Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista de biología marina y oceanografía]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0718-195720210001&lang=pt vol. 56 num. 1 lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[Review of Alfredo Hipólito Llaña Garín (1913-1971): First Chilean marine phycologist]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-19572021000100001&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Alfredo Llaña Garín, Profesor de Estado en Ciencias Biológicas y Química de la Universidad de Chile (1937), es el precursor del estudio de las algas marinas en Chile. Esta reseña recuerda sus inicios, su pionera investigación en botánica y trabajos en microalgas en aguas límnicas, su contribución para el desarrollo de la Estación de Biología Marina de Montemar, Universidad de Chile y también por 20 años en la Universidad de Panamá. El Prof. Llaña estudia, asimismo, las macroalgas marinas robusteciendo la importancia de su valor comercial. En la actualidad, Chile es reconocido como uno de lo más importante proveedores de algas marinas para la extracción de agar, carragenanos y alginatos, esenciales para la industria alimentaria, cosmética, y biomédica.<hr/>Abstract: Alfredo Llaña Garín, State Professor in Biological Sciences and Chemistry at the University of Chile (1937), is the forerunner of the study of marine algae in Chile. This review recalls his beginnings, his pioneering research in botany and work on microalgae in limnic waters, his contribution to the development of the Montemar Marine Biology Station, University of Chile and for 20 years at the University of Panama. Prof. Llaña also studies marine macroalgae, strengthening the importance of their commercial value. At present, Chile is recognized as one of the most important suppliers of seaweed for the extraction of agar, carrageenans and alginates, essential for the food, cosmetic, and biomedical industries. <![CDATA[Population parameters of <em>Nototropis minikoi</em> and <em>Ampithoe longimana</em> (Crustacea: Amphipoda) in two Mexican Caribbean Sea Islands]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-19572021000100002&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Se analizó la estructura de la población, el crecimiento, la fecundidad y la supervivencia de Nototropis minikoi y Ampithoe longimana en Isla Contoy e Isla Mujeres del caribe mexicano. Se midieron la temperatura, salinidad y oxígeno disuelto in situ. Se recolectaron un total de 2.815 anfípodos de ambas especies: 1.407 de Nototropis minikoi y 1.408 de Ampithoe longimana. La temperatura presentó valores de 26 a 27 °C, salinidad de 35 a 36 unidades y oxígeno disuelto de 6 a 9 mg L-1. Los juveniles representaron el mayor porcentaje con 55 a 73% en N. minikoi y del 57 a 67% en A. longimana. Con el método de Bhattacharya se encontraron de 4 a 5 clases modales. Con el modelo de von Bertalanffy se encontró que las hembras presentaron la mayor longitud máxima con 10,88 mm (k= 0,35) y 14,54 mm (k= 0,24) en N. minikoi y A. longimana, respectivamente. El promedio de huevos fue de 6,83 ± 4,50 a 8,55 ± 5,22 en N. minikoi y 7,55 ± 4,82 a 8,33 ± 3,79 en A. longimana. La supervivencia fue de 13,70 y 36,63% para N. minikoi y de 13,31 y 28,11% para A. longimana, lo cual corresponde a especies con estrategia “r”. Los resultados evidenciaron una relación costo-beneficio entre los parámetros poblacionales, dado que a una tasa de crecimiento lenta y un mayor número de clases modales se alcanzan tamaños máximos mayores.<hr/>Abstract: The population structure, growth, fertility and survival of Nototropis minikoi and Ampithoe longimana in Isla Contoy and Isla Mujeres from Mexican Caribbean were analyzed. A total of 2,815 amphipods of both species were collected: 1,407 of Nototropis minikoi and 1,408 of Ampithoe longimana. The temperature showed values of 26 to 27 °C, salinity of 35 to 36 units and dissolved oxygen of 6 to 9 mg L-1. The juveniles represented the highest percentage with 55 to 73% in N. minikoi and 57 to 67% in A. longimana. With the Bhattacharya method, 4 to 5 modal classes were found. With the von Bertalanffy model, the greatest maximum length of 10.88 mm (k= 0.35) and 14.54 mm (k= 0.24) in the females of N. minikoi and A. longimana were found, respectively. The average number of eggs was 6.83 ± 4.50 to 8.55 ± 5.22 in N. minikoi and 7.55 ± 4.82 to 8.33 ± 3.79 in A. longimana. Survival was 13.70 and 36.63% for N. minikoi and 13.31 and 28.11% for A. longimana, which corresponds to species with “r” strategy. The results showed a trade-off between the population parameters, since at a slow growth rate and a greater number of modal classes greater maximum sizes are reached. <![CDATA[Nutrients biofiltration capacity and growth of macroalgae cultivated in effluents generated in the production of the yellowtail amberjack <em>Seriola lalandi</em> (Perciformes: Carangidae)]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-19572021000100003&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Se evaluó la capacidad de biofiltración de nutrientes y el crecimiento de las especies de macroalgas rodófitas Agarophyton chilense y Mazzaella canaliculata y la clorófita Ulva lactuca utilizando los efluentes del cultivo de Seriola lalandi. Las tres macroalgas utilizadas alcanzan altos valores de remoción de nitrito y fosfato, entre 84,0 y 87,5%, respectivamente. En cambio, en la biofiltración de amonio los mejores resultados fueron alcanzados por U. lactuca y A. chilense, ambas con 46,4%. En la remoción de nitrato, A. chilense y M. canaliculata, alcanzaron eficiencias del 40 y 50%, respectivamente. En relación al crecimiento alcanzado por las algas, los resultados muestran que la tasa de crecimiento diario de M. canaliculata registró una pérdida de biomasa cuantificada en 0,29%, por su parte U. lactuca mostró un incremento de 0,78% y A. chilense alcanzó el mejor rendimiento con 2,8%. Este estudio concluye con la confirmación de la utilización de macroalgas en la remoción de nutrientes a partir de efluentes de piscicultura. Además, desde la perspectiva del incremento de biomasa, el cultivo de A. chilense promueve expectativas para la obtención de producciones secundarias a la piscicultura de Seriola lalandi en un sistema integrado de producción.<hr/>Abstract: The removal capacity of dissolved nutrients and growth of the red macroalgae Agarophyton chilense and Mazzaella canaliculata and the green Ulva lactuca were evaluated using the effluents from the Seriola lalandi culture. The three macroalgae species reached high nitrite and phosphate removal values between 84 and 87.5%, respectively. On the other hand, in the removal of ammonia the best results were achieved by U. lactuca and A. chilense, both with 46.4%. In nitrate removal, A. chilense and M. canaliculata achieve efficiencies of 40 and 50%, respectively. In relation to the growth achieved by algae, they show that the daily growth rate of M. canaliculata registered a loss of biomass quantified at 0.29%, while U. lactuca showed an increase of 0.78% and A. chilense reached the best performance with 2.8%. Based on the results obtained, it is possible to conclude on the feasibility of using macroalgae in the removal of nutrients, especially A. chilense, which, also, from the perspective of increasing biomass, the cultivation of A. chilense opens expectations to obtain secondary productions from Seriola lalandi fish farming in an integrated production system. <![CDATA[Effects of sieve mesh size on the characterization of marine benthic macrofauna: Implications for their use in baselines, preliminary characterization of aquaculture sites and environmental monitoring in Chile]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-19572021000100004&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: Las características ecológicas de la macrofauna bentónica, la convierten en un buen indicador para evaluar los efectos de perturbaciones antropogénicas (e.g., acuicultura, emisarios submarinos, etc.) sobre los ecosistemas marinos. La normativa chilena aplicable a monitoreos ambientales establece que su caracterización debe realizarse utilizando tamices de 1.000 µm de abertura. Con el objetivo de evaluar la pérdida de información en composición y abundancia de las especies al utilizar este tamiz respecto de uno de 500 µm, se realizaron muestreos submareales en invierno y verano del 2018 en 5 áreas del Golfo de Arauco, Chile central. El muestreo y análisis consistió en: (i) cernido en tamiz de 1.000 µm, reteniendo los organismos que traspasan este tamiz en uno de 500 µm, (ii) identificación de los organismos retenidos en ambos tamices hasta el nivel taxonómico más bajo posible y, (iii) comparación de la macrofauna entre tamices, períodos y áreas de muestreo, utilizando estadística univariada y multivariada. A partir de los análisis se encontraron diferencias significativas en la estructura comunitaria de la macrofauna entre tamices, áreas y periodos de muestreo. Los índices AMBI y W, utilizados como bio-indicadores comunitarios, también identifican diferencias significativas entre tamices. Los resultados señalan que, si bien el uso de un tamiz de 1.000 µm permite identificar diferencias espaciales y temporales en la macrofauna, con su uso se subestima el nivel de impacto detectado por los bio-indicadores comunitarios. Por tal razón, se recomienda utilizar un tamiz de 500 µm si el objetivo es evaluar impactos antropogénicos en el ambiente marino, especialmente en líneas de base, caracterizaciones preliminares de sitio para la acuicultura y programas de vigilancia ambiental. Toda la información, debiera, además, ser integrada mediante herramientas estadísticas multivariadas, capaces de incorporar en conjunto los antecedentes biológicos y ambientales recopilados en el área de estudio.<hr/>Abstract: The ecological characteristics of the benthic macrofauna make a good indicator to evaluate the effects of anthropic perturbations (e.g., aquaculture, submarine pipelines emissions) on marine ecosystems. Chilean environmental regulation establishes that macrofauna characterization must be performed with sieves with 1,000 µm opening. To evaluate the loss of information on species composition and abundance by using an opening of 1,000 µm instead of 500 µm, subtidal samplings were performed during summer and winter of 2018 in 5 areas of the Gulf of Arauco, central Chile. Sampling and analysis consisted of: (i) samples were sieved through 1,000 µm mesh and the organisms passing through this sieve were retained in 500 µm mesh sieves; (ii) identifying the taxa retained in both sieves to the lowest possible level, and (iii) comparison of the macrofauna between sieves, periods and sampling areas, using univariate and multivariate statistics. The analyses showed significant differences in the community structure among sieve sizes, areas and sampling periods. The AMBI and W indexes, used as community bio-indicators, also showed significant differences between sieve sizes. The results revealed that, although a 1,000 µm sieve can identify spatial and temporal differences in the macrofauna, it underestimates the level of impact shown by community bio-indicators. The use of a 500 µm sieve is recommended if the objective is to evaluate anthropic impact on the marine environment, especially for baseline studies, preliminary site characterizations for aquaculture, monitoring and/or environmental surveillance programmes. This information should also be complemented with multivariate statistical tools that are capable of incorporating together all the biological and environmental information compiled in the study area. <![CDATA[Size selectivity and optimal soaking time of hoops and traps targeting the blue swimming crab <em>Callinectes arcuatus</em> in Cuyutlan Lagoon, Mexico]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-19572021000100005&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: The selectivity of two types of commercial fishing gear (crab hoop/traditional gear and rigid rectangular cage traps) targeting blue crabs (Callinectes arcuatus) in Cuyutlan Lagoon, Mexico, was assessed. The effect of soak time on crab catches versus the retention and escape rate of organisms was also evaluated. Results suggested that traps captured larger individuals than hoops. The carapace width of crabs was significantly different between the fishing gears used: 63.9% of crabs caught with hoops were &lt; 95 mm (sizes ranged from 40 to 113 mm) and 40.7% of crabs caught with traps were &lt; 95 mm (range: 49 to 120 mm). Results also showed that catch rates were high during the first two hours and decreased after the third hour. The crabs tended to escape after several hours of soak time. The study found that the traps captured larger crabs than the hoops, suggesting that traps are a suitable fishing gear for catching blue swimming crabs in Cuyutlan Lagoon.<hr/>Resumen: Se analizó la selectividad de dos tipos de artes de pesca comercial (aros jaibero/arte tradicional y trampas rectangulares de material rígido) que se utilizan para capturar la jaiba azul (Callinectes arcuatus) en la pesquería que opera en la Laguna de Cuyutlán, México. Asimismo, se analizó el efecto del tiempo de remojo de las trampas sobre las tasas de captura y de escape de los organismos. Los resultados del primer experimento sugirieron que la trampa rectangular capturó organismos más grandes, en comparación con el aro jaibero. La estructura del ancho de caparazón fue significativamente diferente entre los artes de pesca evaluados: los aros retuvieron el 63,9% de tallas &lt; 95 mm (intervalos entre 40 y 113 mm) y las trampas el 40,7% de tallas &lt; 95 mm (intervalos entre 49 y 120 mm). Los resultados del segundo experimento mostraron que la tasa de captura fue mayor durante las primeras dos horas del tiempo de remojo, y después de la tercera hora la tasa de captura disminuyó. Después de varias horas de tiempo de remojo, los organismos tendieron a escapar. Se encontró que la trampa captura organismos de jaiba azul más grandes que el aro, por lo que es un arte más adecuado en la Laguna de Cuyutlán, México. <![CDATA[Reproductive aspects of <em>Mugil curema</em> (Perciformes: Mugilidae) in two areas of Baja California Sur, México]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-19572021000100006&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Resumen: La liseta Mugil curema está entre las principales especies que explota la pesquería artesanal en la costa mexicana del Océano Pacífico. Abordar aspectos reproductivos de las especies por zona de pesca reducirá el sesgo en la evaluación del estado de sus poblaciones. El objetivo del presente estudio fue describir el ciclo reproductivo y estimar algunos parámetros biológicos de la liseta en dos sitios de pesca de la costa de Baja California Sur. Mensualmente, se muestreo la captura de Bahía de La Paz (BLP) y Bahía Magdalena (BM), durante 2010-2013. Se analizó histológicamente la maduración gonadal y se describió el ciclo reproductivo. Se estimaron, el índice gonadosomático (IGS), factor de condición (FC), índice hepatosomático (IHS), la relación peso-longitud y longitud promedio de madurez sexual (L50%). La longitud total de los peces varió entre 244 y 455 mm. Las hembras fueron más abundantes, grandes y pesadas que los machos en ambos sitios de pesca. Se identificó un patrón reproductivo con dos máximos anuales en BLP (marzo-junio y octubre-noviembre) y uno en BM (abril-agosto). Se identificó un patrón similar del IGS, FC e IHS por sexos en ambos sitios. La liseta mostró alometría negativa en crecimiento, rasgos de desovador total, desarrollo gonadal sincrónico por grupos y la L50% superior en hembras que en machos. Se recomienda reajustar la veda temporal por sitio de pesca y con base en la L50% ser precautorios en el tamaño de la luz de malla de las redes de pesca.<hr/>Abstract: The white mullet Mugil curema is one of the main species that exploits the artisanal fishery on the Mexican Pacific coast. Addressing the reproductive aspects of species by fishing area will reduce bias in evaluating the status of their populations. The objective of the present study was to describe the reproductive cycle and estimate some biological parameters of the white mullet in two fishing sites on the coast of Baja California Sur. Monthly, samples from the catch were obtained in Bahía de La Paz (BLP) and Bahía Magdalena (BM), during 2010-2013. Gonadal maturation process was histologically analyzed and the reproductive cycle was described. Gonadosomatic index (GSI), condition factor (CF), hepatosomatic index (HSI), the weight-length relationship and average length of sexual maturity (L50%) were estimated. The size of the fish varied between 244 and 455 mm in total length (LT). Females were more abundant (&gt; 70%), large and heavy than males at both fishing sites. A reproductive pattern was identified with two annual peaks in BLP (March-June and October-November) and one in BM (April-August). A similar pattern of GSI, CF and HSI by sex was identified at both sites. The white mullet showed negative growth allometry, features of total spawning, synchronous gonadal development by groups and an L50% higher in females than males. It is recommended to readjust the closure period by fishing site and based on the L50% be cautious in the mesh size of the fishing nets. <![CDATA[Observations on the early development of the kelpfish <em>Myxodes viridis</em> (Clinidae) with the first description of their spawning habitat in subtidal kelp forests (<em>Lessonia trabeculata</em>)]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-19572021000100007&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: The spawning sites, embryonic development, and initial larval stages were described for the Chilean kelpfish, Myxodes viridis. Six different egg clutches were found attached by an elastic filament to the fronds of the subtidal kelp, Lessonia trabeculata, at shallow depths (0-7 m). All egg clutches were cared by one large (&gt;15 cm TL) male, and egg color varied depending on the developmental stage. Embryonic development until hatching was categorized into 7 stages, which were completed within about 18 days in the laboratory. Recently hatched larvae presented fully pigmented eyes, a well-developed mouth with major shape changes in the head during the first week suggesting their ability to feed on plankton early in their larval development. <![CDATA[Abundance of early life stages of the surf silverside <em>Notocheirus hubbsi</em> (Teleostei, Atheriniformes) in the coastal nearshore of central Chile]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-19572021000100008&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: The abundance of early stages of the surf silverside Notocheirus hubbsi in nearshore waters of central Chile, collected in samplings set up to assess the lunar cycle during austral spring and summer is reported. A total of 19 specimens were collected with light traps, 16 larvae (7.89-16.20 mm SL) in austral spring and 3 juveniles (30.70-34.60 mm SL) in summer. Capture per unit effort (CPUE) varied from 0.33 to 2.00 ind. light trap-1 night-1 during the entire study period (September 2015-February 2016, and September 2016-February 2017). N. hubbsi catches recorded maximum abundance during the new moon and no catches during full moon. <![CDATA[First records of the pantropical spotted dolphin <em>Stenella attenuata,</em> within groups of common dolphins <em>Delphinus delphis</em> in northern Peru]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-19572021000100009&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: Although dolphins are mostly known to form single species groups of varying size, occasionally they aggregate in mixed-species groups. The presence of mixed-species delphinid groups along the Peruvian coast is unknown. Herein, we report the presence of a single pantropical spotted dolphin (Stenella attenuata) within large groups of the common dolphin (Delphinus delphis) at Los Organos in the northern coast of Peru. Sightings occurred on October 10th, 2016, January 7th, 2018 and September 21st, 2019. In one sighting the mixed group was feeding, while during the other two sightings the group was travelling. These records add new evidence about mixed-species delphinid groups in coastal waters of Peru. <![CDATA[A review of recent sightings and reports of the giant tiger shrimp <em>Penaeus monodon</em> (Decapoda: Penaeidae) on the Mexican coast of the Gulf of Mexico (2012-2019)]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0718-19572021000100010&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract: This work shows an update of the sightings and reports of tiger shrimp Penaeus monodon on the Mexican coast of the Gulf of Mexico recorded from 2012 to 2019 and reports the smallest specimen found in the western Atlantic. The results show an increase of almost 300% in sightings and reports since the first report. The zone with most sightings and reports was the coast of Campeche and Yucatán. The wide range of size and distribution of the captured specimens, including the smallest specimen found in the western Atlantic and the presence of females at an advanced stage of gonadal maturity, indicates that P. monodon has established itself in the area. The possible negative effects of such establishment make necessary the proposal of measures based on scientific evidence.