Ingeniare. Revista chilena de ingeniería, vol. 16 No 1, 2008, pp. 4-5
MODERN ELECTROMAGNETIC ENGINEERING
Electromagnetic engineering is
a branch of applied physics which is developing so fast that in the near future
electromagnetic engineers will be indispensable in an important emerging area,
that which is now known as Wave Structure Matter (WSM).
The main reason for this is
the penetration capacity of electromagnetic technology where specialized
engineers will be needed for the design of systems related to WSM technology.
Examples of such systems with very high frequencies are wireless communication
networks, computer chips, optical networks, antennae and at low frequencies,
energy storage devices and systems related to a Metric Engineering Approach
(MEA) with electromagnetic fields.
The difficulty and complexity
of the laws that govern the design of systems related with electromagnetic
engineering indicate that the theory and analysis of electromagnetism is a
continually-evolving science and an area of active research that has attracted
the interest of mathematicians, computer scientists and engineers. However, a
good understanding of modern electromagnetic analysis requires a deep knowledge
of physics, a capacity for mathematical analysis and knowledge of the numerical
algorithms used in computing. Even though some universities emphasize the
computational analysis of electromagnetism, we must be aware that a student of
electromagnetic engineering should understand the concepts of physics involved
and develop intuition and understanding of the problems to be solved. These
abilities are as important in design as they are in analysis. Therefore, it is
important to train postgraduate students in modern methods of electromagnetic
analysis and new theories such as: metamaterials, chiral electrodynamism and
electrogravity. For example, chiral electromagnetic analysis ought to include,
amongst other things, the concepts of circular-polarized waves, superficial
waves, creeping waves, lateral waves, guided modes, evanescent modes, radiant
modes and leaky modes. All of this in high-frequency physics where the
wave-particle duality is emerging as a new physical focus of the electromagnetic
interactions of WSM.
Recently, advances have been
made in WSM, for example in industrial micro-circuits and electrodynamics where
there are currents in closed loop of real electron waves, since the electron is
not a point particle but rather a wave structure. Here the majority of
applications, such as chiral nanotubes and metamaterial substrates for use in
microcircuits, require the understanding of material in "very small dimensions"
where an approximation of the particle fails and WSM makes it necessary to
understand what happens when different substrates interact at the chemical,
biological and physical level. A the microstructural level, companies such as
Intel are beginning to use biology and genetics in the production techniques for
organic devices, using living elements to synthesize chiral filaments of DNA
(deoxyribonucleic acid) where the propagating waves are equivalent to WSM.
Moreover, at the microscopic level, in order to adequately understand the nature
of the interaction between a very high frequency electromagnetic field and the
material, we should consider the chiral electrodynamic related to the
relativity. A pertinent example is that of the design of new GPS (Global
Positioning Systems) with distinct circular polarization that are more accurate
with the aim of improving the current systems.
A student of electromagnetism
should be aware of the metamorphosis that occurs in physics when we work in
different wavelengths or frequencies. When wavelength is very long, we find
ourselves in the electrostatic and magnostatic domain, where circuit theory
applies. An example from this area is that of energy storage devices that range
from ordinary batteries to sophisticated hybrid devices used for storing energy.
To give a concrete example, in modern automobiles, these elements are made from
chemicals with different bond energies. If we know the way in which the elements
of the mixture bond, batteries can be designed for specific purposes with
calculations based on WSM. In the future, WSM will require new techniques for
application, calculation and design from electromagnetic engineering.
Furthermore, the majority of the most costly alloys that are widely used in
industrial applications, such as steel, bronze and hard aluminium are simple
mixtures of basic elements. They serve their purposes thanks to the bonds
between the alloys that have wave structure.
Connected to all of this is
MEA, an area that will be extremely significant during the next few decades.
This methodology for treating metric changes has arisen through years of study
of electrogravitational theories. This focus is isomorphic with the general
representation of vacuums, treating them as polarizable media with internal
metric changes in terms of the permittivity and permeability considered to be
constant in the vacuum. This focus is the basis for obtaining energy from vacuum
(magnetic motors). Here, Maxwell’s equations in curved space are modelled as a
polarizable medium of the variable refraction index in flat space where the
curvature of a ray of light and the reduction in the speed of life in a
gravitational potential are represented by an increase in the refractive index.
With this method it is possible to study Electromagnetic Field Propulsion
Systems, where the propagation of photons has a momentum produced by the crossed
electric and magnetic fields (Poynting’s vector).
These technical challenges
enable us to see that for this field it is important to attract qualified and
creative people, to recruit the best students and stimulate their creativity.
From the perspective of electromagnetic engineering teaching, young people can
generate good ideas, stretch boundaries, create new areas for study and
cultivate independent thought, stimulated by teachers that challenge them to
Given that electromagnetic
analysis has been used as an important tool in prediction in many areas of
electric engineering, it will continue to be one of the most important tools in
new technologies. The long and rich history of electromagnetism makes the
question of how to train our postgraduate students in this area challenging. All
the knowledge required cannot be conveyed during the short period of university
education. Thus, it is fundamental to provide the most essential knowledge;
learning about everything related to electromagnetic technology would take a
whole life-time of learning. Moreover, it is important to train these students
to be thinkers, rather than mechanically acquiring knowledge, and thus
contribute significantly to our society.
It is for these reasons, that
in this issue, we present Dr. Héctor Silva-Torres’s contribution to the area of
modern electromagnetism through electrodynamics linked to quantum mechanics and
gravity. This work includes fundamental aspects of WSM, to unify the
electromagnetism and gravity through electrodynamics chiral showing rigorously
in this study, that the Dirac’s quantum mechanics is a logical consequence of
Carlos Villarroel González
Ingeniare. Revista chilena de ingeniería
Universidad de Tarapacá