Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Latin american journal of aquatic research]]> vol. 49 num. 3 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[The culture potential and management problems of freshwater prawns (<em>Macrobrachium americanum</em> and <em>Macrobrachium tenellum</em>) in their native areas: the case for Mexico]]> ABSTRACT Macrobrachium tenellum and M. americanum are common freshwater prawns from the Americas’ tropical and subtropical Pacific continental side. They have different biological attributes and are currently threatened by human impact on their ecosystems. Both species provide different quality products for human consumption and are intensively exploited without proper management. This study analyzes, discusses, and compares the available information for both species and their current status as a live resource. <![CDATA[Biology and use of the Pacific fat sleeper <em>Dormitator latifrons</em> (Richardson, 1844): state of the art review]]> ABSTRACT The present work is a review of the literature on the native Mexican fish Dormitator latifrons. The aim is to contribute to the integration and systematization of current knowledge to make it easier to identify existing knowledge gaps and breakthroghs Moreover, promote the successful cultivation and protection of this species whose consumption is increasing in Latin America. A review of the articles related to D. latifrons published in international and regional databases was carried out. The articles reviewed focus on taxonomy and systematics, phylogenetic, geographic distribution, ecology, physiology, reproduction, development, pathology, health, and the technologies used to cultivate this fish species. The conclusion is that, even though the cultivation of D. latifrons is of commercial interest in some countries, there are still significant gaps in our knowledge of biology and, consequently, the domestication potential of the species. Filling these gaps will require systematic research efforts on protecting natural populations and improving mass cultivation techniques. <![CDATA[Otoliths morphology and age-record in <em>Bagre panamensis</em> (Siluriformes: Ariidae) inhabiting at the southeast of Gulf of California]]> ABSTRACT Among Bagre genera, there is a high variation in the estimation of age, a concern due to overexploitation risk in fisheries because of age underestimation. Bagre panamensis is an important fishery resource of the Mexican Pacific and the Gulf of California. Its age is known from otoliths, but its accuracy needs to be confirmed, and the periodicity of the otoliths record validated. The external morphology, some microstructure attributes, and age record of B. panamensis' otoliths were described from 371 specimens collected southeast of the Gulf of California. The lapilli otoliths were larger than the sagittae and asterisci otoliths. The lapilli otoliths present aragonite crystals with a prismatic shape, and their growth is radial, from the core to the otolith edge. The lapilli otoliths form an annual growth ring, defined by the slowdown in the growth that occurs during April to July, during the breeding season. The ages of the individuals ranged from 1 to 15 years, and the applied method is considered adequate and accurate for its estimation (otolith cross-sectioning and red-neutral staining). <![CDATA[Effect of dietary inulin in the gut microbiota of whiteleg shrimp <em>Penaeus vannamei</em>]]> ABSTRACT The effect of dietary inulin on the intestinal bacterial communities of Penaeus vannamei by 16S metagenomic analysis was assessed. PCR amplified the V3 region of the bacterial 16S rDNA. Sequencing reads were generated using the 2×150 (300 cycles) for the base-read length chemistry of the Illumina MiniSeq platform. The software Shaman and MicrobiomeAnalyst were used to analyze the sequences. The phylum Proteobacteria and the genus Vibrio were among the most abundant taxonomic ranks for control and inulin treatment. The relative abundance of the phylum Bacteroidetes and genus Ruegeria was lower in inulin treatment concerning the control condition. Alpha and beta indices did not show significant differences between inulin treatment and control conditions. For all samples, most of the bacterial organisms showed the presence of carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism-related genes, and to a lesser extent, of energy, lipid, and cofactors and vitamin metabolism-related genes. The principal metabolic functions were glycine, serine, threonine, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate, purine, pyrimidine, pyruvate, and quorum sensing. The interaction network analysis showed fewer interactions in the inulin treatment concerning control condition. Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Vibrio, and Ruegeria predominated in all samples, and inulin did not change the net microbial diversity in the intestine of P. vannamei. Streptomyces, Roseobacter, and Ruegeria showed negative interactions with Vibrio, suggesting their use as probiotics. This study sheds light on the inulin supplement on the essential role of microbiota in the shrimp. <![CDATA[Effect of light intensity and nutrient concentration on growth and pigments of the green microalga <em>Tetraselmis suecica</em>]]> ABSTRACT Tetraselmis suecica is a green microalga that thrives under a wide range of conditions, used in the commercial culture of fish, mollusk, and crustacean larvae for supplementing the demand for fertilizers. Its pigments have applications in human health care as drug products, vitamins, and cosmetics. Growth and pigment concentration of T. suecica were evaluated in experimental cultures with different nutrient concentrations and light intensities to determine the most appropriate culture conditions to optimize the production of biomass and pigments. Chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, lutein, violaxanthin, α, β-carotene, and neoxanthin concentrations were evaluated under three different nutrient conditions (441.5/18.1, 883/36.3, and 1766/76.2 μM of NaNO3/NaH2PO4) and four light intensities (50, 150, 300, and 750 μmol quanta m−2 s−1). Increases in either or both of these factors lead to increases in the concentration of all pigments. Chlorophyll-a reached up to 5×103 mg m−3, chlorophyll-b up to 2500 mg m−3, lutein 600 mg m−3, violaxanthin 300 mg m−3, α, β-carotene 500 mg m−3, and neoxanthin 400 mg m−3. Growth rate (μ) attained values of 1.6 d−1. An index to evaluate the efficiency of pigment production by light intensity (called LER) was computed. The highest LER was recorded at 50 μmol quanta m−2 s−1 and a nutrient concentration of 1766/76.2 μM (NaNO3/NaH2PO4); this treatment optimizes pigment production with the lowest light intensity. Our results show that the optimum light intensity should be selected according to the objective of the culture, either maximizing pigment concentration for harvesting at higher concentrations or reducing production costs regarding light consumption. <![CDATA[Partial characterization of digestive proteases in Pacific red snapper <em>Lutjanus peru</em> Nichols & Murphy, 1922 (Perciformes: Lutjanidae)]]> ABSTRACT Pacific red snapper (Lutjanus peru) is an important commercial species in Mexico with great aquaculture potential; however, digestive physiology is still unknown. Therefore, the objective of the present work was to characterize the digestive proteases of L. peru juvenile using biochemical and electrophoretic techniques. Results showed a higher acid protease activity than the alkaline proteases, trypsin, chymotrypsin, and leucine aminopeptidase (LAP). The optimum temperature for acid proteases was between 30 to 40°C. Trypsin activity showed two maximum peaks of temperature (30 and 50°C), while alkaline proteases, chymotrypsin, and LAP had optimum temperatures of 50, 50 to 60, and 40°C, respectively. Moreover, the optimum pH of acid proteases was between 2 and 3. Also, alkaline proteases, trypsin, chymotrypsin showed pH optimums at pH 6, 9, and 5, respectively, although LAP showed two optimum pH values at 6 and 9. Acid protease zymogram showed three isoforms, totally inhibited by pepstatin A. Alkaline protease zymogram revealed six bands (125.4, 67.2, 57.9, 48.6, 29.8, and 26.9 kDa), which were inhibited by specific serine-proteases and metalloproteases inhibitors. In conclusion, the main digestion in L. peru depends on stomach proteases, which are characteristic of carnivorous fish, followed by intestinal digestion supported mainly by chymotrypsin. <![CDATA[The effect of biofloc and clear water at low and high salinity concentration on growth performance and antioxidant response of wild juveniles of Atlantic white shrimp <em>Penaeus setiferus</em>]]> ABSTRACT The effect of biofloc (BFT) and clear water (CW) at low (ls) and high-water salinity (hs) in wild juveniles of Penaeus setiferus were evaluated. Four treatments were implemented: hsBFT, lsBFT, hsCW, and lsCW. After 45 days, final weight (FW), weight gain (WG), hepatosomatic index (HSI), and survival rate (SR) were evaluated. Antioxidant activity in muscle and hepatopancreas were measured: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-S transferase (GST), lipid peroxidation (LPO), protein oxidation (PO). The FW and SR was low for lsCW (P &lt; 0.05), whereas the WG and HSI was high in hsBFT and lsBFT (P &lt; 0.05). The integrative biomarker response index (IBR) showed differences between muscle (M) and hepatopancreas (HP). Results showed an increase of SOD and CAT measured from HP for lsBFT treatment. For M, CAT and GST were high only in BFT (regardless of the water salinity). LPO determined from M and HP recorded the high values at hs and ls, respectively. The PO determined in HP showed substantial damage in BFT (regardless of the salinity), whereas the same determination from M was only important for lsCW treatment. When the analyses of variance (ANOVA) were performed, SOD, LPO, and PO were significant in response to salinity (P &lt; 0.05). In contrast, for CAT, the higher activity was due to the rearing system and salinity interaction (P &lt; 0.05). Results suggest that BFT could diminish the stress by stimulating the antioxidant system to maintain the redox balance through a higher enzyme activity and decrease damage in the proteins and lipids of the cells. <![CDATA[Bromatological study of the freshwater bivalve <em>Anodontites trapesialis</em> (Lamarck, 1819) (Unionida, Mycetopodidae)]]> ABSTRACT In Brazil, Anodontites trapesialis is a mussel species that occurs spontaneously in fish breeding sites. This species feeds on the remains of cultural treatments of other aquaculture species. The objective of the work is to understand the bromatological composition of mussel A. trapesialis. Individuals were selected to compose three samples of 500 g each of A. trapesialis for chemical composition, with viscera and viscera + shells being evaluated. The species presented 40.42 to 62.76 g of viscera per individual with a moisture content of 5.16% for viscera + shells and 86.5% for viscera. The mussel contains 42.6 and 12.96% crude protein, 3.16 and 1.76 of ether extract, 0.76 and 2.5% of crude fiber for viscera and viscera + shells. The total digestible nutrients were 74.16 and 36.96% for viscera and viscera + shells and 18.43 and 52.83% of mineral material for viscera and viscera + shells. A. trapesialis has relevant characteristics in its chemical composition as high protein content that gives the species potential for the human, animal, and other byproducts production. <![CDATA[Mineral digestibility of different animal sources for the silver catfish <em>Rhamdia voulezi</em>]]> ABSTRACT This study aimed to evaluate the apparent digestibility coefficients (ADCs) of dry matter, crude protein, gross energy, and minerals of marine fish meal (MFM), salmon meal (SM), tilapia by-product meal (TBM), meat and bone meal (MBM), poultry by-product meal (PBM), blood meal (BM), and feather meal (FM) by silver catfish Rhamdia voulezi. Groups of 12 fish were fed the experimental diet three times a day until apparent satiation, and the fecal samples were collected from an accumulation device. SM and PBM exhibited the highest digestibility values for dry matter, crude protein, and gross energy, while MBM and FM presented significantly lower ADCs for dry matter. BM and FM exhibited higher ADCs for phosphorus, 65.05 and 63.87%, respectively. The ADCs for calcium were 58.8% for MFM, 56.69% for TBM, and 60.08% for PBM. PBM and FM had the highest iron ADCs, 44.01 and 46.29%, respectively. Magnesium ADCs ranged from 44.87% for MBM to 75.50% for TBM. BM had the highest digestibility for zinc (62.77%), whereas MBM (36.68%) and FM (39.39%) had the lowest. In general, SM and PBM showed higher values as feedstuffs for silver catfish feeds. At the same time, the digestibility was lower for TBM and MBM for macronutrients and minerals such as phosphorus, iron, and zinc. <![CDATA[Decapod crustaceans associated with the shrimp fishery of the central-south portion of Veracruz, Mexico]]> ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze the brachyuran crab assemblages associated with shrimp fishing on the central-southern coast of Veracruz. Information was collected using 46 trawls organized within nine fishing quadrants. The total catch shrimp, bycatch, and discard were recorded and standardized (CPUE kg h−1). Value index by species, species richness, diversity using Shannon and Weaver index, and equitability were determined. A total of 3055 individuals were collected, which corresponded to nine families, 13 genera, and 14 species. Achelous spinicarpus species were identified at the greatest relative abundance (77.74%). Four new species records for the zone: Hepatus pudibundus, Iliacantha liodactylus, Leiolambrus punctatissimus, and Platylambrus granulatus. Species richness varied according to fishing quadrant and depth interval assessed. The highest value of species richness was eight, and observed Margalef species richness index values ranged from 0 to 2.23. The diversity values ranged from 0 to 2.41 bits ind−1; this may indicate that a few species share the greatest impact of trawling. The presence of lagoon systems was determined to define a portion of the composition of the assemblage. Understanding assemblage structure is important to improve knowledge on the impact of shrimp trawling activity on the ecosystem. <![CDATA[Larval development of <em>Microgobius tabogensis</em> Meek & Hildebrand, 1928 (Pisces: Gobiidae) from a coastal lagoon in the Gulf of California, México]]> ABSTRACT In fish, the larval stage constitutes the most vulnerable phase in the life cycle and reveals important ecological and evolutive information of fish and fundamental data to manage marine ecosystems. However, their identity is one of the biggest gaps in knowledge, particularly for the Microgobius genus, where only three of 15 species have been described. In this study, the larval development of Microgobius tabogensis was described based on 116 specimens (2.75-14.20 mm standard length) from Ensenada de La Paz, Mexico. The typical gobiid body shape characterized larvae, a well-developed dorsally pigmented gas bladder, a curve at the hindgut, and 27 myomeres. The pigmentation pattern in M. tabogensis consisted of a series of melanophores along the ventral postanal midline, increasing from three to seven during the preflexion stage and up to 16 in the postflexion stage. It had three to five melanophores on the ventral preanal midline, one at the jaw angle and one on the dorsal postanal midline. Through all stages, one of the ventral melanophores was normally stellate, bigger than the others, and extended between the myomeres. A dorsal melanophore was located near the end of the intestine in the preflexion stage but disappeared with growth. Notochord flexion started at approximately 4.3 mm and ended at 5.1 mm. Anal fin development started at the beginning of the flexion stage, followed by the dorsal fin. All elements of the fins were formed by the late postflexion stage (14.2 mm). <![CDATA[The fish community in Gulf of Mexico mangroves, a response to hydrological restoration]]> ABSTRACT The present study evaluated the ecological response of fish fauna to hydrological restoration in a mangrove area in Terminos Lagoon in the Gulf of Mexico. In two years, environmental parameters and ichthyofauna were obtained in a channel under restoration and a conserved channel. The fish fauna was composed of 12 species. As a result of the restoration process, changes in composition and abundance of some species were detected. The presence of visiting marine species Bathygobius soporator and Eucinostomus melanopterus, and an increase in the abundance of resident fish, livebearers species, were recorded. Richness, diversity, and evenness vary significantly between channels. Generalized linear mixed models indicated that the abundances of resident and overall fishes were significantly related to water depth, temperature, and salinity. The results suggest that fish are an ecological indicator of the mangrove reconnection with the Terminos Lagoon and the restoration of natural tidal flow in the short term. Long-term systematic monitoring of fish fauna will promote a better understanding of the restoration of mangroves and corresponding changes in the function of this ecosystem. <![CDATA[Early development of the Peruvian rock seabass <em>Paralabrax humeralis</em> (Teleostei: Serranidae): morphological description of the embryonic and yolk-sac larval stages]]> ABSTRACT Describe the embryonic development of Paralabrax humeralis (Peruvian rock seabass) and the present morphology of its eggs and yolk-sac larvae using the eggs spawned by P. humeralis broodstock in captivity. The spawning occurred naturally and spontaneously in early November 2018. The egg is pelagic and round, with a diameter of 0.98 ± 0.02 mm, an oil globule, and a diameter of 0.2 ± 0.02 mm. Embryonic development started with meroblastic cleavage, reaching the first cleavage stage at 0.4 h post-fertilization (HPF), and reached 64 cells at 2.2 HPF. Blastula period, 128 cells to 30% epiboly, end at 11.3 HPF. Gastrula period, 50% epiboly to 90% epiboly, end at 19.6 HPF. In the organogenesis period, forming Kupffer's vesicle appeared at 22.5 HPF, the separation of the caudal fin from the yolk at 30.3 HPF, and the hatching of the first larvae at 47.9 HPF. Water temperature was kept at 17.2 ± 0.2°C. The yolk-sac larvae measured 2.22 ± 0.1 mm with a pigmentation pattern of pinpoint melanophores, all along with the embryo and xanthophores in the cephalic region, trunk, and caudal region, as well as in the oil globule. The larva takes feeds from three days post-hatch-out. <![CDATA[Occurrence of the bigeye thresher shark, <em>Alopias superciliosus</em> (Lowe, 1841) (Elasmobranchii, Alopiidae) in the southwestern Gulf of Mexico]]> ABSTRACT The bigeye thresher shark Alopias supeciliosus is a large epipelagic and mesopelagic species, and it has a wide distribution in the Atlantic. However, its record in the Gulf of Mexico is sporadic. A single adult female of A. superciliosus, measuring 360 cm total length and about weight 165 kg, was caught by artisanal fishers in Salinas Roca Partida, Veracruz, Mexico, on July 14, 2020. This study reports the first occurrence of this species in the southwestern of the Gulf of Mexico, which extends its geographical distribution in Mexico. <![CDATA[First report of the mussel <em>Mytella strigata</em> (Hanley, 1843) in the Venezuelan Caribbean from an invasion in a shrimp farm]]> ABSTRACT Individuals of mussels were collected in ponds from a commercial shrimp farm in the Unare region, Anzoátegui State, Venezuela. Identification was carried out using dichotomous keys and corroborated via analysis of similarities between the sequences of partial mitochondrial DNA of the cytochrome oxidase gene and Mytella strigata (Hanley, 1843) reported in GenBank with 99-100% similarity. Morphological analyses further supported the identification of the specimen. The first report of M. strigata in the Venezuelan Caribbean coast suggests that it could be a transplanted species. Possible negative effects of M. strigata on commercial shrimp production systems are discussed.