Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Idesia (Arica)]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0718-342920100003&lang=en vol. 28 num. 3 lang. en <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[DIFUSIÓN Y DIVULGACIÓN DE LA INVESTIGACIÓN CIENTÍFICA]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292010000300001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en <![CDATA[<b>ASSESSMENT OF A PC BASED SYSTEM TO MEASURE SAP FLOW IN HERBACEOUS PLANTS IN REAL TIME</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292010000300002&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se diseñó y evaluó un sistema para medir la transpiración de plantas herbáceas en tiempo real. El sistema propuesto incluye un sensor de flujo de savia, una interfase electrónica y un programa computacional en Codigo C++. El sistema utiliza un transductor basado en termocuplas y una interfase diseñada para procesar los datos del transductor obtenidos a través de la puerta paralela de un Computador Personal (PC). Para evaluar el desempeño del sistema, se utilizó plantas de maíz (Zea mays L.) de once semanas, cultivadas en invernadero. El sistema basado en PC se calibró utilizando datos experimentales obtenidos con datalogger y evaluó comparando sus resultados con los del método de diferencia de pesadas de la planta. El error del sistema para estimar flujo de savia fue de 8%, el cual es similar a la exactitud del método que utiliza un datalogger. La metodología evaluada ofrece la posibilidad de medir en tiempo real las pérdidas de agua por transpiración y puede ser implementado principalmente para cultivos que crecen en invernadero para aumentar la productividad y disminuir los riesgos de enfermedades del cultivo. El sistema basado en PC es una opción para diseñar un sistema comercial de irrigación a un costo global bajo, ya que utiliza un computador convencional y componentes electrónicos de bajo costo.<hr/>A system to measure the transpiration of herbaceous plants in real time was designed and evaluated. The proposed system includes a sap flow sensor, an electronic interface card and a computational C++ code. The system uses a transducer based on thermocouples and an interface designed to process the data from the transducer through the parallel port of a personal computer (PC). In order to evaluate the performance of the system, eleven weeks old maize plants (Zea mays L.), growing in a greenhouse were used. The PC based system was calibrated with respect to data from the data logger and evaluated by comparison with results obtained by differential plant weighting. Error of the system to estimate sap was lower than 8%, which is similar to the accuracy of the data logger methods. The evaluated methodology offers a real time possibility to determine water losses due to transpiration and it can be implemented mainly for crops growing in greenhouses to optimize productivity and minimize plant diseases. The PC based method is an option to design a commercial irrigation control system at a relatively low overall cost, since a conventional computer and cheap electronic devices are utilized. <![CDATA[<b><i>DEVELOPMENT AND REPRODUCTION OF PODISUS NIGRISPINUS (HETEROPTERA: PENTATOMIDAE) FED ON HELIOTHIS VIRESCENS (LEPIDOPTERA: NOCTUIDAE) CATERPILLARS</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292010000300003&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Heliothis virescens (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) é um inseto polífago amplamente distribuído no continente americano, onde o controle químico é a tática mais utilizada. Os impactos de seu uso tornam necessária a busca de alternativas de manejo desse inseto-praga. Assim, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o desenvolvimento e a reprodução de Podisus nigrispinus (Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) com lagartas de H. virescens, comparado à alimentação com pupas de Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). O experimento foi conduzido em sala climatizada a 25 ± 1 ºC, 70 ± 15% de umidade relativa e 14 horas de fotofase. O delineamento foi o inteiramente casualizado com 50 e 20 repetições nas etapas I e II, respectivamente. O desenvolvimento ninfal desse predador foi semelhante com essas presas, mas o número de posturas, ovos e ninfas por fêmea, além do intervalo entre posturas de P. nigrispinus apresentaram melhores resultados com T. molitor. Assim, P. nigrispinus apresentou desenvolvimento ninfal satisfatório com lagartas de H. virescens, mas o sucesso reprodutivo foi melhor quando recebeu T. molitor como presa.<hr/>Heliothis virescens (Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous insect widely distributed in the American continent, in which the use of chemical pesticides is the most common control strategy. The impacts caused by such practice make it necessary to seek alternatives for the management of this insect-pest. The objective of this work was to evaluate the development and reproduction of Podisus nigrispinus ( Dallas) (Heteroptera: Pentatomidae) fed on H. virescens caterpillars compared with those fed on Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) pupae. The experiment was carried out in an acclimatized room 25 ± 1 ºC, 70 ± 15% relative humidity and photophase of 14 hours. The experiment was arranged in a complete randomized design with 50 and 20 repetitions at stages I and II, respectively. The nymphal development of this predator was similar with both prey, but the results for number of egg-layings, eggs and nymphs per female, as well as the interval between egg-layings of P. nigrispinus were better with T. molitor. In conclusion, P. nigrispinus showed satisfactory nymphal development with H. virescens caterpillars, but better reproductive success when it was fed on T. molitor prey. <![CDATA[<b><i>MARKET SEGMENTATION ACCORDING TO LIFESTYLES OF ORGANIC WINE CUSTOMERS IN THE METROPOLITAN REGION OF CHILE</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292010000300004&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en El desarrollo de la vitivinicultura orgánica en Chile responde al desarrollo de una demanda potencial, asociada a la seguridad alimentaria y conservación medioambiental, lo que la transforma en una actividad promisoria, que se inserta en una industria vitivinícola globalizada y exitosa, pero que al mismo tiempo enfrenta desafíos referentes a conocer las demandas de los consumidores nacionales e internacionales. En este sentido, la siguiente investigación determina estilos de vida de consumidores de vino de la Región Metropolitana, y de acuerdo a esto segmenta el mercado, encontrando tres grupos de consumidores cada uno denominado "Sociables e indiferentes hacia el vino orgánico" segmento equivalente al 40,32% del mercado; "Actitud positiva hacia el vino orgánico" segmento equivalente al 22,58% del mercado y "Consumidores de productos orgánicos" segmento equivalente al 37,10%.<hr/>The development of organic winemaking in Chile responds to the development of a potential demand, linked to food security and environmental conservation, which transforms it into a promising activity, which is part of a global and successful wine industry, but at the same time facing challenges relating to meet the demands of consumers nationwide and abroad. In this regard, the following investigation determines lifestyles of consumers who came from the metropolitan area, and according to this market segments, finding three groups of consumers each called, "Social and indifferent toward organic wine" segment equivalent to 40.32% of the market; "Positive attitude toward organic wine" segment equivalent to 22.58% of the market; and "Consumers of organic products" segment equivalent to 37.10%. <![CDATA[<b><i>BEHAVIOR  OF  </i></b><b>COFFEA ARABICA<i>  L.  PLANTS EXPOSED  TO  WATER  DEFICITS  IN DIFFERENT  PHASES OF THEIR  INITIAL DEVELOPMENT</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292010000300005&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O presente trabalho objetivou estudar a influência do déficit hídrico no desenvolvimento inicial da lavoura cafeeira, aplicado em diferentes épocas: 30, 60, 90 e 120 dias após o transplantio. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram na submissão das mudas transplantadas a déficits hídricos com duração fixa de 30 dias, sendo D0 = sem déficit hídrico; D1 = plantas submetidas a déficit hídrico entre o 30º e 60º dia após o transplantio; D2 = plantas submetidas a déficit hídrico entre o 60º e 90º dia após o transplantio; D3 = plantas submetidas a déficit hídrico entre o 90º e 120º dia após o transplantio e; D4 = plantas submetidas a déficit hídrico entre o 120º e 150º dia após o transplantio. Após 180 dias do transplantio avaliou-se a massa seca da parte aérea e do sistema radicular, a área foliar, o diâmetro da copa e altura das plantas. O efeito do déficit hídrico foi especialmente importante nas variáveis estudadas quando aplicado aos 30, 60 ou 90 dias após o transplantio e não influenciou de forma significativa as variáveis área foliar, diâmetro da copa e altura das plantas, quando aplicado aos 120 dias após o transplantio.<hr/>The objective of this work was to study the influence of water deficits on the initial development of a coffee field, applied at different times: 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after transplanting. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, with a completely randomized design, with five treatments and three repetitions. Treatments consisted of submission of transplanted seedlings to water deficits of fixed duration of 30 days, with D0 = without water deficit, D1 = plants submitted to water deficits between 30 and 60 days after transplanting, D2 = plants submitted to water deficits between 60 and 90 days after transplanting, D3 = plants submitted to water deficits between 90 and 120 days after transplanting and, D4 = plants submitted to water deficits between 120 and 150 days after transplanting. At 180 days after transplanting we evaluated aerial and root system dry mater, leaf area, canopy diameter, and plant height. The effect of water deficit was especially important on the variables studied when applied 30, 60 or 90 days after transplanting and did not significantly influence the variables leaf area, canopy diameter, and plant height, when applied 120 days after transplanting. <![CDATA[<b><i>PRODUCTIVE AND ECONOMIC CHARACTERIZATION OF MEDIUM AND LARGE DAIRY FARMERS OF SOUTHERN CHILE</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292010000300006&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Este trabajo realiza una caracterización productiva y económica de 39 explotaciones lecheras de las Regiones de La Araucanía, de Los Ríos y de Los Lagos de Chile, adscritas al Centro de Gestión (CEGE) TODOAGRO S.A., durante la temporada 2003-2004. Se presentan una descripción detallada de las condiciones productivas y económicas de los agricultores involucrados. El análisis se desarrolla en forma descriptiva y mediante pruebas paramétricas, como la regresión. Se concluye que existen factores manejables directamente por el hombre, que pueden generar distintos niveles de eficiencia, tales como los costos de producción, carga animal, calidad de la leche y el sistema de manejo en general. Todos ellos determinan el éxito productivo de la explotación.<hr/>This work carries out a productive and economic characterization of 39 dairy farms of the Araucanía, Los Ríos and Los Lagos Regions of Chile, assigned to the Farm Management Center TODOAGRO S.A., during the 2003-2004 period. A detailed description of productive and economic conditions of the farmers is presented. The analysis uses descriptive statistics and parametric tests like the linear regression. The main results evidence that there are management factors directly controlled by the farmer, that can generate different levels of efficiency like the costs of production, the stocking rate, quality of the milk and the system of management. These factors determine the productive success of the farm. <![CDATA[<b><i>POPULATION DYNAMIC OF</i></b><b> CALIROA CERASI L. <i>(HYMENOPTERA: TENTHREDINIDAE) IN CHERRY (</i>PRUNUS AVIUM L<i>.) ORCHARDS OF LOWER VALLEY OF THE CHUBUT RIVER(SOUTH PATAGONIA REGION- ARGENTINE</i>)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292010000300007&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Caliroa cerasi, la "babosita del peral", ocasiona importantes daños en cultivos de cerezo del Valle Inferior del Río Chubut. El principal objetivo del trabajo fue conocer la biología y dinámica poblacional de la especie en esta región, aspectos básicos para el desarrollo de estrategias de manejo enmarcadas en un Programa de Manejo Integrado de Plagas. Para ello se llevó a cabo un monitoreo en tres predios comerciales y en una parcela experimental del INTA Chubut, durante dos campañas (2005/2006 - 2006/2007), que consistió en el uso de trampas cromatográficas para la captura de adultos, mientras que en el caso de los huevos y las larvas se realizó un conteo directo en hojas. En la segunda campaña, con el fin de ajustar técnicas de muestreo, se tuvieron en cuenta dos estratos de la planta (inferior y medio). Las mayores densidades larvales fueron halladas en una producción orgánica. Las fluctuaciones poblacionales indican que la especie presenta en el VIRCH tres generaciones anuales. Sólo se hallaron diferencias significativas en la cantidad de huevos presentes en los estratos inferior y medio en el predio con sistema de conducción "eje central" en el caso de dos fechas, pero no en el caso de las larvas.<hr/>Caliroa cerasi, or "pear slug", causes important damages in cherry orchards of the Lower Valley of the Chubut River. The principal aim of this work was to know their biology and poputation dynamic in this region, being these aspects basic to develop management strategies compatible with a Pest Integrated Management Programme. For this purpose, a scouting in three commercial orchards and in an experimental INTA Chubut plot during two consecutives growing seasons (2005/2006 y 2006/2007) was held. These consisted in the adults capture by chromatographic traps meanwhile in case of eggs and larvae, a direct sampling was done. In order to ajust sampling technics, during the second growing season, two stratum of the plant (lower and medium) were considered. Population density was high in an organic production. Population fluctuations indicate that the species present three generations annually in VIRCH. Significant differences in eggs levels between plant stratums were found only in two dates in an orchard conducted by a "central axis" system, but no in larvae case. <![CDATA[<b><i>MILK PAYMENT SYSTEM IN SOUTHERN CHILE</i></b>: <b><i>MINIMUM AND MAXIMUM MILK PRICE TO FARMER</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292010000300008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en El objetivo del presente trabajo fue analizar los esquemas de pago de leche en cuatro industrias lácteas del sur de Chile. Se recopilaron todos los esquemas desde enero del 1998 hasta junio del 2004, y se utilizaron para estimar los precios máximos y mínimos por litro de leche. Se estimó el impacto relativo de cada variable en el precio final, tanto en el máximo como en el mínimo. En general, las bonificaciones y descuentos por litro de leche presentaron diferencias significativas entre los esquemas de pago y el tiempo de evaluación. Las variables de mayor impacto relativo en el precio final máximo por litro de leche fueron el precio base y volumen de entrega de leche; por otra parte, en el precio final mínimo fueron el recuento de células somáticas y el contenido de unidades formadoras de colonias de MO.<hr/>The goal of this paper is to analyze the milk payment system of four milk industries of the Los Ríos and Los Lagos regions, located in southern Chile. The collected data were the milk payment systems from January of 1998 until June 2004. The collected information allowed the analysis of minimum and maximum estimated milk prices, and the estimation of relative impact of each variable in the milk price. The main results evidence a significant influence of both the milk payment systems and time in the milk price. The most significant variables for the estimated maximum milk price are the base price and the total milk delivered to the industry; and for the estimated minimum milk price are the somatic cell count and colony-forming units. <![CDATA[<b><i>USE OF  RADAR  IMAGES  TO  ESTIMATE  AIR  TEMPERATURE</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292010000300009&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en O objetivo desse trabalho foi desenvolver modelos matemáticos para estimativas das temperaturas do ar mínimas, médias e máximas, mensais e anual no estado do Espírito Santo, Brasil, e espacializar as informações com base em um modelo digital de elevação (MDE), obtido a partir de dados do radar SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission). As equações foram desenvolvidas com o uso de análises de regressão múltipla, adotando-se o modelo linear, que teve como variáveis independentes a altitude, a latitude e a longitude e como variável dependente a temperatura do ar. Os coeficientes das equações foram determinados utilizando-se como base os dados mensais médios das temperaturas do ar para o período de 1977 a 2006, obtidos em 14 estações meteorológicas distribuídas em todo o estado. A imagem de radar SRTM originária da missão de mapeamento do relevo terrestre desenvolvido pela NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) e NGA (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency) dos Estados Unidos no ano 2000 permitiu a disponibilização de um modelo digital de elevação (MDE) com resolução espacial de 90 m para a área de abrangência do estudo. As imagens SRTM foram mosaicadas, obtendo-se uma única imagem com valores médios de altitude e suas respectivas coordenadas geográficas para todo o estado. As análises estatísticas de regressão permitiram verificar o nível de ajuste dos dados às equações obtidas através do modelo estatístico linear, que apresentou coeficientes de determinação ajustados (R²) variando entre 0,94 a 0,97, com bom desempenho para estimar a temperatura do ar nos locais onde esta não é medida. A utilização do SRTM permitiu detectar com bastante sensibilidade a variação do relevo, demonstrando eficiência nos resultados da estimativa e espacialização da temperatura do ar, contribuindo para melhorar os resultados obtidos em relação à simples interpolação de dados medidos em estações meteorológicas, principalmente em regiões de relevo acidentado.<hr/>The objective of this work was to develop mathematical models to estimate air temperatures (minimum, medium and maximum), monthly and annual in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, and spatializing information based on a digital elevation model (MDE), obtained through radar data from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission). The equations were developed with the use of multiple regression analysis, adopting the linear model, which had as independent variables the altitude, latitude and longitude as the dependent variable and the air temperature. The coefficients of the equations were determined using as the base the monthly average air temperatures for the period from 1977 to 2006, obtained on fourteen meteorological stations distributed throughout the state. The SRTM radar image of the original mission of mapping the topography land developed by NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) and NGA (National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency) of the United States in 2000, allows for the provision of a digital elevation model (MDE ) with spatial resolution of 90 m to the area of coverage of the study. The images SRTM were mosaics, resulting in a single image with average values of altitude and the geographic coordinates for the entire state. The statistical analysis of regression have shown the level of adjustment of the data obtained by the linear statistical model, which showed adjusted coefficient of determination (R²) ranging between 0.94 to 0.97, with good performance to estimate the air temperature in places where it is not measured. The use of SRTM identified very sensitively the variation of relief, demonstrating efficiency and estimates the results of spatial air temperature, helping to improve the results in relation to simple interpolation of the measured data on meteorological stations, especially in regions of bumpy relief. <![CDATA[<strong><i>POTASSIUM REQUIREMENT OF A HYBRID AND CULTIVATE CANOLA (BRASSICA NAPUS CV. OLEÍFERA) AND ITS EFFECT ON PRODUCTION IN TWO SOIL OF THE ANDISOLS REGION OF ARAUCANÍA</i></strong>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292010000300010&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se realizó un ensayo con el propósito de evaluar el requerimiento de potasio de un híbrido y un cultivar de canola (Brassica napus cv. Oleifera) y su efecto en la producción y contenido de materia grasa en dos suelos andisoles de la región de La Araucanía. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques al azar, con cuatro dosis, 0, 50, 100, 150 kg de K2O, y cuatro repeticiones. Las variables a evaluar fueron: rendimiento del grano, contenido de materia grasa y requerimiento de potasio por quintal. Los resultados indican que las dosis de potasio utilizadas, no afectaron de forma significativa el rendimiento de los cultivares utilizados ni el contenido de materia grasa en ambos suelos. El requerimiento promedio de potasio fue de 2,7 y 2,6 kg de K por qqm para Artus y Tequila, respectivamente.<hr/>A study was carried out to assess the requirement of potassium and a hybrid cultivar of canola (Brassica napus cv. Oleífera) and its effect on production and fat content on two soil andisols in the region of Araucania. We used a randomized block design with four doses, 0, 50, 100, 150 kg of K2O and four repetitions. The variables assessed were: grain yield, fat content and requirement of potassium per quintal. The results indicate that the doses of potassium used, did not significantly affect the performance of the cultivars used, or the fat content in both soils. The average requirement of potassium was 2.7 and 2.6 kg of K qqm for Artus and Tequila, respectively. <![CDATA[<b><i>EFFECT OF THE DROUGHT ON SOME WATER AND MORPHOMETRIC VARIABLES IN FIVE AMARANTH GENOTYPES</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292010000300011&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Se evaluó el efecto de la sequía sobre variables hídricas y morfométricas en Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus y A. hypochondriacus razas Azteca, Mercado y Nepal durante la floración de estos genotipos cultivados en invernadero. Se determinó el contenido hídrico relativo (CHR), concentración de prolina en raíz y hoja, área foliar, número de hojas y partición de biomasa. Se observó que la sequía indujo incrementos significativos en la concentración de prolina en raíz en todos los genotipos, mientras que en hoja sólo en Azteca y Nepal. La sequía también indujo una disminución significativa de CHR en A. Cruentus y A. hypochondriacus raza Azteca así como en el área foliar de todos los genotipos con excepción de A. Caudatus, y en el número de hojas en Azteca y Nepal. Considerando la partición de biomasa, A. caudatus fue la especie menos sensible a la sequía. El análisis integrado de las variables estudiadas indicó que A. caudatus y A. hypochondriacus, raza Nepal, fueron las especies con menor y mayor susceptibilidad a la sequía respectivamente.<hr/>The effect of the drought was evaluated on water and morphometric variables in Amaranthus caudatus, A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus, races Azteca, Mercado and Nepal during the flowering state grown in greenhouse. It was determined relative water content (RWC), concentration of prolina in leaf and root, leaf area, number of leaves and partition of biomass. It was observed that A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus race Azteca cultivated in drought, showed a significant diminution at the 14:00 hours in RWC. All the genotypes worked in drought showed significant increases in the concentration of prolina in root; in leaves, only races Azteca and Nepal denoted a significant increase. The foliar area except A. caudatus, showed a significant diminution in all the genotypes worked in drought. In the number of leaves, only races Azteca and Nepal showed a significant reduction. Considering the partition of biomass A. caudatus was the less sensible specie to the drought. The integrated analysis of the studied variables indicated that A. caudatus and A. hypochondriacus, race Nepal were the species with minor and major susceptibility to the drought respectively. <![CDATA[<b>FIRST RECORD FOR <i>CATHARTUS QUADRICOLLIS</i> AND <i>CALLOSOBRUCHUS MACULATUS</i> CULTURES ATTACKED BY THE MITE <i>PYEMOTES TRITICI</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292010000300012&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en It is recorded the occurrence of Pyemotes tritici (Lagréze-Fossat & Montagné) on Cathartus quadricollis (Guérin-Méneville) and Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), reducing insect’s populations in laboratory conditions. This mite was observed feeding on larvae and pupae of C. quadricollis, and adults of C. maculatus. The mite toxin quickly paralyzed larvae and adults attacked. The mite P. tritici is a lethal problem for mass rearing of insects and its effective eradication ultimately depends on the periodic monitoring of the insect colonies. As result, the mite P. tritici can be a new alternative for the biological control of C. quadricollis and C. maculatus in stored products. However, this possibility must be better understood before it could be recommended, because Pyemotes sp. could also cause dermatitis in the humans.<hr/>Se registra la ocurrencia de Pyemotes tritici (Lagréze-Fossat & Montagné) sobre Cathartus quadricollis (Guérin-Méneville) y Callosobruchus maculatus (Fabricius), reduciendo las poblaciones de estes insectos bajo condiciones de laboratorio. Este ácaro fue observado alimentándose sobre larvas y ninfas de C. quadricollis, y de adultos de C. maculatus. La toxina del ácaro paraliza totalmente las larvas y los adultos atacados. El ácaro P. tritici es un problema letal para producción masal de insectos, y su erradicación efectiva depende de una supervisión periódica de las colonias de insectos. De acuerdo con los resultados, el ácaro P. tritici puede ser una nueva alternativa para el control biológico de C. quadricollis y de C. maculatus en productos almacenados. Sin embargo, esta posibilidad necesita de estudios adicionales para posterior recomendación, visto que varias especies de Pyemotes también pueden causar dermatitis en seres humanos. <![CDATA[<b>BIOCHEMICAL RESPONSE OF <i>THYRINTEINA LEUCOCERAEA</i> TO PROTEASES INHIBITOR IN GUAVA PLANTS</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292010000300013&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en As plantas têm um tipo de defesa que interfere no sistema digestivo dos insetos através da expressão de diferentes inibidores de proteases (IPs). Os IPs agem inibindo enzimas proteolíticas no intestino dos insetos, podendo até levá-los à morte. Por isso, estudos têm sido realizados visando à utilização desses compostos como método alternativo no controle de insetos fitófagos. As lagartas de Thyrinteina leucoceraea causam muitos danos em eucaliptais, mas não conseguem se desenvolver bem em folhas de goiabeira, portanto é interessante que a defesa desta planta seja investigada. Sendo assim, este trabalho estudou a resposta enzimática da lagarta T. leucoceraea ao aumento da concentração do IP benzamidina (IP sintético de serino-proteases) aplicado sobre as folhas de goiabeira, a fim de estudar a ação do inibidor sintético em conjunto com o inibidor natural produzido por essas plantas. Para tal investigação, foram utilizadas três diferentes concentrações de benzamidina: 0, 12, 0,25 e 0,5%. Verificou-se que as goiabeiras produzem IPs como resposta de defesa e que a benzamidina aplicada nas plantas de goiaba interferiu na atividade das serino-proteases no intestino de lagartas de T. leucoceraea, entretanto, pode-se observar também que as lagartas apresentaram adaptação à ingestão dos IPs através do aumento da atividade de cisteíno-proteases em quase todos os tratamentos.<hr/>Plants have a type of defense that interferes with the digestive system of insects through the expression of different protease inhibitors (PIs). PIs act by inhibiting proteolytic enzymes in the gut of insects, and may even lead them to death. Therefore, studies have been conducted in order to use these compounds as an alternative method in control of phytophagous insects. The Thyrinteina leucoceraea is prague on eucalypts, but does not cause severe damage in leaves of guava, so it is interesting that the defense of this plant is investigated. Thus, this work studied the enzymatic response of the caterpillar T. leucoceraea further concentration of benzamidine PI (PI synthetic of serine proteases) applied to the leaves of guava in order to evaluate the effects of synthetic inhibitor in conjunction with the natural inhibitor produced by these plants. For this investigation, we used three different concentrations of benzamidine, 0.12, 0.25 and 0.5%. It was found that the guava produce IPs in response to defense and that the benzamidine applied on leaves of guava interfere in the activity of serine proteases in the gut of larvae of T. leucoceraea. However, it can also be observed that the caterpillars were adapted to the ingestion of PIs by increasing the activity of cysteine proteases in almost all treatments. <![CDATA[<b><i>TRICHOSPILUS DIATRAEAE </i></b><b>CHERIAN & MARGABANDHU, 1942 (HYMENOPTERA:EULOPHIDAE), A NEW PARASITOID OF <i>HYPSIPYLA GRANDELLA</i> (ZELLER, 1848) (LEPIDOPTERA: PYRALIDAE)</b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292010000300014&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Primer reporte de Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) parasitando pupas de lagarta Hypsipyla grandella, principal plaga forestal en América Latina y el Caribe, abriendo nuevas perspectivas para la utilización de este parasitoide en programas de control biológico de lagartas de importancia forestal.<hr/>This is the first report of Trichospilus diatraeae (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) found in the field parasitizing pupae of the Hypsipyla grandella, major forest pest in Latin America and the Caribbean, this offers new perspectives for the use of this parasitoid in biological control programs against caterpillars of forestry importance. <![CDATA[<b><i>FOOD HABITS OF THE GENUS GYRIOSOMUS GUÉRIN-MÉNEVILLE, 1834 (COLEOPTERA: TENEBRIONIDAE)</i></b>: <b><i>WHAT DO THE VAQUITAS OF THE COASTAL DESERT EAT?</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292010000300015&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en En el presente trabajo se describen por primera vez los hábitos alimenticios y modificaciones en la ecología trófica de algunas especies del género Gyriosomus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Se discute respecto a las posibles causas de estas adaptaciones tróficas y sus posibles implicancias ecológicas.<hr/>In the present work the food habits and the changes in the trophic ecology of some species of the genus Gyriosomus (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) are described for the first time, and the possible causes of these trophic adaptations and their ecological implications are discussed. <![CDATA[<b><i>TOMATO CONSUMPTION PREVENTS THE DEVELOPMENT OF CARDIOVASCULAR EVENTS AND CANCER</i></b>: <b><i>EPIDEMIOLOGIC ANTECEDENTS AND ACTION MECHANISMS</i></b>]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-34292010000300016&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en Las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT), especialmente las enfermedades cardiovasculares (ECV) y el cáncer, representan un importante problema de salud pública. Una de las estrategias para revertir esta situación es incrementar el consumo de frutas y hortalizas. Por lo anterior, esta revisión muestra los hallazgos epidemiológicos y mecanismos por los cuales la ingesta de tomate podría prevenir el desarrollo de ECV y cáncer. El tomate, rico en licopeno, es la hortaliza de mayor consumo a nivel mundial y la que más se cultiva en Chile. Desde la década de los noventa, varios estudios epidemiológicos han mostrado que el consumo de tomate puede prevenir el desarrollo de eventos cardiovasculares (infarto agudo de miocardio y enfermedad cerebro vascular) y ciertos tipos de cáncer. Respecto a los mecanismos protectores de ECV se ha observado que el tomate presenta actividades antiplaquetaria, protectora del endotelio, antioxidante y antiaterogénica. Por su parte, entre los mecanismos por los cuales puede prevenir el cáncer, se han descrito las siguientes actividades: antioxidante, activación de apoptosis, disminución de la proliferación celular y disminución de la angiogenesis y metástasis. A futuro será necesario avanzar en el conocimiento de los mecanismos moleculares involucrados (células, receptores y vías de señalización). Por otra parte, teniendo en consideración el aporte del tomate y sus productos en la prevención de las ENT, junto con incrementar las campañas sobre consumo interno y exportación, será fundamental idear nuevos alimentos funcionales y nutracéuticos.<hr/>Non-transmissible diseases (NTDs), especially cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer, are a major public health problem. One strategy to reverse this situation is to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables. For these reasons, this review shows the epidemiological findings and mechanisms by which tomato intake may prevent the development of CVD and cancer. The tomato rich in lycopene is the most consumed vegetable in the world and the main crop in Chile. Since the nineties, several epidemiological studies have shown that tomato consumption may prevent the development of cardiovascular events (myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular disease) and certain types of cancers. Regarding the protective mechanisms of CVD, it has been observed that the tomato has antiplatelet activity, endothelial protective, antioxidant and antiatherogenic. Meanwhile, among the mechanisms by which it can prevent cancer has described the following activities: antioxidant, activation of apoptosis, decreased cell proliferation and angiogenesis and diminution of metastasis. In future it is necessary to advance the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms involved (cells, receptors and signaling pathways). Also, taking into consideration the contribution of the tomato and its products in the prevention of NTD, along with the outstanding campaigns to increase domestic consumption and export, it will be essential to devise new functional foods and nutraceuticals food.