos. Es así, que se podrán determinar las generalidades y singularidades de las comunidades dulceacuícolas y sus relaciones ambientales en el extremo sur de Chile.<hr/>Abstract: The Yendegala National Park, located to the south of Tierra del Fuego and at the eastern margin of the Darwin Mountaln Range, forms part of the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve (CHBR) and lies in the Magellanic sub-Antarctic ecoregion. This national park in the extreme south of Chile comprises an extensive valley surrounded by mountaln ranges that give rise to glacial and raln or snow-melt streams. The present study provides the first inventory of freshwater macroinvertebrates within the park, further comparing the species composition of three rivers with contrasting riparian vegetation. One river has a riparian vegetation dominated by Coihüe de Magallanes (Nothofagus betuloides), an evergreen species. The river with riparian vegetation dominated by lenga presented a significantly higher diversity of macroinvertebrates than in the rivers with riparian vegetation dominated by ñirre and coihüe. The community composition of macroinvertebrates presents some affinities with that reported for other areas within the reserve with similar vegetational composition, such as Navarino Island or the Alberto de Agostini National Park. The influence of riparian vegetation and other environmental variables must be studied through other approaches. In this way, the need for studies that complement the inventory presented here emerges, contributing to a characterization that allows the evaluation of ecological patterns of aquatic macroinvertebrates. In this way, it will be possible to identify generalities and singularities of the freshwater biological communities and their environmental relationships in the southern tip of Chile. <![CDATA[Reserva de la Biosfera Cabo de Hornos y Parque Marino Islas Diego Ramírez-Paso Drake]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-686X2020000300039&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: El Parque Nacional Yendegala, ubicado al sur de Tierra del Fuego y al margen de la vertiente oriental de la Cordillera Darwin, es parte de la Reserva de la Biosfera Cabo de Hornos, en la ecorregión subantártica de Magallanes. Este parque nacional del extremo austral de Chile comprende un extenso valle rodeado de cadenas montañosas con ríos de origen glaciar y pluvio-nivales. El presente estudio constituye el primer inventario de macroinvertebrados dulceacuícolas dentro del parque, y compara la composición de especies en tres ríos con bosques ribereños contrastantes. Un río tiene vegetación ribereña dominada coihüe de Magallanes (Nothofagus betuloides), una especie siempreverde. Los bosques ribereños de los otros dos ríos están dominados por especies arbóreas caducifolias, uno por ñirre (N. antarctica) y el otro por lenga (N. pumilio). El río con vegetación ribereña dominada por lenga presentó una diversidad de macroinvertebrados significativamente mayor que en los ríos con vegetación ribereña dominada por ñirre y coihüe. La composición comunitaria de macroinvertebrados presenta algunas afinidades con la reportada para otras áreas dentro de la reserva con composición vegetacional similar, como Isla Navarino o el Parque Nacional Alberto de Agostini. La influencia de la vegetación ribereña y otras variables ambientales deben ser estudiadas a través de otros enfoques. De esta manera, emerge la necesidad de estudios que complementen el inventario aquí presentado, aportando a una caracterización que permita la evaluación de patrones ecológicos de los macroinvertebrados acuáticos. Es así, que se podrán determinar las generalidades y singularidades de las comunidades dulceacuícolas y sus relaciones ambientales en el extremo sur de Chile.<hr/>Abstract: The Yendegala National Park, located to the south of Tierra del Fuego and at the eastern margin of the Darwin Mountaln Range, forms part of the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve (CHBR) and lies in the Magellanic sub-Antarctic ecoregion. This national park in the extreme south of Chile comprises an extensive valley surrounded by mountaln ranges that give rise to glacial and raln or snow-melt streams. The present study provides the first inventory of freshwater macroinvertebrates within the park, further comparing the species composition of three rivers with contrasting riparian vegetation. One river has a riparian vegetation dominated by Coihüe de Magallanes (Nothofagus betuloides), an evergreen species. The river with riparian vegetation dominated by lenga presented a significantly higher diversity of macroinvertebrates than in the rivers with riparian vegetation dominated by ñirre and coihüe. The community composition of macroinvertebrates presents some affinities with that reported for other areas within the reserve with similar vegetational composition, such as Navarino Island or the Alberto de Agostini National Park. The influence of riparian vegetation and other environmental variables must be studied through other approaches. In this way, the need for studies that complement the inventory presented here emerges, contributing to a characterization that allows the evaluation of ecological patterns of aquatic macroinvertebrates. In this way, it will be possible to identify generalities and singularities of the freshwater biological communities and their environmental relationships in the southern tip of Chile. <![CDATA[A sentinel for monitoring climate change and its impact on biodiversity at the southern summit of the Americas: The new Cape Horn Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research Network]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-686X2020000300045&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en resumen está disponible en el texto completo<hr/>Abstract: Biosphere reserves have among their functions to support scientific research, education, training and monitoring. In the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve (RBCH), created in 2005, this function has been fulfilled with the creation of the Omora Ethnobotanical Park in 2000, and its implementation in 2008 as a co-founder site of the Chilean Network of Studies Long-Term Socio- Ecological (LTSER-Chile). In 2016, this network has been strengthened with the addition of the new Cape Horn Long-Term Socio-Ecological Research Network (LTER-Cape Horn). The latter includes the Omora Ethnobotanical Park, and three new sites added to the monitoring of the sub-Antarctic Magellanic ecoregion. From south to north, the four sites are: (1) Gonzalo Island (56°31’S; 68°43’O), at the southern end of the Diego Ramírez Archipelago, with sub- Antarctic vegetation dominated by grasses and cryptogams, devoid of woody species; (2) Horn Island (55°58’S; 67°13’O), at the southern end of the Cape Horn Archipelago, hosting the southernmost forest ecosystems on the planet, which are dominated by the evergreen beech (Nothofagus betuloides); (3) Omora Ethnobotanical Park (54°57’S; 67°40’O), Navarino Island, an ideal site for studies on climate change and its impact on biota and sub-Antarctic ecosystems, since it protects a watershed that includes a representative mosaic of characteristic habitats of the RBCH in an altitudinal gradient with a thermal decrease analogous to that which occurs with increases in latitude; and (4) Caleta 2 de Mayo Site (54°52’S; 68°41’O), Yendegaia Bay, in an ecotonal zone between evergreen and deciduous forests (product of the local climate gradient), at a site that will be central to future connectivity between Continental Chile, Tierra del Fuego, Navarino Island, and the RBCH. In 2015, UNESCO approved the Report of the First Periodic Review of the RBCH that proposed the protection of the Diego Ramírez Archipelago and the creation of the Diego Ramírez Islands-Drake Passage Marine Park. This goal was achieved with the promulgation of this new park on February 2, 2018, and its entry into force on January 21, 2019 with the publication of the creation decree in the Diario Oficial of Chile. In this context, the new LTER-Cape Horn network acquires great local, national and global relevance. At the local scale, it covers a representative environmental heterogeneity of the great diversity of landscapes and terrestrial, freshwater and marine ecosystems of the RBCH and the sub-Antarctic Magellanic ecoregion. At the national scale, it incorporates sub-Antarctic sites, located at the southern end of South America, to LTSER-Chile and to the Monitoring Network of the Ministry of the Environment. On a global scale, the terrestrial ecosystems of the LTER-Cape Horn network stands out for two main reasons: (1) these sub-Antarctic ecosystems lack a geographical replicate in other continents of the southern hemisphere, and (2) high latitude ecosystems are especially sensitive to global climate change. Thus, the LTER-Cape Horn network helps to overcome critical geographical gaps in the implementation of the International Network for Long-Term Ecological Research (ILTER). In order to articulate these four sites and strengthen the training of technical capacities and knowledge transfer to decision makers in the area of special interest tourism and other sustainable economic activities, the LTER-Cape Horn network will be managed locally from the new Cape Horn Sub-Antarctic Center (Cape Horn Center) that will be inaugurated in Puerto Williams in 2021. The implementation of the LTER-Cape Horn network is based on a close collaboration with various public institutions: Ministry of National Assets, Ministry of the Environment, Subsecretary of Fisheries and Aquaculture of the Ministry of Economy Development and Tourism, National Forestry Service, General Water Directorate of the Ministry of Public Works, Navy of Chile, Chilean Police (Carabineros), Municipality of Cape Horn, Provincial Government of Chilean Antarctica, and the Regional Government of Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica. In the following phases, the LTER-Cape Horn network and the Cape Horn Center aim to strengthen the participation of the local community, especially the Yahgan Indigenous Community of Bahía Mejillones, artisanal fisheries, tour operators, and the educational community, including private actors. Located at the “southern summit” of the Americas, Puerto Williams, capital of the Chilean Antarctic Province emerges as a global hub for transdisciplinary sub-Antarctic research, equipped with a new center and the network of long-term socio-ecological studies. Collaboration with regional, national and international actors will allow the LTER-Cape Horn network and the Cape Horn Center to: (i) provide critical data, which will open up new opportunities for monitoring climate change and its impact on biodiversity and ecosystems in sub-Antarctic latitudes; (ii) consolidate long-term monitoring, which is an essential component to effectively design mitigation and adaptation actions; (iii) strengthen a local sustainable development model that, associated with the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, contributes from the south of the world, to a biocultural conservation model that meets the needs of socio-economic well-being and environmental sustainability at multiple regional and planetary scales. <![CDATA[Communities of terrestrial invertebrates from Diego Ramírez archipelago (56°31’S), the southernmost long term ecological research site of the Americas: Diversity and affinities with other Subantarctic Islands from the Southern Ocean]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-686X2020000300083&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: Los archipiélagos Diego Ramírez y Cabo de Hornos se ubican en el extremo austral de la ecorregión subantártica de Magallanes y hasta ahora su diversidad de insectos y otros invertebrados terrestres ha sido escasamente caracterizada. En este trabajo, presentamos un catastro actualizado de invertebrados, con un foco en la entomofauna terrestre del archipiélago Diego Ramírez, y exploramos de manera preliminar las afinidades biogeográficas de este archipiélago austral con el resto de las islas subantárticas presentes al norte de la Corriente Circumpolar Antártica. Encontramos que la isla Gonzalo, en el archipiélago Diego Ramírez, no contiene especies de insectos y otros invertebrados exóticos. La fauna de invertebrados terrestres registrados durante este estudio, incluye 32 taxa, principalmente de la Clase Insecta, los cuales se encuentran distribuidos en diferentes hábitats, siendo las comunidades de Poa flabellata los hábitats más importantes. La comparación de la entomofauna del archipiélago Diego Ramírez con otras islas subantárticas indica una baja similitud total entre la fauna reportada aquí y el resto de las islas, excepto con las Georgias del Sur. Sin embargo, la biota que los vincula es de origen gondwánico, lo cual sugiere la existencia de antiguas conexiones biogeográficas vicariantes. Este trabajo es un aporte al desarrollo, fortalecimiento e inauguración de la Red de Monitoreo Ecológico de Largo Plazo Cabo de Hornos (Red LTER Cabo de Hornos). El enfoque particular en las islas Diego Ramírez contribuye directamente a llenar un “punto ciego” en nuestro conocimiento actual en cuanto a los efectos del cambio ambiental global en los ecosistemas subantárticos, generando información esencial para su conservación en el corto, mediano y largo plazo.<hr/>Abstract: The Diego Ramírez and Cape Horn archipelagos are located at the southern end of the Magellanic subantarctic ecoregion. The fauna of insects and other terrestrial invertebrates has been poorly characterized. In this work, we present an updated assessment of invertebrates, with a focus on the terrestrial entomofauna of the Diego Ramírez Archipelago. We reviewed biogeographic affinities of this southern archipelago with the rest of the subantarctic islands. We found that Gonzalo Island in the Diego Ramírez Archipelago is free of insect species and other exotic invertebrates. The island’s terrestrial invertebrate fauna registered during this study includes 32 taxa, mainly from the Class Insecta, which are distributed in different habitats, being the communities of Poa flabellata the most important habitats. The entomofauna of the Diego Ramírez Archipelago shows a low total similarity between the fauna reported and the rest of the islands, except with South Georgia. However, the biota that links them is of Gondwanic origin, which suggests the existence of ancient vicariant biogeographic connections. This work is a contribution to the development, strengthening and inauguration of the Cape Horn Long-Term Ecological Monitoring Network (LTER Cape Horn Network). The particular focus on the Diego Ramírez Islands contributes directly to filling a “blind spot” in our current knowledge of the effects of global environmental change in sub-Antarctic ecosystems, generating information essential to their conservation in the short, medium and long term. <![CDATA[Seven new macroalgas records for the Archipelago Diego Ramírez (56°31’S): The value of the new marine park as a sum of carbon and conservation of subantartic biodiversity]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-686X2020000300099&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: Las ecorregiones marinas de canales y fiordos del sur de Chile subantártica de Magallanes representan el límite extremo de latitud sur para la distribución de numerosos grupos de organismos. En el caso del Hemisferio Sur, el punto de distribución más austral de representantes de las formaciones de “kelps” se encuentra en el archipiélago Diego Ramírez, donde se registran las especies Lessonia flavicans, L. searlesiana y Macrocystis pyrifera. El archipiélago Diego Ramírez se encuentra ubicado en el Paso Drake a 112 km al SO del Cabo de Hornos. Con respecto a la información disponible para macroalgas se ha informado un total de 79 taxa, de los cuales muchos presentan afinidad subantártica-antártica. Pese al interés biogeográfico de las macroalgas del archipiélago Diego Ramírez, no ha habido nuevos catastros que permitan evaluar si este archipiélago podría representar el extremo norte de distribución de especies antárticas y/o el extremo sur de especies magallánicas. El objetivo de este trabajo es actualizar el catastro de macroalgas del archipiélago con el fin de detectar nuevos taxa que pudieran estar presentes en estas islas, así como contribuir al análisis de las relaciones biogeográficas de su ficoflora. De la campaña realizada en la isla Gonzalo se identificó un total de 19 taxa de macroalgas. En términos de riqueza por división, Chlorophyta estuvo representada por 3 especies (16%), Ochrophyta por 7 taxa (37%) y Rhodophyta por 9 taxa, representando el 47% de la flora identificada. Con estos nuevos registros y los de trabajos previos, nuestro estudio genera un catastro actualizado de macroalgas para el archipiélago que concluye en la presencia de 86 taxa. En general, se pudo observar que las especies registradas durante este estudio y los trabajos previos analizados presentan afinidad subantártica.<hr/>Abstract: The marine ecoregions of Canals and Fjords of Southern Chile and Magellan Sub-Antarctic represent the extreme southern latitude limit for the distribution of numerous organism group. In southern Hemisphere, the most austral distribution site of kelps formation is placed at Diego Ramírez Archipelago, where Lessonia flavicans, L. searlesiana and Macrocystis pyrifera have been registered. Diego Ramírez Archipelago is located in the Drake Passage, 112 km southwest to Cape Horn. Regarding the available information for macroalgae, a total of 79 taxa has been reported, many of which show a sub-Antarctic and Antarctic affinity. Despite the biogeographic interest of the macroalgae from Diego Ramírez Archipelago, there have not been new cadasters to evaluate whether this archipelago could represent the northern boundary of the Antarctic species distribution and/ or the southern boundary of Magellan species. The goal of this study is to update the cadaster of macroalgae from Diego Ramírez Archipelago, in order to find new taxa and contribute to the analysis of the biogeographic relationships of its phycoflora. From the sampling campaign at Gonzalo Island, 19 taxa of macroalgae were identified. In terms of richness by division, Chlorophyta was represented by 3 species (16%), Ochrophyta by 7 taxa (37%), and Rhodophyta by 9 taxa, representing the 47% of the identified flora. Thus, the present study combines our new registers together with the previous findings, providing an updated cadaster of macroalgae of the archipelago, suggesting a total of 86 taxa. Overall, it can be stated that all registered species of the archipelago show a sub- Antarctic affinity. <![CDATA[Update of the coastal-marine mollusc assembly catalog of the Archipiélago Diego Ramírez (56°31’s), Chile: A refuge for sustainable economy and Subantarctic conservation]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-686X2020000300113&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: El archipiélago Diego Ramírez es el último confín del continente Sudamericano y se encuentra ubicado en el Paso Drake, a 112 km al SO del Cabo de Hornos aproximadamente. Debido a su difícil acceso, la información sobre la biodiversidad marina que habita sus costas es todavía limitada. En este estudio se presenta el primer catastro del ensamble de moluscos costero-marinos en este archipiélago, basado en la expedición a isla Gonzalo y en las colectas realizadas en esta isla en la primavera del año 2016. Durante marea baja se efectuó una exhaustiva inspección y colecta de moluscos desde la zona del intermareal superior hasta 1 m de profundidad. Para los análisis, los registros de estas colectas se complementaron con reportes de expediciones anteriores. De esta manera se determinaron 51 taxa de moluscos. Del total de taxa identificados se informan 42 nuevos registros de 42 especies de moluscos para las islas Diego Ramírez. Este estudio corresponde a un catastro actualizado de moluscos del archipiélago Diego Ramírez. Es importante seguir investigando y monitoreando este archipiélago, que corresponde al límite sur de la Provincia Magallánica y a los últimos vestigios rocosos sudamericanos que enfrentan el Paso Drake.<hr/>Abstract: The Diego Ramírez archipelago is the last point of the South-America continent, located in the Drake Passage 112 km SW of Cape Horn. Due to its difficult access, information on the marine biodiversity that inhabits its coasts is still limited. This study presents the first report of the assemblage of coastal marine mollusks in this archipelago. Samples were collected during an expedition to Gonzalo Island during the spring of 2016. During the low tide an exhaustive inspection and collection of mollusks was carried out from the upper intertidal zone to 1 m depth. Records of these collections were complemented with reports from previous expeditions. A total 51 mollusk taxa were identified. Among the identified taxa, 42 mollusk species were new to Diego Ramirez Islands. This work is an updated list record of mollusks of the Diego Ramírez archipelago. It is important to continue investigating and monitoring this archipelago which corresponds to the southern limit of the Magellanic Province and the last South American rocky remnants that face the Drake passage. <![CDATA[First bryophyte records from Diego Ramírez Archipelago: Changing lenses in long-term socio-ecological research at the southernmost island of the Americas]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-686X2020000300127&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Abstract: Long-term socio-ecological research requires comprehensive assessments of biodiversity that overcome historical taxonomic biases, such as the strong focus on the vascular flora. This is particularly relevant at high latitudes where the richness of non-vascular plant species exceeds that of vascular species. Additionally, with respect to geographical regions, there is also a marked bias towards ecological and conservation research in the northern hemisphere. In contrast, few studies have investigated patterns of non-vascular species richness in relation to conservation priorities at sub- Antarctic latitudes, particularly in the sub-Antarctic Magellanic ecoregion. In this work, we contribute to overcome such taxonomic, geographical and ecoregional biases by moving outside these limits, and therefore “changing the lenses” that are commonly used to assess and conserve biodiversity. We implemented these new “biocultural lenses” by including, for the first time, bryophytes in the floristic inventory of the southernmost island of the American continent: Gonzalo Island (56°31’16.8’’S; 68°42’53.5’’W) in the Diego Ramírez Archipelago, Chile. The first bryological exploration of the Diego Ramírez archipelago, SW of Cape Horn, revealed a bryophyte flora composed of 14 species, eight liverworts and six mosses. This number of non-vascular plant species almost doubles the eight vascular plants present on the island. Consequently, with our study, we aim to fill a critical gap in the knowledge of the flora of the Diego Ramírez archipelago, and establish an integral floristic characterization for the long-term socio-ecological research and conservation of the southernmost archipelago of South America. Based on the field material collected, the new nomenclatural combination Chiloscyphus secundifolius (Hook. f. &amp; Taylor) J.J.Engel is proposed. The moss flora comprises Amblystegium serpens, a widespread moss, yet hitherto unknown for sub-Antarctic Chile. The bryoflora of Diego Ramírez has its greatest affinities with that of the sub-Antarctic Magellanic ecoregion and Maritime Antarctica. None of the liverworts present on Gonzalo Island occurs on continental Antarctica; in contrast, four of the six mosses are shared between these two areas.<hr/>Resumen: La investigación socio-ecológica a largo plazo requiere evaluaciones exhaustivas de la biodiversidad que eviten sesgos taxonómicos históricos, tales como la restricción del análisis a la flora vascular. Esto es particularmente relevante en latitudes altas donde la riqueza de especies de plantas no-vasculares supera la riqueza de especies vasculares. Otro marcado sesgo en la investigación ecológica y de conservación se refiere a las regiones geográficas, cuyo estudio se ha concentrado en el hemisferio norte. En contraste, existen pocas investigaciones de patrones de riqueza de especies y prioridades de conservación en relación con las latitudes subantárticas, particularmente en la ecorregión subantártica de Magallanes en el sur de Sudamérica. En este trabajo contribuimos a superar los sesgos taxonómicos, geográficos y ecorregionales, moviéndonos fuera de estos límites y, por lo tanto, “cambiando los lentes” que se utilizan usualmente para evaluar y conservar la biodiversidad. Implementamos estos nuevos “lentes bioculturales” al incluir por primera vez a las briófitas en el inventario florístico de la isla más austral del continente americano: la isla Gonzalo (56°31’16,8’’S; 68°42’53,5’’O) del archipiélago Diego Ramírez, Chile. La primera exploración briológica del archipiélago Diego Ramírez, al suroeste de Cabo de Hornos, reveló una flora de briófitas compuesta por 14 especies, ocho hepáticas y seis musgos. Este número de especies no vasculares casi duplica las ocho plantas vasculares presentes en la isla. En consecuencia, con el presente estudio, contribuimos a llenar un vacío de conocimiento crítico sobre la flora del archipiélago Diego Ramírez y establecemos una caracterización florística integral para la investigación socio- ecológica a largo plazo y la conservación en el archipiélago más austral de Sudamérica. Sobre la base del material recolectado, se propone la nueva combinación Chiloscyphus secundifolius (Hook. f. &amp; Taylor) J.J.Engel. La flora de musgos incluye Amblystegium serpens, un musgo de distribución amplia, hasta ahora desconocido para Chile subantártico. Las afinidades de la brioflora de Diego Ramírez se concentran principalmente con aquella de la ecorregión subantártica de Magallanes y la Antártica marítima. Ninguna de las hepáticas presentes en la isla Gonzalo se encuentran en la Antártica continental; en cambio, cuatro de las seis especies de musgos están presentes en ambas áreas. <![CDATA[Vascular flora and vegetational types at the long-term socio-ecological studies site, Gonzalo Island, Diego Ramírez Archipelago (56°31’S), Chile]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-686X2020000300139&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: La red de sitios de estudios socio-ecológicos a largo plazo en la Reserva de la Biósfera Cabo de Hornos (LTSER-Cabo de Hornos) se extiende hoy hasta la isla Gonzalo (56°31’S), archipiélago Diego Ramírez, como su sitio más austral. Ésta es también la isla más meridional del continente americano y de la ecorregión subantártica de Magallanes, albergando una enorme diversidad de fauna marina que fue intensamente explotada luego de su descubrimiento, hace 400 años. El objetivo general de la red LTSER- Cabo de Hornos es detectar impactos del cambio socio-ambiental global y contribuir a su mitigación. El objetivo específico de este trabajo es proveer una descripción actualizada de la flora vascular presente en la isla Gonzalo, que es un sitio de monitoreo crítico para el nuevo Parque Marino Islas Diego Ramírez-Paso Drake. El archipiélago Diego Ramírez forma parte de la región fitogeográfica subantártica, albergando formaciones vegetacionales únicas en el territorio chileno. Se actualiza la lista de especies de plantas vasculares registradas en la isla Gonzalo, la única habitada del archipiélago. El registro incluye ocho especies de plantas vasculares que comprenden la totalidad de especies previamente registradas en los islotes y las tres islas mayores del archipiélago (Gonzalo, Bartolomé y Norte). Ninguna de las especies colectadas tiene problemas de conservación. El muestreo confirmó que en la isla Gonzalo no ha ocurrido establecimiento de flora vascular exótica, incluso en lugares intervenidos alrededor del Faro de la Armada de Chile. Se recomienda un monitoreo estricto para prevenir el establecimiento y diseminación de plantas exóticas que potencialmente podrían alterar la vegetación de este archipiélago.<hr/>Abstract: The network of Long-term Socio-ecological Research sites within the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve (LTSER-Cape Horn) extends today to the Gonzalo Island (56°31’S), Diego Ramírez Archipelago, as its southernmost site. This is also the southernmost island of the American continent and of the sub-Antarctic ecoregion of Magallanes, housing a huge diversity of marine fauna that was intensely exploited after its discovery, exactly 400 years ago. The general objective of the LTSER-Cape Horn network is to detect the impacts of global socio-environmental change and contribute to their mitigation. The specific objective of this work is to provide an updated description of the vascular flora present on Gonzalo Island, a critical monitoring site for the new Diego Ramírez Islands-Paso Drake Marine Park. The Diego Ramírez Archipelago is part of the sub-Antarctic phytogeographic region, harboring vegetation formations that are unique in the Chilean territory. Our work updated the list of vascular plant species of Gonzalo Island, the only one that is permanently inhabited. The records include eight species of vascular plants that comprise all the species of vascular plants previously recorded in the islets as well as in the three major islands of the archipelago (Gonzalo, Bartolomé and North). None of the eight collected species has conservation problems. Our sampling confirmed that there has been no establishment of exotic vascular flora in Gonzalo Island. Even places that have been disturbed near the base maintained by the Chilean Navy had no presence of exotic species. Strict monitoring is recommended to prevent the establishment and dissemination of exotic plants that could potentially arrive on this island, and the Diego Ramírez Archipelago. <![CDATA[Scientific collaboration with the Chilean Navy for long-term ornithological studies in the Diego Ramírez Archipelago: First year-round monitoring of Gonzalo Island’s bird assemblage]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-686X2020000300149&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en resumen está disponible en el texto completo<hr/>Abstract: Biocultural conservation increasingly requires transdisciplinary collaborations, which includes different disciplines, institutions and actors. The collaboration between scientists and the Chilean Navy has been an effective way to address this requirement. This inter-institutional collaboration between the Navy and the Sub-Antarctic Biocultural Conservation Program (University of Magallanes, Institute of Ecology and Biodiversity and Omora Foundation in Chile, and the University of North Texas in the US) enabled us to initiate in 2016 long term ornithological studies in the Diego Ramírez Archipelago, which includes the southernmost islands of the American continent. Until now, its avifauna has been studied exclusively during summer seasons, despite the fact that birds are one of the most sensitive and fastest responding groups of animals to climate change; modifying their periods of migration, residence and nesting, their population sizes, and their latitudinal distribution areas. In addition, subpolar regions are especially sensitive to climate change and studies in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, adjacent to the Diego Ramírez Archipelago, suggest that some species could be expanding their latitudinal distribution spheres and changing their migration dates. The objective of this work is to initiate a systematic monitoring of the species composition and the nesting, migration and/or residence dates of the Diego Ramírez Archipelago birdlife at the southern tip of the Magallanes sub-Antarctic ecoregion. In this study we present an update of the avifauna records for the Gonzalo Island, Diego Ramírez Archipelago, including the first fall and winter records, and sightings at other times of year. In three expeditions, during the austral reproductive season (summer, November 29-December 1, 2016), winter (July 20-22, 2017) and fall (March 28-April 1, 2018), birds were monitored using mist-nets and creating species lists from field observations. For the observations of birds throughout the year, we used the photographic records made by José Mella (coauthor) and José Mejía (Navy petty officers at Gonzalo Island Lighthouse, years 2014-2018), and new photographic records were initiated with trained personnel of the Navy of Chile in the lighthouse of Gonzalo Island. In total, we detected 33 species belonging to 16 families. Ten of these species represent new records for the archipelago: Neotropic cormorant (Phalacrocorax brasilianus Gmelin, 1789), Western cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis (Linnaeus, 1758)), Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus Tunstall, 1771), Austral negrito (Lessonia rufa Gmelin, 1789), Austral thrush (Turdus falcklandii Quoy &amp; Gaimard, 1824), Rufous-collared sparrow (Zonotrichia capensis Müller, 1776), Black-chinned siskin (Spinus barbatus Molina, 1782), Blue-and-White Swallow (Pygochelidon cyanoleuca patagonica d’Orbigny &amp; Lafresnaye, 1837), Black-bellied storm petrel (Fregetta tropica Gould, 1844), and y Cape petrel (Daption capense capense Linnaeus, 1758). Some of these new records could be associated with global warming and a recent expansion of the latitudinal distribution areas and/or the residence periods of these birds. Among the 33 species, 26 were recorded in spring-summer, 22 in fall, and 14 in winter. However, nine were sighted only occasionally and it will be necessary in the future to determine whether they are resident or migratory species that are seldom observed, or occasional visitors. Regarding conservation status, according to the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species, the avifauna of the Diego Ramírez Archipelago includes an endangered species (Grey-headed albatross, Thalassarche chrysostoma Forster, 1785), three vulnerable species and four almost threatened. Monitoring on these islands provides a baseline to evaluate the status of bird populations under the threats of global change, among which the threat of invasive species is highlighted. It is critical to prevent the arrival of exotic invasive species that are present in other subantarctic islands, such as rats (Rattus spp.), mice (Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758), cats (Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758), and American mink (Neovison vison Schreber, 1777), which are present in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve, located less than 100 km North of the Diego Ramírez Archipelago. The collaborative work with the Chilean Navy has been crucial to start these long-term ornithological studies, associated with the new Long-Term Ecological Studies Site Gonzalo Island-LTER that forms part of the Chilean Long-Term Socio-Ecological Studies Network (LTSER-Chile), and the International Long-Term Ecological Studies Network (ILTER). A main goal will be to combine avifauna monitoring with detection of potential invasive species. <![CDATA[Distribution patterns of forest birds in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve: A scientific baseline for planning sustainable Birdwatching]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-686X2020000300169&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Resumen: La Reserva de la Biosfera Cabo de Hornos está inserta en una de las zonas más prístinas del planeta. Sus aves de bosque, varias de ellas especies carismáticas, constituyen uno de los focos de interés tanto de los turistas como de la comunidad local en la reserva. Sin embargo, aspectos básicos sobre la distribución de las aves en estos ecosistemas son aún poco conocidos. En este estudio caracterizamos los patrones de distribución de las aves de bosque en la Reserva de la Biosfera Cabo de Hornos. Distinguimos cuatro patrones, clasificando las especies de aves según variaciones de distribución geográfica y temporal dentro de la reserva. Observamos variaciones en la distribución de especies residentes y migratorias, presumiblemente asociadas al tipo de vegetación boscosa. Encontramos que los bosques mixtos de Nothofagus betuloides y N. pumilio son importantes para la presencia de varias especies de baja abundancia y de interés para el aviturismo, entre ellas el carpintero negro (Campephilus magellanicus). Estos resultados nos permiten identificar áreas prioritarias para la conservación del ensamble de aves de los bosques de la ecorregión subantártica de Magallanes. Adicionalmente, se resalta la isla Navarino como el área con la mayor diversidad de especies de bosques presentes, y de fácil acceso, en la Reserva de la Biosfera Cabo de Hornos.<hr/>Abstract: The Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve is located in one of the most pristine areas on the planet. Its forest birds, some of them charismatic species, are one of the focus interests for both tourists and the local community. However, basic aspects of bird distribution in these ecosystems are still poorly understood. In this study, we characterized the distribution patterns of forest birds in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve. We distinguish four patterns, classifying bird species according to variations in geographic and temporal distribution within the reserve. We observed variations in the distribution of resident and migratory species related to the type of forest vegetation. We found that mixed forests of Nothofagus betuloides and N. pumilio are important for the presence of several low abundance species and of interest to birdwatchers, including the Magellanic Woodpecker (Campephilus magellanicus). These results allow us to identify priority areas for the conservation of the forest bird community of the Magellanic subantarctic ecoregion. Additionally, they highlight Isla Navarino as the area with the highest diversity of forest species, and is easily accessible, in the Cape Horn Biosphere Reserve.