Scielo RSS <![CDATA[Revista chilena de historia natural]]> http://www.scielo.cl/rss.php?pid=0716-078X20220001&lang=pt vol. 95 num. lang. pt <![CDATA[SciELO Logo]]> http://www.scielo.cl/img/en/fbpelogp.gif http://www.scielo.cl <![CDATA[A study of composition and diversity variation of avifauna along with different types of agroforestry system in Kibet town, Southern Ethiopia]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2022000100201&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background: Agroforestry is an integrated land-use system that plays a great role in the conservation of landscape biodiversity. The study aimed to assess the composition and diversity of avian species along with different habitat types of agroforestry in Kibet Town, Southern Ethiopia. Methods: Four habitat types of agroforestry system which are home gardens, live fences, parkland, and eucalyptus woodlot were identified. Line transects were used for bird surveys. The Shannon diversity index (H’) and species evenness index (E) were used to compare diversity among habitat types. A similarity percentages (SIMPER) test was carried out to identify the main species and feeding guild that typified each habitat type. The overall significance was assessed with the ANOSIM test using PAST (version 4.03). Results: A total of 50 bird species belonging to 28 families and 10 orders were recorded. Order Passeriformes (67.3%) had the highest number of species. Bird community composition differed among habitat types. The dissimilarity was mainly due to White-browed robin-chat ( Cossypha heuglini) , Streaky seed-eater ( Serinus striolatus) , Village Weaver ( Ploceus cucullatus) , African Paradise-Flycatcher ( Terpsiphone viridis) , and Black-Headed Paradise Flycatcher ( T rufiventer). The finding also revealed that insectivore was the dominant feeding guild. Conclusions: The present study shows evidence that more insectivore bird species use different types of agroforestry as habitat and foraging sites. So, any concerned bodies who have engaged in avian conservation should give special consideration to this modified landscape. <![CDATA[Effects of landscape configuration on the occurrence and abundance of an arboreal marsupial from the Valdivian rainforest]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2022000100202&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background: Habitat fragmentation and degradation processes affect biodiversity by reducing habitat quantity and quality, with differential effects on the resident species. However, their consequences are not always noticeable as some ecological processes affected involve idiosyncratic responses among different animal groups. The Valdivian temperate rainforests of southern Chile are experiencing a rapid fragmentation and degradation process despite being a biodiversity hotspot. Deforestation is one of the main threats to these forests. There inhabits the arboreal marsupial Dromiciops gliroides , an iconic species from the Valdivian rainforest, it is the only extant representative of the ancient Microbiotheria order, and it is currently threatened by habitat loss. Here we tested the effects of habitat configuration on D. gliroides occurrence and abundance along 12 landscapes of southern Chile with different disturbance levels. Methods: We estimated D. gliroides occurrence and abundance using camera traps and related those metrics with landscape configuration indices obtained from FRAGSTATS (i.e., forest %, connectivity, patch number, contiguity, and distance to the nearest patch) using Bayesian linear mixed models. Results: We found that D. gliroides occurrence was not influenced by landscape configuration, while its abundance was positively influenced by forest contiguity. Conclusions: Although this arboreal marsupial is present in disturbed forests, its restricted movement capabilities and high dependency on the forest three-dimensional structure may affect its long-term persistence. We urge to rethink native forest conservation and management policies to improve habitat connectivity with possible positive consequences for native fauna. <![CDATA[A quick evaluation of ecological restoration based on arthropod communities and trophic guilds in an urban ecological preserve in Mexico City]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2022000100203&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background: Restoration practices usually emphasize on the structural part of the biodiversity; also, most studies have focused on plants and very few have been conducted on arthropods and its function after restoration. The Pedregal de San Angel Ecological Reserve (PSAER) is a protected area immersed in Mexico City and it has been drastically affected by different anthropogenic disturbances. The aim of this study was to compare the relative diversity, richness, and abundance of species level identification, but also the composition through an analysis of ordination of taxonomic (species, family, and order level) and functional (trophic guild) traits of arthropods in three sites subjected to ecological restoration within the PSAER. Restored sites were also compared to conserved and disturbed sites, to evaluate whether restoration efforts are effective at the reserve. Methods: Arthropods were sampled using pan traps during September 2013 in 11 sites (three restored, four conserved and four disturbed) inside the PSAER. All sampled species were taxonomically identified at species of morphospecies (inside a family) and assigned to a trophic guild. Differences in diversity, richness and abundance were evaluated through effective number of species, comparisons of Chao’s1 estimated richness and a non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis test, respectively. Both taxonomic and trophic guild composition were evaluated using a multivariate analysis and a post hoc test. Results: We found some differences in richness, abundance, and diversity between sites, but not a clear pattern of differentiation between restored to disturbed sites. The NMDS showed differences at species and order level, and with trophic guilds, among site types. Families were not useful to differentiate types of sites. Regarding guilds, predators were more abundant in conserved sites, while phytophagous insects were more abundant in disturbed sites. Conclusions: Species and order level were useful to identify differences in communities of arthropods in sites with different management. The trophic guild approach provides information about the functional state of the restored sites. Nevertheless, our quick evaluation shows that restoration efforts at PSAER have not been successful in differentiate restored to disturbed sites yet. <![CDATA[World-level ecologists in Chile: Oldtimers, newcomers, and the bypassed]]> http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0716-078X2022000100602&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=pt Abstract Background: A team of 3 scientometrists led by John loannidis published in 2020 an extensive and updated data-base (ca. 6.9 million researchers in 22 disciplines and 176 sub-disciplines), ordering them according to a composite bibliometric index that measures their whole trajectory (career-long) impact and their annual impact at year 2019. They reported the top 100,000 scientists (1.45% across all disciplinary fields) or the top 2% of each subfield discipline, thus publishing the ranking of ca. 150,000 researchers worldwide. Methods and findings: We filtered that information for the disciplinary and sub-disciplinary areas corresponding to Ecology and identified a total of 14 ecologists with residence in Chile that appear in either of those two world�wide rankings. We report their measured productivity as both whole trajectory (career-long) and as annual impact at year 2019. We attribute their high registered productivity to their training at the doctoral level in prestigious foreign universities, their academic positions in internationally recognized Chilean universities, and their participation in state-�funded research centers of scientific excellence. Exceptions to the rule are presented. Conclusions: The 14 ecologists identified with the scientometric algorithm proposed by loannidis and coworkers include, but are not restricted, to the most cited ecologists in Chile. We put forth possible reasons for some puzzling omissions from these rankings.