ISSN 0717-6333 online version
ISSN 0365-2807 print version


Scope and policy

The CHILEAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, formerly Agricultura Técnica (Chile), is a scientific journal edited by the National Institute of Agricultural Research (INIA), and is published every quarter. At the same time, it is published in electronic format in three websites:(;; with free access to the full text, for a greater international visibility of the authors and the journal.

The CHILEAN JOURNAL OF AGRICULTURAL RESEARCH, formerly Agricultura Técnica (Chile), publishes contributions of researchers from Chile and abroad, from research institutions and universities, in Spanish and preferably in English. From this year (2008) the journal will publish all contributions in English, but in the web site will publish the English version and the Spanish version of those papers received in this language. The contributions are anonymously peer reviewed to ensure reviewer impartiality. The journal has been improving the scientific quality of the articles published, thanks to the contribution of the Editorial Board and reviewers, all outstanding national and foreign researchers. The Editorial Board decides on the acceptance or rejection of a paper and appeals are not accepted.

Form and preparation of manuscripts

Articles should be original, with results that represent a real contribution to scientific knowledge, and should not be submitted simultaneously to other journals. Editing style should be clear, concise and fluid. The extension must not exceed 18 pages for the sections RESEARCHES, REVIEWS, and ACTUALITY, 10 pages for SCIENTIFIC NOTES, and 2 pages for BOOKS REVIEWS. The author could pay for extra pages provided the acceptance of the Editorial Committee. We accept articles that have been presented abridged in congress, symposia, etc., but this fact should be stated as a first page footnote.

Manuscripts can be submitted electronically, however, we strongly suggest authors to read a printed final version in order to evaluate the article format and style. If you decide to use conventional mailing, attach a diskette or CD copy. Use paper size letter 21.7 × 28.0 cm, Times New Roman font, letter size 11, 1.5 spaced, 2.5 cm margins, page and line numbered. Use Microsoft Word for text and tables and Excel for figures.

A manuscript well redacted, written carefully with attention to details, which follows rigorously these Instructions to Authors, allow a quick and expedite edition and reviewing process. Editors and specialized reviewers do their job ad honorem, and become very tedious to review a paper with a poor redaction and presentation. It is recommended to ask a specialty colleague to critically review the manuscript before submitting it. Authors can suggest the name of some specialists to be considered by the respective specialty editor as a reviewer, but the process is completely anonymous.


RESEARCHES. These are significant contributions to the advancement of scientific knowledge, experiments following standard experimental designs, statistical analysis and discussion of results supported by an up-to-date literature review.

Title. Titles should not exceed 18 words. A good brief title should identify the subject, the objectives of the study or the major findings. Use the common name of crops, pests and diseases, except for names internationally unknown, in such cases, add the scientific name. Avoid abbreviations.
Author(s). Include name and last name of every author. Insert the affiliation as a footnote, indicating university or institution, faculty or experimental center, postal and e-mail address of the main authors, identify the “Corresponding author” by an asterisk. It is understood that every coauthor has approved the manuscript’s final version.
Authorship concept. According to international and ethical norms, author is the person that has participated intellectually in the design, execution and analysis of the experiments as well as writing the paper and therefore can answer questions from other specialists. Persons with an important contribution to the research, such as obtaining resources, field work, laboratory analyses, can be recognized in the Acknowledgement section placed before Literature Cited.
Abstract. This is the most widely read section of an article. Maximum extension: 250 words. It must be informative, give values and quantities and not just describe results. Usually are recognized five sections: a sentence stating the importance of the assay, the main objectives, the treatments, the main results expressed in numbers and statistical significance and the main conclusions. All abbreviations must be defined at first mention, although they are explained in the text. Use the common name of crops, diseases, pests, etc. but at the first mention add the scientific names with authorship. Give the full technical name of the chemicals and active ingredient dosages. In case of mentioning soil series must indicate its classification according to the USDA Soil Taxonomy. Do not cite figures, tables, and references; avoid equations.
Include keywords. They are used to build databases and indexing serevices; ideally do not repeat title words, since they will be considered anyway. The first letter of each word is low case, separated by a comma.
Resumen. It should be the exact Spanish translation of the Abstract, and vice versa; with no more than 250 words; keywords should be a translation of those from the Abstract.
Introduction. This emphasizes the importance of the research, places it in a context, presents related literature and gives enough information to understand the authors’ hypothesis; it ends with a paragraph indicating the objectives of the research. An extensive analysis of relevant literature should be included in Results and Discussion, not in the Introduction.
Materials and Methods. This section must provide sufficient information to allow other researchers to repeat the experiment and obtain the same results; the experimental design should be clearly stated. A clear description or a specific reference to all biological, analytical and statistical procedures is required. All procedure modifications must be explained. Field experiments, sensitive to interactions and where the crop environment cannot be rigorously controlled, such as crop production assays and yield components, should usually be repeated as to time or space, or both, to ensure representative results.
Results and Discussion. This should be a clear and concise presentation of the results obtained and their analyses. It is supported by tables and figures, statistical analyses and reports from other researchers. The results should be analyzed in the text without repeating tables or figures values. Data should be presented including some variation index, allowing the reader to interpret experimental results. Terms “significant” and “highly significant” are traditionally reserved for P ? 0.05 and P ? 0.01, which can be indicated as * or ** in tables or figures, respectively. Do not indicate too many decimals; two or three are usually sufficient.
The Discussion should interpret results clearly and precisely, in terms of biological mechanisms, integrating the results obtained with those of other researchers, providing a broad base for the reader to accept or reject the tested hypothesis. It must be supported by the results of statistical analyses.
Conclusions. These must be written following the objectives of the experiment. They should state the main experimental results in clear terms, without abbreviations, acronyms, or references. If the results have not implications, this fact should be mentioned.
Acknowledgements. This section appears before Literature Cited and allows giving thanks to institutions, organizations, laboratories and persons who have contributed to all or part of the research.
Literature Cited. This section is very important, and is an indicator of the author’s up-to-date knowledge of publications related to the research. Current references must not exceed 10 years from publication. It should be presented according to the norms stated below. In the text, references are shown following the author-year system, chronologically arrayed. When there are three or more authors, cite the main author followed by the expression “et al.” In the Literature Cited section references are presented in alphabetical order. If there is more than one reference from the same author(s) of the same year, in order to avoid confusions in the text, they should be differentiated adding a letter (a, b, c, d, etc.) next to the year with no space between, both in the text and Literature Cited.
Tables. Tables should be self-explanatory: the reader should be able to understand them without referring back to the text. The title must be brief and illustrative, translated into Spanish. Tables are numbered in sequence, in the same order as they are mentioned in the text. In your manuscript they can be included after the paragraph you mention each of them for the first time, or all of them at the end of the manuscript. A table foot note must explain every abbreviations used in the table, even if it was defined in the text or Abstract. We strongly suggest using the “Table” menu from Word to do your tables.
Figures. Graphs, photographs, diagrams, drawings and maps, should illustrate important concerns, without repeating data from text or tables. Titles must be brief, clear, self-explanatory, numbered in the order they are cited, and include a translation into Spanish. Excel must be used for figures and, since this journal is printed in black and white, please avoid using color or gray tones; in bar graphics use different lines or fillings to differentiate them; and when presenting curves, use very well differentiated lines. Color photographs must be paid for by the author(s). The figures can be included in your manuscript as you mention them or at the end of the paper. A figure foot note must explain every abbreviations used in the figure, even if it was defined in the text or Abstract.
These Instructions to Authors are based mainly on the Publication Handbook & Style Manual, published by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America and the Soil Science Society of America (ASA, CSSA and SSSA) which can be accessed at,, or We also follow the instructions of the Journal of Animal Science Style and Form.

REVIEWS. In this section we publish papers developing a relevant topic, strongly supported by relevant and updated national and foreign bibliography, according to the Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research editorial line and must be approved by the editorial board. They are reviewed according to the same norms of research articles.

SCIENTIFIC NOTES. These are brief presentations about various subjects, such as new cultivars reports, current research, species determination, method descriptions, etc. Title, footnotes, tables and figures are presented according to the Research article norms.

BOOKS REVIEW. Brief reviews of recent books, giving a general idea of the content, are accepted. Indicate name, institution and postal address of the review’s author.


One indicator of research quality is cited literature, which must include the most recent scientific papers about the subject published in mainstream journals. Current references must not exceed 10 years from publication. It is the author’s responsibility to present the references correctly and in full, based on these instructions. Verify that all text cites are included in Literature Cited and vice versa. Cites are presented in the same language of the paper being cited. They are listed alphabetically and must be presented according to this guide.

Literature Cited includes mainly papers published recently in prestigious mainstream scientific journals. Books about classic methods and postgraduate theses are also included. It can include, but restrictively, proceedings of congresses or scientific events which are available in the bibliographic research system, so that any interested reader can find them. Restricted circulation publications cannot be cited and should be avoided, but if you require doing so, this must be cited in the text as “personal communication”. It is not recommended to cite divulgation or extension magazines in a scientific paper.

List references alphabetically. For the first author, cite last name and then the initial of the name; for co-authors use the initial of name and then the last name, spelled out. Authors are separated by a comma, including the last author. Pay attention to the use of comma and periods; see examples ahead.

Pagination should be included always. For journals and periodical publications, use the system volume and inclusive pages; for books, bulletins or proceedings, write “p.” and then the inclusive page numbers when you cite just a part of the publication. It is not usual but if you should cite the whole text add “p.” and the total number of pages of the publication.

Cites of scientific journal papers must include: author(s), year, full title of article, abbreviated journal title, volume, and pages. Do not put a comma after the journal name, full or abbreviated. Any abbreviated word ends with period. Only the first word and proper names in the article title start with uppercase. Use abbreviated title accepted by the same journal, e.g., Agron. J. 98:243-249.

We strongly suggest do not cite magazines or extension publications, but if you do you must bear in mind that these publications usually paginate per issue; there is no pagination per volume, therefore you must mention Volume, Issue or supplement within brackets, a colon and then the pagination. Example: Magazine’s name 11(2):5-10. When the publication has no volume, include number and pagination, e.g., N° 59. p. 25-28.

In the case of books, citation include author(s) or editor(s), year, title, translator if any, specific pagination if just a part was consulted, edition number (except the first), publishing house or responsible institution, city, state and country. For book chapters include: author(s), year, chapter title, pages, after the Latin word In indicate book’s author(s) or editor(s), full title of book, edition number (except the first), publishing house, city, state, and country.

As publishing house we refer to editorial or publishing institution, such as McGraw-Hill, Cambridge, Editorial Universitaria, etc., or an organization as Institute of Agriculture Research (INIA), FAO, University of Chile, Iowa State University, USDA, etc.

References of proceedings of congresses, symposia, workshops, etc., are cited as follows: author(s), year, title of article or chapter, pages of article, after the Latin word “In”, indicate editor(s), event or publication name, city, state and country, date of the event and finally publishing house, city, state and country.

Graduate thesis should be cited as follows: author, year, title, pagination, grade obtained, university, faculty, city, state, and country. We suggest avoiding citing undergraduate thesis.

Manuscripts accepted for publication but still not published can be included in Literature Cited indicating “In press” after journal title. Cite accepted articles only.

Electronic references should contain the same elements as the printed publications, plus the uniform resource locator (URL) address, preceded by “Available at” or “Disponible en” and “Accessed” or “Leído” plus the date in parentheses, according to the cite language. Journals published electronically are cited in the same way as the printed versions, with volume and pages, but including also the URL and the date it was accessed or read.


Journals papers

Rodríguez, M., M. Gerding, y A. France. 2006. Efectividad de aislamientos de hongos entomopatógenos sobre larvas de polilla del tomate Tuta absoluta Meyrick (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). Agric. Téc. (Chile) 66:159-165.

Aguilera, S.M., G. Borie, M. Mora, P. Peirano, and H. Zunino. 2002. Balance and distribution of sulphur in volcanic ash-derived soils in Chile. Soil Biol. Biochem. 34:1355-1362.

Chapman, S., M. Cooper, D. Podlich, and G. Hammer. 2003. Evaluating plant breeding strategies by simulating gene action and dry land environment effects. Agron. J. 95:99-113.

Brown, L., D. Scholefield, E.C. Jewkes, N. Preedy, K. Wadge, and M.R. Butler. 2000. The effect of sulphur application on the efficiency of nitrogen use in two contrasting grassland soils. J. Agric. Sci. (Cambridge) 135:131-138.

Zadoks, J., T. Chang, and C. Konzak. 1974. A decimal code for the growth stage of cereals. Weed Res. 14:415-420

Extension publications (not recommended in a scientific article)
González, R. 2001. Manejo conjunto del trips de California, Frankliniela occidentalis (Pergande) y de la falsa arañita de la vid, Brevipalpus chilensis Baker en uva de mesa. Revista Frutícola 22(2):51-61.

Hazard, S., y M.F. Christen. 2006. Calidad higiénica de la leche. Tierra Adentro Nº 67. p. 43-46.

Bulletins, special publications
CIREN. 2003. Descripciones de suelos, materiales y símbolos. Estudio agrológico X Región, Tomo II. 412 p. Publicación Nº 123. Centro de Información de Recursos Naturales (CIREN), Santiago, Chile.

Soil Survey Staff. 1994. Keys to soil taxonomy. 306 p. Agric. Handb. 436. 6th. ed. United States Department of Agriculture-Soil Conservation Service, Washington, DC, USA.

Sadzawka, A., R. Grez, M. Carrasco, y M. Mora. 2004. Métodos de análisis recomendados para los suelos chilenos. 50 p. Comisión de Normalización y Acreditación. Sociedad Chilena de la Ciencia del Suelo (SCCS), Santiago, Chile.

Haney, H.L., Jr., W.L. Hoover, W.C. Siegel, and J.L. Greene. 2001. Forest landowners guide to the federal income tax. 157 p. Agric. Handb. 718. USDA, Washington, DC, USA.

Holechek, J.L., R.D. Pieper, and C.H. Herbel. 2001. Range management. Principles and practices. 587 p. 4th ed. Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, New Jersey, USA.

Steel, R.G.D., J.H. Torrie, and D.A. Dickey. 1997. Principles and procedures of statistics: A biometrical approach. 356 p. 3rd ed. McGraw-Hill, New York, USA.

SAS Institute. 1992. STAT Guide for personal computers. 704 p. 8th ed. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, North Carolina, USA.

Chapter in a book
Johnson, D.W., and D.E. Todd. 1998. Effects of harvesting intensity on forest productivity and soil carbon storage. p. 351-363. In R. Lal et al. (ed.) Management of carbon sequestration in soils. Advances in Soil Science. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, USA.

Espinoza, N. 2006. Malezas y su control. p. 171-191. In Beratto, E. (ed.) Cultivo de la avena en Chile. Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca, Temuco, Chile.

Reginato, G., C. Córdova, e I. Giavelli. 2005 Diagnóstico del problema de replantación en duraznero y manzano, mediante ensayos en maceta. p. 41. In 56º Congreso Agronómico de Chile-6º Congreso de la Sociedad Chilena de Fruticultura-2º Congreso de la Sociedad Chilena de Horticultura, Chillán. 11-14 de octubre de 2005. Sociedad Agronómica de Chile, Chillán, Chile.

Arcioni, S., T. Bovone, F. Damiani, and F. Paolocci. 2005. Light intensity is positively correlated with the synthesis of condensed tannins in Lotus corniculatus. p. 244. In O'Mara, F.P., R.J. Wilkins, L. Mannetje, D.K. Lovett, P.A.M. Rogers, T.M. Boland (eds.). XX International Grassland Congress: Offered papers. Dublin, Ireland. 26 June-1 July, 2005. Wageningen Academic Publishers, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

Salas, E. 2001. Influencia de la distribución de la precipitación en la producción de semillas de dos especies de la pradera anual mediterránea. 80 p. Tesis de Ingeniero Agrónomo. Universidad de Chile, Facultad de Ciencias Agronómicas, Santiago, Chile.

Serri, H. 2003. Eficiencia de uso del nitrógeno por fertirriego en arándano empleando la técnica de dilución isotópica con 15N. 70 p. Tesis Mg. Sc. Universidad de Concepción, Facultad de Agronomía, Chillán, Chile.

Luo, Y., 1991. Environmental and developmental physiology of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) integrated with the simulation model ALFALFA. 197 p. Ph.D. diss. University of California, Davis, California, USA.

Electronic references
Edward, A.Y., M.A. Ewing, and C.K. Revell. 2001. Fate of serradela, medic and biserrula seeds in pods ingested by sheep. Aust. Agron. Conference-Papers. Available at (Accessed 0ct. 2003).

ODEPA. 1999. Estadísticas agropecuarias. Disponible en (Leído el 15 de agosto de 1999).

Dill, J.F. 1997. Strawberry root weevils. Cooperative Extension Pest Management Office. University of Maine, Maine, USA. Available at (Accessed 20 Oct. 1997).

Other norms

Scientific names. At first mention of plants, insects, and pathogens, give the common name and in parenthesis the scientific name (in italics) and the authority, in the abstract or the text, in tables and figures. Afterward you can mention just the common name or the initial of the genus and the species of the scientific name, except when two or more names of genus share the initial, in this case spell them out to avoid confusion. Check nomenclature in a reliable source, such as the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) database (

Chemical products. At the first mention of herbicides, insecticides, fertilizers, give the technical or generic name and dosage used, between parentheses include commercial name, dosage, manufacturer, city, state and country; thereafter use just the technical name.

Soils. At first mention, identify soils at the series and family level and include USDA Soil Taxonomy classification so as to make the paper more accessible to international readers.

Equipment and instruments. Equipment and instruments used in experimental work must be mentioned by their common name; between parentheses include trademark, model, manufacturer city, state and country.

Numbers from one to nine are spelled out, except when they include a unit or several numbers are mentioned. Example: “six irrigations”, “6, 9 and 12 irrigations”, “8 kg”. Decimals are indicated with a point in English and a comma in Spanish; add a zero before the decimal point or comma when the quantity is smaller than one. Thousands in Spanish are indicated with a point but in English we use a space.

For intervals of one or more years use the word “to” to separate numbers in the text; use hyphen to mention growing seasons (eg., Period 2002 to 2005; 1999-2000, 2000-2001 growing seasons).

Measurement units. Results should be expressed in units of the International System of Units (SI); if you use other units they should be in parentheses after the SI unit. It is suggested to use an exponential form instead of a slash, e.g., kg ha-1.

Abbreviations and symbols save space and time, but excessive use prevents understanding the text. Some widely used and known abbreviations such as SI units or chemical elements need not be defined. All abbreviations should be spelled out at their first mention, in abstract or in the text, tables and figures; afterwards use the abbreviation consistently. Avoid redefining widely known variables, as N for nitrogen, or DM for dry matter, and use this option for abbreviations proper of your article.

Use subscript for modifications, reserving superscript for power or table and figure footnotes, e.g., to name variables as leaf area, prefer Aleaf instead of ALEAF.

Use the 24-hour time system, with two digits for hours and two digits for minutes (e.g., 14:30 h instead of 2:30 p.m.).

In tables place a zero before the decimal point. Do not use more than three decimals. If there is not data for an individual entry insert a hyphen or an abbreviation and define it or explain it in a table footnote (e.g.: not significant).

Tables and figures style should be uniform, especially for units, dates and abbreviations. Footnotes are specified with superscript numbers, independently for each table or figure. The superscript preferred order is 1) title, 2) column heading, 3) row heading, and 4) table body.

Citing references in the text. When a reference has one or two authors, cite the last name of the author(s) and year; when the same author(s) has two references on different years, name them together in text (e.g., Huntington et al., 1988; 1990). When the reference has three or more authors, use the Latin expression “et al.” (abbreviation of et alli, meaning “and others”) and then include the year. For two or more articles using the same within-text citation, add a distinguishing letter (a, b, c, etc.) to the year in both text and Literature Cited. When two or more cites are included as a group in the text, they should be chronologically ordered. Several cites for a same year are alphabetically ordered.

Unpublished data, personal communications and reports not available to the public in the bibliographic system are not recommended for inclusion. If it is required to cite it, do so in the text between parentheses as “Personal communication”, including complete author’s name, year, and affiliation. If unpublished data belongs to the author indicate it as “unpublished data”.

Within-text citation of statistic software must include the reference between parentheses and the complete reference added in Literature Cited.

Avoid redundancy when indicating the statistical significance of differences (do not use “significance” in addition to probability). e.g., write “stearic acid concentration was higher (P < 0.05) in... than...”

Do not start a sentence with a number; spell it out and add the SI unit. Abbreviate SI units preceded by numbers (e.g., 7 kg, 32 d), except at the beginning of sentences.

Ordinal numbers from first to ninth are spelled out in the text, but can be abbreviated in tables. Abbreviate higher ordinal numbers (e.g., 12°, 32°).

Do not use hyphens to indicate inclusion (e.g., use 12 to 14 mg or week 3 and 4, instead 12-14 mg or week 3-4).

Place a space before and after most mathematical operators (the main exception is the solidus sign for division). Plus and minus signs have no space between sign and number when used to indicate positive or negative number.

Formulae for simple compounds (NaCl) are acceptable. The first letter of trademarks should be uppercased, without ™ or ® symbols.

Author check list


Please complete this check list and sign it.

It is a new and original subject representing a true contribution to scientific knowledge.
The title reflects the manuscript content, according to the objectives and the results obtained.
The abstract is well written, includes an introductory sentence, describes objectives, treatments, gives numerical results and main conclusions; it is not merely descriptive and does not exceed 250 words.
Key words: maximum six, not repeated from the title.
The introduction is informative, putting the research subject in perspective, cites current and relevant references, establishes hypotheses and finally indicates research objectives.
Material and Methods gives enough information to allow other researchers to reproduce the experiment.
The experimental design and statistical analyses are appropriate.
Results and Discussion are presented clearly and concisely, with appropriate support of tables, figures and pictures. Results are discussed according to published information.
The text uses academic language and standard English (Spanish), understandable to foreign readers, avoiding euphemisms and colloquialisms.
The conclusions are in accordance with the objectives and results obtained.
At first mention of plants, crops, insects, pathogens, etc., the scientific name and author are included after the common name in the abstract or text, tables and figures.
All abbreviations, except standard ones, are defined at first mention, in the abstract or text, tables and figures.
At the first mention of chemical products the technical name or active ingredient and dosage are indicated and also the commercial name and dosage, between parentheses.
All equipment and instruments are identified by generic name at first mention; trademark, model, city, state and country of manufacture are indicated between parentheses.
All in-text references are included in Literature Cited and vice versa. In-text references are chronologically arranged and Literature Cited is listed alphabetically.
Literature Cited is current (not exceeding 10 years from date published), relevant and presented according to journal instructions. Journals are abbreviated according to accepted norms, indicating volume and page numbers. Proceedings references include event location and date, followed by publisher or organizing entity, city and country of publication. Textbook and magazines references are avoided. Book references include publisher and location (city, state, and country) of publication.
Tables have self-explanatory titles; all abbreviations are explained as table footnotes. Tables indicate statistical analysis.
Figures have a self-explanatory title and all abbreviations are defined in figure footnotes. They do not repeat table information. Curves or bars are well differentiated.
Pages and lines are numbered.
The writing is clear, concise and allows a fluid reading.

Sending of manuscripts


Submit contributions to:

  • Editor
    Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research
    Casilla 426, Chillán, Chile.

[About the journal] [Editorial board] [Subscription]

Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias - INIA

Avda. Vicente Méndez #515
Casilla 426
Chillán - Chile
Tel.: (56-42) 209500
Fax: (56-42) 209599