Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Parasitología latinoamericana]]> vol. 59 num. 1-2 lang. es <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> <![CDATA[<B><I>Effect of </i></B><I>Trypanosoma lewisi<B> infection on the </B>Toxoplasma gondii <B>multiplication in white rat peritoneal macrophages</B></I>]]> Peritoneal macrophages (PM) from normal Wistar rats were treated in vitro with peritoneal supernatant or sera, obtained from rats infected with 10(6) Trypanosoma lewisi trypomastigotes before the infection with Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites. In this experimental model, Toxoplasma multiplication in PM was increased, as compared to macrophages treated with supernatant or sera from control rats not infected with T. lewisi. This effect was observed only if the active supernatant or sera came from rats infected with the T. lewisi 3 to 6 d before Toxoplasma inoculation. Furthermore, immunosuppressive activity was only detectable after at least 24 h incubation with the supernatant or sera. These results are in accordance with our in vivo previous studies which demonstrated a clear immunosuppressive effect of T. lewisi during T.gondii infection of the remarkably resistant Wistar rats <![CDATA[<B><I>Caracterización de antígenos de bajo peso molecular de </B>Angiostrongylus costaricensis<B>, reconocidos durante una infección experimental en roedores</B></I>]]> The immune response to low molecular weight components of Angiostrongylus costaricensis somatic crude antigen was investigated. During the chronic phase of infection three immunodominant antigens: 20, 15 and 2 kDa, were recognized by IgG and IgG1 using the Western blot method. In order to obtain the initial amino acid sequences of each recognized antigen, the Edmann digestion method was utilized. The sequence of 15 kDa antigen was found to have 100% homology with the Glutation-S-transferase enzyme of Brugia malayi and Onchocerca volvulus, and the sequence of 2 kDa antigen 95% homology with the Ubiquitine protein. For the 20 kDa antigen, a sequence of thirteen amino acids was obtained and it did not show homology to any protein described up to date. The cross reactivity to these components was weak, particularly to the 20 kDa component, to which no cross reactivity is detected. We propose further studies with human sera in order to investigate the usefulness of these antigen in the development of a specific diagnostic test for abdominal angiostrongylosis<hr/>La respuesta inmune hacia componentes de bajo peso molecular del antígeno somático de A. costaricensis fue investigada en el modelo animal experimental. Durante la fase crónica de la infección y mediante el Western blot, son detectados por la IgG e IgG1 tres antígenos inmunodominantes: uno de 20 otro de 15 y uno de 2 kDa respectivamente. Mediante el método de digestión de Edmann se obtuvo la secuencia de aminoácidos inicial de cada componente: para la banda de 15 kDa una secuencia con un 100% de homología con la enzima glutation-S-transferasa de Brugia malayi y Onchocerca volvulus, para el componete de 2kDa una secuencia con 95 % de homología con la proteína Ubiquitina, y para el compontente de 20 kDa una secuencia de trece aminoácidos, que no presenta homología con alguna proteína hasta ahora descrita. En general la reacción cruzada contra estos componentes es muy débil y en el caso particular del componente de 20 kDa no se detecta ninguna reacción cruzada. Se proponen futuros estudios con sueros humanos, para verificar la utilidad de dichos antígenos en el desarrollo de una prueba diagnóstica específica para la angiostrongiliosis abdominal <![CDATA[<B>PREVALENCE AND VARIATION OF THE ERYITROCYTIC FORMS OF <I>Plasmodium (Novyella) juxtanucleare</I> IN <I>Gallus gallus</I> ABOUT NATURAL CONDITIONS, IN THE PERIOD OF ONE YEAR</B>]]> The avian malaria caused by Plasmodium juxtanucleare in Gallus gallus, is a tipical plasmodiose from Brazilian gallinaceous. This disease can causes morbidy and mortality in its vertebrate hosts. This work was conducted at Boa Vista farm, Municipality of Santa Bárbara do Tugúrio, Minas Gerais, Brazil and the ours objectives were to evaluate the hight prevalence found in previous studies and to accompany the variation of the erytrocytic forms during one year. The bloods smears, dyed with Giemsa were examined in microscopy immersion. Twenty five half-breed fowls were accompany duting one year, monthly (from November/00 to May/01) and biweekly (from June/01 to October/01). The erytrocytic forms were registered and quantified by the observation of 100 microscopic fields. Was verified a prevalence of 100% by P. juxtanuclerare, but there wasn't statistics correlation between the increase of the erytrocytic forms during the year. The trophozoites were the more abundant form found in this studie<hr/>Este trabalho sobre a malária aviária causada pelo Plasmodium juxtanucleare em Gallus gallus no Brasil, foi realizado no sítio Boa Vista (21º15'12"S, 43º27'16"W), município de Santa Bárbara do Tugúrio, Minas Gerais, e teve como objetivos reavaliar a prevalência de 100% encontrada em estudos anteriores e acompanhar a variação dos estádios eritrocíticos do parasito ao longo de um ano na região. Sob microscopia em imersão foram examinados esfregaços sangüíneos de 25 aves mestiças, corados pelo Giemsa. As amostras foram coletadas ao longo de um ano, mensalmente de novembro/00 a maio/01 e quinzenalmente de junho/01 a outubro/01. Os estádios eritrocíticos foram quantificados pela observação de 100 campos microscópicos. Foi constatada prevalência de 100% por P. juxtanuclerare na região. Não houve correlação estatisticamente significativa entre o aumento dos estádios eritrocíticos em relação às coletas ao longo do ano. O estádio de trofozoíto foi predominante durante todo o período de estudo <![CDATA[<B><I>Amblyomma cajennense: </I>ADULTS DISTRIBUTION AND INCIDENCE ON THE BODY OF NATURALLY INFESTED MANGALARGA MARCHADOR AND BRETÃO POSTIER HORSES</B>]]> The objective of this study is to verify the incidence and the distribution of the tick Amblyomma cajennense tick in some infected regions of equines'body. Fifteen animals, 8 mares and 7 colts from Mangalarga Marchador and Bretão Postier races, raised in the Zootechny Institute Farm, Federal Rural University of Rio de Janeiro, were selected. From July, 1996 to May, 1997 (every 21 days) the animals were submitted to examination, mapping and ingurgitated females countig in 14 previously determined regions: face, lower jaw, neck, breast, shoulder-blade, armpits, former limbs, womb, back, flank, hip, udder, posterior limbs and perianal. The observed regions were classified in: anterior, posterior, median, right side and left side. The deviation analysis was made taking into account a random blocks delineation, whose scores were previously transformed on square root in order to decrease their dispersion, and subsequently analyzed by deviation analysis. During the observation time, the total of ticks was 1.434: 55.2% corresponding to the anterior region and 44% to the posterior region. It was also noticed a significant difference - 5% - in June and April, occuring the higher parasitic incidence, regarding to September, with a lower incidence. On the right and left sides and median region of the animals body, the variation was: 27.7%, 30.1% and 42.2%, respectively. The counting was higher in June; however, from August to September have showed lower incidences. On mares the distribution was: 59.5% on the anterior region and 40.5% on the posterior region: 32.9% on the right side, 28.1% on the left side and 39% on the median region. It was noticed significative difference among the countings averages on the three last regions in June (with higher incidence) and averages December, May, September, January and February averages (with lower incidences, respectively)<hr/>Com o objetivo de estudar a prevalência e a distribuição do carrapato Amblyomma cajennense nas diferentes regiões do corpo de eqüinos naturalmente infestados, foram selecionados 15 animais, sendo oito éguas e sete potros, pertencentes às raças Mangalarga Marchador e Bretão Postier com idades variando entre 6 meses e 20 anos, criados na Fazenda do Instituto de Zootecnia da UFRRJ. No período de Junho de 1996 a Maio de 1997 (a cada 21 dias), os eqüinos, selecionados aleatoriamente, foram submetidos à inspeção visual, mapeamento e contagem de fêmeas ingurgitadas, em 14 regiões previamente estabelecidas: face, ganacha, pescoço, peito, paleta, axilas, membros anteriores, ventre, costado, flanco, anca, úbere, membros posteriores e perianal. Para a análise estatística, as regiões de observação foram agrupadas em: anterior, posterior, mediana, lado direito e lado esquerdo. A análise de variância foi feita considerando um delineamento com blocos ao acaso, onde as contagens foram previamente transformadas em raiz quadrada, para diminuir sua e posteriormente analisadas pela análise de variância. Durante o período de observação, o total de teleóginas foi de 1.434; sendo que, para potros, 55,2% correspondeu à região anterior e 44,8%, à região posterior. Observou-se ainda a ocorrência de diferença significativa à nível de 5% nos meses de Junho e Abril, época de maior incidência parasitária, em relação ao mês de Setembro, onde houve menor incidência. Nos lados direito, esquerdo e região mediana do corpo dos animais, a oscilação foi de: 27,7; 30,1 e 42,2%, respectivamente; bem como a contagem foi maior no mês de Junho e diferiu significativamente dos meses de Agosto e Setembro, que apresentaram menores incidências. Nas éguas, a distribuição foi de: 59,5% na região anterior e 40,5% na região posterior; 32,9% no lado direito, 28,1% no lado esquerdo e 39,0% na região mediana, observando-se diferença significativa entre as médias das contagens das três últimas regiões citadas, entre o mês de Junho (com maior incidência) e as dos meses de Dezembro, Maio, Setembro, Janeiro e Fevereiro (com menores ocorrências, respectivamente) <![CDATA[<B><I>Proceso del desarrollo de </B>Corynosoma obtuscens<B> (Acanthocephala: Polymorphidae) en Canis familiaris y su posible implicancia en salud publica</B></I>]]> A report of the results obtained from an experimental infection of the domestic dog Canis familiaris, with Corynosoma obtuscens Lincicome, 1943, which is an acanthocephale of great infectious capacity and unspecific for the ultimate host, for which it may be considered a potential parasite for the people who eat raw fish as "cebiche", a typical dish of our country, is given in the present work. The presence of mature eggs of C. obtuscens in the feces of a non-habitual host is reported for the first time<hr/>En el presente trabajo, se da a conocer el resultado de la infección experimental del perro doméstico Canis familiaris, con Corynosoma obtuscens Lincicome, 1943, un acantocéfalo de gran capacidad infectiva y de inespecificidad para el hospedero definitivo, que lo convierte en un parásito potencial para el hombre, quien consume pescado marino semicrudo bajo la forma de "cebiche", plato típico de nuestro país. Encontrándose por primera vez la presencia de huevos maduros de C. obtuscens en las heces de un hospedero no habitual <![CDATA[<B>TAXONOMIC REPORTS OF TRYPANORHYNCHA/HOMEACANTHOIDEA CESTODES IN ELASMOBRANCHS COLLECTED IN THE COAST OF THE STATE OF PARANÁ, BRAZIL</B>]]> Specimes of elasmobranch fishes, captured in 1998 in the the State of Paraná, Brazil, were parasitized with Trypanorhyncha/Homeacanthoidea cestodes: Carcharhinus signatus with Heteronybelinia yamagutii (Dollfus, 1960) Palm, 1999 and H. nipponica (Yamaguti, 1952) Palm, 1999; Dipturus trachydermus (Krefft & Stehmann, 1975) with Mixonybelinia beveridgei (Palm et al, 1997) Palm, 1999. Details of scolex morphology of the two species of Heteronybelinia that expanded their desciptions were obtained. The known geographical distribution of the species is widened<hr/>Espécimes de peixes elasmobrânquios, capturados em 1998 no Estado do Paraná, Brasil, estavam parasitados com cestóides Trypano-rhyncha/Homeacanthoidea: Carcharhinus signatus com Heteronybelinia yamagutii e H. nipponica; Dipturus trachydermus com Mixonybelinia beveridgei Das duas espécies de Heteronybelinia foram obtidos detalhes da morfologia do escólex, que expandiram suas descrições. A distribuição geográfica das espécies foi ampliada <![CDATA[<B><I>Fauna parasitaria de la tórtola común (</B>Zenaida auriculata<B>, de Murs 1847) (Columbiformes: Columbidae) en Ñuble, Chile</B></I>]]> Between November 1994 and April 1995 a total of 235 Eared dove (Zenaida auriculata) from Ñuble Province (Chile), were examined for endo and ectoparasites. The following endoparasites were isolated (prevalence in %): Killigrewia delafondi (9,4%), Raillietina sp. (1,7%), Echinostoma sp. (0,9%), Heterakis gallinarum (0,4%) and Eimeria labbeana (5,5%). The ectoparasites identified were: Falculifer isodontus (55,7%), Diplaegidia columbae (73,2%), Amblyomma sp. (5,1%), Columbicola baculoides (64,7%), Bonomiella sp. (8,5%), Hohorstiella sp. (4,7%) and a mite of the family Trombiculidae (6,8%). Only mites of the family Trombiculidae, the cestode K. delafondi and the protozoan E. labbeana have already been described in Chile. The nine resting parasites discovered in the eared dove are described for the first time in Chile<hr/>En la provincia de Ñuble (Chile), entre Noviembre de 1994 y abril de 1995, se examinaron 235 tórtolas (Zenaida auriculata) para detectar endo y ectoparásitos. Los siguientes endoparásitos fueron aislados (prevalencia en %): Killigrewia delafondi (9,4%), Raillietina sp. (1,7%), Echinostoma sp. (0,9%), Heterakis gallinarum (0,4%) y Eimeria labbeana (5,5%). Los ectoparasitos identificados correspondieron a: Falculifer isodontus (55,7%), Diplaegidia columbae (73,2%), Amblyomma sp. (5,1), Columbicola baculoides (64,7%), Bonomiella sp. (8,5%), Hohorstiella sp. (4,7%) y ácaros de la familia Trombiculidae (6,8%). Ácaros de la familia Trombiculidae, el cestodo K. delafondi y el protozoo E. labbeana habían sido registrados previamente en Chile. Los otros nueve parásitos representan el primer registro para tórtolas en Chile <![CDATA[<B><I>Detection of </B>Toxoplasma gondii<B> in swine sausages</B></I>]]> In order to evaluate the importance of swine sausages in toxoplasmosis epidemiology, Toxoplasma gondii presence was investigated in 70 samples of the product commercialized in the city of Botucatu-SP. Samples were analyzed by bioassay in mice and DNA amplification by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Although the parasite was not isolated from any sample in the bioassay, 33 (47.14%) samples were positive in the PCR. These results indicate that swine sausages probably have low importance as a source of infection for human toxoplasmosis in the studied region. Nevertheless, the great number of PCR positive samples shows that the protozoan may be present, but may be inactivated by salt added in sausage manufacture<hr/>Con el objeto de estudiar la importancia de la longaniza de cerdo en la epidemiología de la toxoplasmosis, se investigó la presencia de Toxoplasma gondii en 70 muestras comercia-lizadas en Botucatu-SP. Las muestras fueron procesadas por las pruebas de aislamiento in ratones y por la amplificación del ADN por la Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa (PCR). Aún que el T. gondii no ha sido aislado de ninguna muestra por la prueba de aislamiento in ratones, 33 (47,14%) muestras han sido positivas por la PCR. Estos resultados indican que la longaniza de cerdo probablemente tiene poca importancia cómo fuente de infección para la toxoplasmosis humana en la región estudiada. Mientras tanto, el gran número de muestras positivas por la PCR indica que el protozoario puede estar presente, pero es inactivado por la sal usada en el aderezo de las longanizas <![CDATA[<B><I>Estudio seroepidemiológico de la enfermedad de Chagas en la localidad de Caballito, Municipio Simón Planas, Estado Lara. Venezuela</B></I>]]> A seroepidemiological study on Chagas disease was undertaken in 281 individuals with age ranging from 3 to 75 years in the rural locality of Caballito, Simon Planas Municipality, Lara State, Venezuela (9º 45´´ LN - 69º 15´´ LW). One hundred and thirty one were males (46,6%) and 150 females (53,4%). Blood samples were obtained from each of the patients by venous puncture and serum was separated. The presence of specific circulating antibodies was quantitatively determined by indirect fluorescence antibody test, using as antigens epimastigotes of a local strain of Trypanosoma cruzi and, as a control, promastigotes of Leishmania braziliensis to detect cross reactions. As a conjugate was used anti human IgG labeled with fluoresceine. The reaction was considered as positive with titers 1: 8 or over. Sixty-eight (24,2%) had circulating antibody to T. cruzi and 34 (12%) to L. braziliensis. Most of the positive results were found in persons over 20 years old, but the highest results were found in the group from six to ten years. The Strout technique was negative in all of the cases. One hundred and six specimens of Rhodnius prolixus were captured, 46 adults and 60 nymphs, out of which 32 (30,2%) were positive to T. cruzi. All of the positive persons live in huts all made with wall of earth, 5 (9,4%) besides, had dry palm leaves roofs and 46 (86,8%) roofs were made with zinc laminas. 50 (94,3 %) of the surveyed inhabitants state to know the vector that they call popularly «chipo»<hr/>Se realizó un estudio seroepidemiológico en 281 individuos con edades comprendidas entre 3 y 75 años en la localidad rural de Caballito, municipio Simón Planas, estado Lara, Venezuela. Ciento treinta y uno fueron varones (46,6%) y 150 mujeres (53,4%). Se tomaron muestras de sangre por punción venosa a cada uno de los pacientes y se separó el suero. Se determinó cuantitativamente la presencia de anticuerpos específicos circulantes por la técnica de inmunofluorescencia indirecta, utilizando como antígenos epimastigotes de una cepa local de Trypanosoma cruzi y, como control, promastigotes de Leishmania braziliensis, para detectar reacciones cruzadas. Se utilizó como conjugado anti globulina humana IgG marcada con fluoresceína. La reacción se consideró positiva cuando presentaba títulos de 1: 8 o más. Sesenta y ocho personas (24,2%) tuvieron anticuerpos circulantes a T. cruzi y 34 (12%) a L. braziliensis. La mayor parte de los casos positivos fueron encontrados en personas mayores de 20 años, pero los mayores resultados fueron encontrados en el grupo entre 6 y 10 años. Se capturaron 106 ejemplares de Rhodnius prolixus, 46 adultos y 60 ninfas, de las cuales 32 (30,2%) fueron positivas a T. cruzi. Todas las personas positivas vivían en chozas con paredes de barro, 5 (9,4%), además, tenían techo de paja y 46 (86,8%) tenían techos de zinc. De las personas encuestadas 50 (94,3%) manifestaron que conocían el vector que ellos popularmente llaman «chipo» <![CDATA[<B><I>Proposal of a Geographic Information System for modeling zoonotic fasciolosis transmission in the Andes</B></I>]]> The present study describes the basis for the development of a Geographic Information System (GIS) for conducting an epidemiological analysis of human and animal fasciolosis in the Andes. The methodology proposes the use of various data bases - those derived from epidemiological mutidisciplinary studies and environmental data derived from terrestrial stations and remote sensing<hr/>El presente estudio describe la base para el desarrollo de un Sistema de Información Geográfica (SIG) para dirigir un análisis epidemiológico de la fascioliosis humana y animal en los Andes. La metodología propone el uso de varias bases de datos - derivadas de estudios epidemiológicos multidisciplinarios y de datos medioambientales derivados de estaciones terrestres y de satélites <![CDATA[<B><I>Censo de </B>Ornithodoros amblus<B> Chamberlin (Acarina: Argasidae) en la isla Mazorca, Lima, Perú</B></I>]]> The aim of the current research was to evaluate the tick Ornithodoros amblus Chamberlin in Mazorca Island, Lima, Peru and its relationship with the presence of seabirds, intensity of guano and wind. The tick samplings were performed between 28 and 29 February of 1998. On each point of sampling was placed during three minutes a black coarse cotton cloth of 0,35 m². O. amblus showed a spatial clumped distribution. Abundance of ticks was not related with the presence of colonies of birds. Only larvae of O. amblus were in relationship with colonies of seabirds. The preference of different growth states of O. amblus follow the next sequence: Guanay Cormorant > Peruvian Pelican > Camanay Booby. Different growth states did not found relation with intensities of guano. A preference of tick population of O. amblus was observed in relation with strong intensities of winds. The effects of Niño 1997-1998 related to this tick specie is discussed<hr/>El objetivo de la presente investigación fue censar a la garrapata Ornithodoros amblus en la Isla Mazorca, Lima, Perú y su relación con la presencia de aves marinas, intensidad de sustrato y viento. El muestreo de las garrapatas se realizó los días 28 y 29 de febrero del año 1998. En cada punto de muestreo se colocó por espacio de tres minutos una tela de tocuyo negra de 0,35 m². O. amblus presentó una distribución espacial amontonada. La abundancia de garrapatas no estuvo relacionada con la presencia de colonias de aves. Sólo las larvas de O. amblus estuvieron relacionadas con las colonias de aves. La preferencia de los diferentes estados de desarrollo de O. amblus siguió la siguiente secuencia: Guanay > Pelícano > Camanay. Los diferentes estados de desarrollo no se encontraron en relación con las intensidades de guano. Se observó preferencia de las poblaciones de O. amblus con relación a fuertes intensidades de viento. Se discute el efecto del Niño 1997-1998 sobre esta especie de garrapata <![CDATA[<B><I>Infección por </B>Toxocara canis<B> en población adulta sana de un área subtropical de Argentina</B></I>]]> Toxocarosis is a sanitary problem extended world-wide. Numerous reports dealing with this subject have been published in Argentina, focusing many of them about its impact on human health. However, as toxocarosis is not a disease of compulsory notification and many cases are asymptomatic, actual prevalence rates are unknown and the disease is not recognised as a public health problem. The aim of this work was to determine the extent of the infection among healthy adult population from a subtropical region of Argentina, where high prevalence in children have been previously reported. For this purpose, we selected 355 sera of blood donors (325 men-30 women) aged 18-68 years, from a private-owned blood bank of Resistencia, a city located in Northeast Argentina. All samples tested negative for the infectious diseases routinely investigated for blood donation. Elisa test employing excretion/secretion antigens of larvae L2 Toxocara canis was performed and indeterminate cases were confirmed by Western blot. Out of 355 sera, 138 tested positive (127 men-11 women) which means a global prevalence of 38.9%. There was not significant difference in relation to gender (39.1 % for men - 36.7% for women). The results are consistent with the urban and environmental characteristics of the study area and with socio-cultural habits of its inhabitants, and indicate a strong presence of the ascarid with an important degree of impact on the population<hr/>La toxocarosis es un problema sanitario presente en todo el mundo. Sin embargo, por tratarse de una patología que no es de notificación obligatoria y por la existencia de casos asintomáticos, las cifras de prevalencia real en Argentina no son bien conocidas y por ello la toxocariasis tiene un escaso reconocimiento como problema de salud pública. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue determinar la seroprevalencia en adultos sanos de una ciudad subtropical del Nor-Este de Argentina, en la que estudios previos indican que la infección infantil por Toxocara canis es frecuente y que la contaminación de suelos está presente. Se estudiaron 355 sueros de donantes de sangre (325 hombres y 30 mujeres), con edades entre 18 y 68 años, de un Banco de Sangre privado de la ciudad de Resistencia. Se efectuó enzimoinmunoensayo empleando antígenos de excresión/secresión de larvas L2 de T. canis confirmándose mediante Western blot. De los 355 sueros estudiados, 138 fueron positivos (127 hombres y 11 mujeres), lo que significa una prevalencia global de infección del 38,9%; no se encontró diferencia significativa en relación con el género (39,1% en hombres - 36,7% en mujeres). Como el muestreo corres-pondió íntegramente a población adulta, no se consideró de interés discriminar los valores de positividad según franjas etarias. Los resultados encontrados resultan compatibles con las características urbanas y ambientales del área del estudio y con los hábitos socio-culturales de sus habitantes, y señalan una fuerte presencia del ascárido, con un importante grado de exposición por parte de sus pobladores <![CDATA[<B><I>Infección natural de</I> </B><I>Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus</I><B> <I>con</I> </B><I>Trypanosoma cruzi<B> (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatidae) en Costa Rica</B></I>]]> An adult female of Panstrongylus rufotuberculatus was collected in "Manuel Antonio" National Park (Puntarenas, Costa Rica). The microscopic analysis of the insect intestinal content showed the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote and metacyclic triposmatigote forms. The characteristic T. cruzi blood tripomastigotes were observed in C3H mice 12 days after their intra peritoneal inoculation with the insect gut material. This is the first report in the biomedical literature of Costa Rica about the presence of T. cruzi in this Chagas` disease vector<hr/>Un ejemplar hembra de T. rufotuberculatus fue colectado en el Parque Nacional "Manuel Antonio" (Puntarenas, Costa Rica). El análisis microscópico de su contenido intestinal mostró la presencia de formas de epimastigotos y tripomastigotos metacíclicos de T. cruzi. La presencia de tripomastigotos sanguíneos del parásito fue evidenciada en ratones C3H 12 días luego de la inoculación intraperitoneal de los mismos con material fecal del insecto. El presente trabajo es el primer informe en la literatura biomédica de Costa Rica sobre la presencia de T. cruzi en esta especie de vector de la enfermedad de Chagas <![CDATA[<I>Fasciola hepatica<B> (Linnaeus, 1758) (Trematoda, Digenea) en liebres europeas (</B>Lepus europaeus<B>, Pallas 1778) (Lagomorpha, Leporidae) en la región Cordillerana Patagónica, Chubut, Argentina</B></I>]]> The European hare Lepus europaeus was found naturally infected with Fasciola hepatica, but in Argentina no studies have ever been performed on this issue. In this work we evaluated the occurrence of infection in hares from the Andean Patagonian Region of Chubut Province. During 1999, 162328 hares from the northwest of the province were examined for F. hepatica juveniles and adults. In January and March 2001 faecal pellets were collected from waterbodies within a farm in northwestern Chubut province, where cattle and snail infection was already confirmed. Infection prevalence of the examined hares was 0.08% and six out of ten pellets from a temporary pond were positive for F. hepatica (epg median = 2). Despite the low prevalence of infection found, L. europaeus may play a significant role in the parasite transmission cycle, regarding that it shares the same habitats with livestock and snails, its abundance is high, and the density of eggs shed into the environment is higher than that of cattle<hr/>La liebre europea (Lepus europaeus) ha sido encontrada naturalmente infectada por Fasciola hepatica en varios países, pero en la Argentina no se han realizado estudios al respecto. Este trabajo tuvo por objetivo la búsqueda de infección en liebres de la zona cordillerana de la provincia del Chubut. Durante 1999 se faenaron 162.328 animales provenientes del noroeste de la provincia y se buscaron juveniles y adultos de F. hepatica. En enero y marzo de 2001 se recolectaron boñigas en cuerpos de agua de un establecimiento ganadero de la localidad de Cholila, al noroeste de la provincia del Chubut, donde estudios previos confirmaron la infección en ganado y caracoles. El 0,08% de las liebres faenadas presentó infección y en el ambiente se encontraron 6/10 boñigas positivas para F. hepatica en un charco (mediana de hpg = 2). A pesar de las bajas prevalencias halladas, el rol de L. europaeus en la transmisión del parásito podría ser importante si se considera que la especie comparte ambientes con el ganado y el caracol, su abundancia es alta, y la densidad de huevos que aporta al medio es mayor que la de bovinos <![CDATA[<B><I>Presencia de </B>Amblyopinodes gahani gahani<B> (Fauvel, 1901) (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae: Ambliopininae) en localidades ribereñas de la Argentina</B></I>]]> In the present study the presence of Amblyopinodes gahani gahani (Fauvel, 1901) in riverine localities from Buenos Aires Province in Argentina, is analyzed. Among six species of rodents captured, A. g. gahani was collected only on Oxymycterus rufus (Fisher, 1814) from Hudson, Punta Lara and La Balandra, and on Scapteromys aquaticus Thomas 1920 from the above mentioned localities, as well as from Los Talas. In the remaining localities, Ramallo and Palo Blanco, where O. rufus has not been captured, nor specimens of A. g. gahani have been collected. The results obtained confirm previous knowledgements concerning the relationship between A. g. gahani and O. rufus<hr/>Se analiza la presencia de Amblyopinodes gahani gahani (Fauvel, 1901) en localidades ribereñas de la Provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. De las seis especies de roedores capturados, A. g. gahani fue recolectado sólo de Oxymycterus rufus (Fisher, 1814) de Hudson, Punta Lara y La Balandra, y de Scapteromys aquaticus Thomas 1920 de las localidades mencionadas, así como de Los Talas. En las restantes localidades, Ramallo y Palo Blanco, donde no se capturaron ejemplares de O. rufus, tampoco se recolectaron especimenes de A. g. gahani. Los resultados obtenidos confirman conocimientos previos respecto de la relación entre este ambliopinino y O. rufus <![CDATA[<B><I>Strongyloidosis</B></I> <B><I>no autóctona en Chile</B></I>: <B><I>Descripción de un brote familiar</B></I>]]> A familiar outbrake of strongyloidosis affected peruvian immigrants who had arrived Chile in november 2001 is reported. In march 2002, Strongyloides stercoralis infection of the index individual was confirmed by the Basic-Clinical Laboratory of Parasitology of the Faculty of Medicine of the University of Chile, in Santiago, Chile. At the Roberto del Río Pediatric Hospital, a 11 years old girl presenting juvenil rheumatoid arthritis and mild abdominal distress was studied. A serial of three stool samples was collected and procesed by ether-centrifugal concentration technique. A plentiful quantity of rhabditoid larvae of S. stercoralis was observed. To detect larvae in the faeces and specific serum antibodies against S. stercoralis by means of ELISA her parents and sister were studied. The mother of the index case and her sister were positive in both test. The father was not infected. The three positive cases were treated with Ivermectine. A control study performed one year later demonstrated a positive ELISA test only in the sister<hr/>Se presenta un brote familiar de stron-gyloidosis que afectó a inmigrantes peruanos que habían llegado a Chile en noviembre del año 2001. En marzo del 2002, se confirmó en el Laboratorio de Parasitología Básico-Clínico de la Facultad de Medicina de la Universidad de Chile que el caso índice presentaba infección por Strongyloides stercoralis. Correspondía a una menor de 11 años que estaba siendo estudiada en el Hospital Roberto del Río por artritis reumatoide juvenil. Además de esta patología la niña refería leves molestias abdominales, siendo derivada a nuestra unidad, donde se le efectuó un examen parasitológico seriado de deposiciones (EPSD), observándose abundantes larvas rabditoides de S. stercoralis, por lo cual se procedió a estudiar al grupo familiar integrado por los padres y una hermana. A todos ellos se les efectuó EPSD e inmunodiagnóstico mediante ELISA para detectar anticuerpos anti S.stercoralis. Resultaron positivos para ambos exámenes la madre y las dos hijas. El padre fue negativo. Se decidió tratar con ivermectina y controlar los resultados del tratamiento anti-parasitario al grupo familiar al cabo de un año. Después de ese periodo permanecía positiva serológicamente, solamente la hermana del caso índice debido a que no ingirió los medicamentos de la manera indicada <![CDATA[<B><I>Fauna parasitaria en erizos de tierra africanos (</B>Atelerix albiventris<B>)</B></I>]]> 100 pigmy hedgehogs were examined, 56 came from a breeder and 44 from particular owners. Feces samples and skin scrapings were obtained and then analized using several parasitological methods to find and identify the parasites. In 87 of them the presence of an ectoparasite was evident. Of these 100% had Caparina tripilis and just one of them (1.7%) also had Myocoptes musculinus. From the 56 samples obtained from the breeder, the 100% of the young animals and 83,8% of the adult animals samples had C. tripilis. At the same time 3,2% of the adult samples had M. musculinus. From the other 44 samples that were obtained from particular owners, 100% of the young animals samples and 72.4% of the adult animals samples had only C. tripilis. The 100 fecal samples were negative to the presence of endoparasites. However, the use of the flotation method reported positive presence of free life mite eggs in 13 of the samples, while the sedimentation method was positive in only 4 of them. There was no evidence of Cryptosporidium sp<hr/>De 100 muestras de raspados de piel y púas examinados, en 87 de ellas fue posible evidenciar la presencia de algún ectoparásito. De estas 87 muestras positivas, el 100% tenía Caparina tripilis y sólo una de ellas además presentó Myocoptes musculinus. De 56 muestras obtenidas de erizos de tierra de criadero, el 100% de las muestras tomadas de crías y el 83,8% de las muestras de adultos presentó C. tripilis. Al mismo tiempo un 3,2% de éstas últimas presentó M. musculinus. De las 44 muestras obtenidas de dueños particulares, el 100% de las muestras obtenidas de crías y el 72,7% de las muestras obtenidas de adultos presentó sólo C. tripilis. Las 100 muestras de excretas resultaron negativas a la presencia de endoparásitos. Sin embargo, fue posible evidenciar la presencia de huevos de ácaros, posiblemente de vida libre. Mediante la técnica de Ziehl Neelsen, no se evidenció presencia de Cryptosporidium sp <![CDATA[<B><I>Echinococcosis quística</B></I>: <B><I>epidemiología y control en América del Sur</B></I>]]> Hydatidosis is a zoonosis produced by a parasite, Echinococcus granulosus, of high prevalence in Argentina, Uruguay, Chile, Peru and the south of Brazil, producing high losses for cattle raising and for health systems. Man acts as a host for the metacestode and is infected when ingesting fertile eggs adhering to the anus or hair of parasitized dogs or by ingestion of vegetables or water polluted with canine feces. Major epidemiological risk factors are: to slaughter sheep in the household, to cohabit with a great number of dogs during the first years of life, to have a history of hydatidosis cases in the family nucleus, to use non-potable water and to be in contact with parasitized dogs. It has been estimated that over 2000 new human cases are reported every year in the region, with rates of incidence ranging from 41 per 100,000 in the Patagonian region in southern Argentina, 80 per 100,000 in the XI Region of Chile, up to 100 x 100,000 in the Flores Department of Uruguay. Successful programs based on systematic canine deparasitation with praziquantel have been developed in Uruguay, Chile and Argentina, with diverse organization models. Traditionally, cystic echinococcosis has been regarded as a disease requiring surgical resolution. However, during the last years alternative methods have been developed including chemotherapeutic treatment with albendazol and minimally invasive surgical procedures such as echo-assisted puncture (PAIR). The Ministers of Agriculture and Health attending the XII RIMSA approved Resolution RIMSA12.R7 requesting the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) to strengthen cooperative actions and coordination among countries and their institutions in matters related to hydatidosis control and prevention. In implementing this directive, the PAHO through the Program of Veterinary Public Health and its specialized center, the Pan American Center of Foot-and-Mouth Disease (PANAFTOSA), initiated actions to consolidate efforts carried out throughout the continent for hydatidosis control, establishing the mechanisms of collaboration among countries that have been developing control actions and drawing up a strategy of joint action aimed to strengthen and to support the actions \\ overall thrust