SciELO - Scientific Electronic Library Online

 
vol.49 número1Clinical presentation and biochemical profile of horses during induction and treatment of hypocalcemia índice de autoresíndice de assuntospesquisa de artigos
Home Pagelista alfabética de periódicos  

Serviços Personalizados

Journal

Artigo

Indicadores

Links relacionados

  • Em processo de indexaçãoCitado por Google
  • Não possue artigos similaresSimilares em SciELO
  • Em processo de indexaçãoSimilares em Google

Compartilhar


Austral journal of veterinary sciences

versão impressa ISSN 0719-8000versão On-line ISSN 0719-8132

Austral j. vet. sci. vol.49 no.1 Valdivia  2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0719-81322017000100001 

ORIGINAL ARTICLE

Effect of oil supplementation extracted from nontoxic purging nut (Jatropha curcas L) on carcass traits, tissue composition, muscle CLA concentration, and visceral mass of feedlot lambs

Alfredo Estrada-Anguloa  , José A. Félix-Bernalb  , Miguel A. Angulo-Escalanteb  , Dolores Muy-Rangelb  , Beatriz I. Castro-Péreza  , Francisco G. Ríosa  , Andrea Cerrilloc  , Richard A. Zinnd  , Alejandro Plascenciae  * 

aFacultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Sinaloa, México.

bCentro de Investigación en Alimentación y Desarrollo A.C. Unidad Culiacán, Sinaloa, México.

cFacultad de Medicina Veterinaria y Zootecnia, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, Durango, México.

dDepartment of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, USA.

eInstituto de Investigaciones en Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidad Autónoma de Baja California, Baja California, México.

ABSTRACT

The effects of purging nut (Jatropha curcas, JCO) supplementation (0, 2, 4, and 6%, DM basis of diet) on carcass traits, tissue composition and conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) concentration in muscle was evaluated in twenty intact male lambs fed a finishing diet during 56 d. The linoleic acid proportion in JCO was 50%. Lambs were harvested at a final weight of 54.03±2.9 kg. There were no treatment effects on hot carcass weight (HCW), longissimus muscle (LM) area nor kidney-pelvic fat. However, as JCO supplementation increased, dressing percentage was decreased and fat thickness was increased. Increasing JCO in diet decreases the proportion of muscle and increases the proportion of fat in whole shoulder clod. Content of stearic acid (C18:0) in LM was not affected by JCO. However, JCO linearly increased total CLA, and hence, the CLA:C18:0 ratio. Empty body or visceral mass were not affected by JCO. Increasing JCO in diet increases visceral fat mainly through increased mesenteric fat. It is concluded that supplemental JCO does not negatively affect HCW and LM area, and represents a viable alternative for increasing CLA concentration in meat of finishing feedlot lambs.

Key words: Jatropha curcas; supplemental oil; lambs; carcass; conjugated linoleic acid

RESUMEN

Los efectos de la suplementación (0, 2, 4, y 6%, en base seca de la dieta) de aceite de nuez purgante (Jatropha curcas, JCO) sobre las características de la canal, la composición tisular y la concentración de ácidos linoleicos conjugados (CLA) en músculo se evaluó en veinte corderos machos intactos, alimentados con una dieta de finalización durante un periodo de 56 días. La proporción de ácido linoleico en JCO fue de 50%. Los corderos fueron faenados con un peso final de 54,03 ± 2,9 kg. No hubo efecto de los tratamientos en el peso de la canal caliente (PCC), el área del músculo longissimus (ML) o la grasa pélvica-renal. Sin embargo, a medida que aumentó la suplementación de JCO, se disminuyó el rendimiento de la canal y aumentó el espesor de grasa dorsal. El aumentar JCO en la dieta disminuyó la proporción del músculo y aumentó la proporción de grasa en la paleta. El contenido de ácido esteárico (C18:0) en ML no se vio afectado por JCO. Sin embargo, JCO aumentó linealmente el total de CLA en ML, y por tanto, la proporción CLA:C18:0. El peso corporal vacío o la masa visceral no fueron afectados por JCO. El incrementar JCO en la dieta aumentó la grasa visceral por el aumento de la grasa mesentérica. Se concluye que la suplementación con JCO no afecta negativamente el PCC o el área de ML y representa una alternativa viable para aumentar la concentración total de CLA en la carne de corderos en finalización.

Palabras clave: Jatropha curcas; aceite; corderos; canal; ácido linoleico conjugado

INTRODUCTION

Conventional supplemental fats fed to feedlot lambs are largely comprised of vegetable oils (i.e. yellow grease) with a high proportion of unsaturated fatty acids (30:70 saturate:unsaturate fatty acid ratio). The major unsaturated fatty acids in conventional feed fats is oleic acid (C18:1), which is largely hydrogenated in the rumen. Consequently, stearic acid (C18:0) is the major fatty acid entering to the small intestine and subsequently deposited, mainly in muscle (Jenkins 2008). According to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO 2010), the consumption of saturated fatty acids represents a risk to the human health. Although biohydrogenation of unsaturated FA decreases with high concentrate diets (Jenkins 1994), the processes of ruminal biohydrogenation are nevertheless extensive (65%; Plascencia et al 1999). Fat sources with high concentration of linoleic acid (C18:2) promote greater flow of trans-fatty acids of biological importance (T11-C18:1 and C9 T11-C18:2) to the small intestine, as they lend to increased tissue conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentration. The presence of CLA isomers in meat and milk products may have important health benefits including: anti-carcinogenesis, decreased blood cholesterol and reduced body fat accumulation (Drackley 2000). This effect increases along with the levels of oil supplementation (~7%; Kucuk et al 2004). Thus, it is expected that supplementation of finishing lambs with fat sources high in C18:3 will have a positive impact on CLA concentrations in meat. The offer of consumption of a more healthy meat product would mean significant economic enhancement for the ruminant meat industry1. Soy oil, corn oil, and sesame oil are good sources of C18:2 (~45%), but due to greater cost, are seldom used as feed ingredient in ruminant diets. Oil extracted from purging nut (Jatropha curcasL.) seed its rich in C18:2 (45-55%). However, as long as Jatropha oil is used mainly for fuel industry (largely produced for use as a biofuel, Rashid et al 2010), its cost is affordable as a supplemental energy source for livestock (King et al 2009). The purging nut seed cake (from a Mexican non-toxic variety) derivative from the process to extract Jatropha crude oil is a suitable feedstock for finishing lambs (Félix-Bernal et al 2014). However, Jatropha oil has not been evaluated as ingredient for ruminants diets. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate effects of Jatropha curcas L. oil supplementation on carcass traits, tissue composition, tissue CLA concentration, and visceral organ mass of finishing lambs.

MATERIAL AND METHODS

DIETS, ANIMALS AND EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

This experiment was conducted at the Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa Feedlot Lamb Research Unit, located in the Culiacán, México (24° 46' 13" N and 107° 21' 14"W). Culiacán is about 55 m above sea level, and has a tropical climate. All animal management procedures were conducted within the guidelines of locally-approved techniques for animal use and care. Twenty intact male lambs (APelibuey x AKathadin, 40.7 ± 3 kg initial BW) were used. Lambs were dewormed 30 days before initiation of the experiment. Upon initiation of the experiment, lambs were weighed individually prior to the morning meal (electronic scale; TORREY TIL/S: 107 2691, TORREY electronics Inc., Houston, TX, USA), and blocked by weight into five uniform weight groups and assigned within weight group to 20 pens (1 lamb/pen). Individual pens were 6 m with overhead shade, automatic waterers and 1 m fence-line feed bunks. During a 15 d adaptation period before initiation of the experiment, all lambs received the basal diet (no JCO supplementation, table 1). Dietary treatments consisted in a dry rolled corn-based finishing diet supplemented with either 0, 2, 4, or 6% JCO (DM basis). Supplemental JCO replaced dry rolled corn in the basal diet. Diets were maintained isonitrogenous by the addition of supplemental urea (table 1). The JCO was obtained by mechanically pressing using a German screw press (Type Komet DD 85 G; IBGMonforts, Oekototec, GmbH & Co. KG, An der Waldesruh 23 Monchengladbach Nordrhein-Westfalen, Germany) whole seed from a nontoxic variety (Jatropha curcas) harvested in San Ignacio, Sinaloa, México. Butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT, 0.02%, wt/vol) was added to prevent oxidation. Corn (white corn variety) was prepared by passing whole corn through rollers (46 x 61cm rolls, 5.5 corrugations/ cm; Memco, Mills Rolls, Mill Engineering & Machinery Co., Oklahoma, CA) that had been adjusted to provide an approximate rolled-grain density (as-is basis) of 0.62 kg/L. Sudan grass hay was ground in a hammer mill (Bear Cat #1A-S, Westerns Land and Roller Co., Hastings, NE) with a 2.7 cm screen, before incorporation into complete mixed diets. The physicochemical composition of dry corn (DRC) replaced by JCO are shown in the footnote of table 1. Dietary treatments were randomly assigned to lambs within weight groupings. Treatments were evaluated during a 56 day finishing period. Lambs were individually weighed. All lambs were fasted from feed (drinking water was not withdrawn) for 18 h before recording the final BW. Lambs were allowed ad libitum access to dietary treatments. Feed refusals were collected, and weighed prior to the morning feeding. Dry matter intake was determined on a daily basis.

CARCASS AND VISCERAL MASS DATA

All lambs were harvested on the same day following the specifications of humanitarian sacrifice for domestic and wild animals (NOM-033-ZOO-1995). Hide and gastrointestinal organs were separated and weighed. Carcasses (with kidney pelvic and heart fat included) were chilled at -0.5 °C for 48 h. Subsequently, the following measurements were obtained: 1) fat thickness perpendicular to the m. longissimus thoracis (LM), measured over the center of the ribeye between the 12th and 13th rib; 2) LM surface area, measured using a grid reading of the cross sectional area of the LM between 12th and 13 th rib, and 3) kidney and pelvic fat (KP). The KP was removed manually from the carcass, weighed, and is reported as a percentage of the cold carcass weight (USDA 1982). Each carcass was split along the vertebrae into two halves. Shoulders were obtained from the forequarter. Shoulder weight was recorded, and composition was assessed using physical dissection (Luaces et al 2008).

All tissue weights were reported on a fresh basis. Previous data suggests that there is very little variation among fresh and dry weights for visceral organs (Neville et al 2008). Organ mass was expressed as grams of fresh tissue per kilogram of final EBW. Final EBW represents the final full BW minus the total digesta weight. Full visceral mass was calculated by the summation of all visceral components (stomach complex + small intestine + large intestine + liver + lungs + heart), including digesta. The stomach complex was calculated as the digesta-free sum of the weight of the rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum.

Table 1 Composition of experimental diets. 

Item Jatropha crude oil level (%)
0 2 4 6
Ingredient composition (%)
Dry-rolled corna 72.00 70.00 68.00 66.00
Jatropha crude oil --- 2.00 4.00 6.00
Soybean meal 5.50 5.50 5.50 5.50
Sudan grass hay 12.00 12.00 12.00 12.00
Molasses cane 8.00 7.93 7.86 7.79
Urea --- 0.07 0.14 0.21
Trace mineral salt (agromix)a 2.50 2.50 2.50 2.50
Chemical compositionb, (DM basis)
Crude protein (%) 12.15 12.15 12.14 12.14
Ether extract (%) 3.23 5.10 6.42 9.52
NDF (%) 16.51 16.30 16.08 15.87
Calculated net energy (Mcal/kg)
Maintenance 2.00 2.08 2.16 2.24
Gain 1.35 1.42 1.49 1.56

aComposition and density of dry-rolled corn were (%): DM, 89.1; OM, 96.8; CP, 8.8; NDF, 103.0; ADF, 4.1; starch, 69.4; ether extract, 3.8.; bulk density (g/L), 600.

bMineral premix contained: CP, 50%; Calcium, 28%; Phosphorous, 0.55%; Magnesium, 0.58%; Potassium, 0.65%; NaCl, 15%; vitamin A, 1,100 IU/ kg; vitamin E, 11 UI/kg.

bDietary composition was determined by analysing subsamples collected and composited throughout the experiment. Accuracy was ensured by adequate replication with acceptance of mean values that were within 5% of each other

cBased on tabular net energy (NE) values for individual feed ingredients (NRC2007) .

SAMPLE ANALYSIS

Corn grain, JCO, and complete mixed diets were subjected to all or part of the following analyses: Dry matter (DM, oven drying at 105 °C until no further weight loss; method 930.15, AOAC 2000); crude protein (CP, Nx 6.25, method 984.13, AOAC 2000); ash (method 942.05, AOAC 2000); aNDFom [Van Soest et al 1991, corrected for NDF-ash, incorporating heat stable a-amylase (Ankom Technology, Macedon, NY) at 1 mL per 100 mL of NDF solution (Midland Scientific, Omaha, NE)]; and ether extract (method 920.39, AOAC 2000). Additionally, phorbol (highly toxic diterpene esters found in some plant oils) content of JCO was assayed according to Makkar et al (2007). Fatty acids of composition of JCO and CLA in LM muscle were sampled and determined using the techniques and methods described by Lorezen et al (2007) and by Sosa-Segura et al (2014). Dry matter content (method 930.15, AOAC 2000) of feed and feed refusal was determined daily.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

Carcass data, shoulder composition, and FA and in LM muscle were analysed as a randomised complete block design, with the individual lamb being the experimental unit. The MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC) was used to analyse the variables. Treatment effects were tested for linear, quadratic and cubic components of the JCO supplementation level. Orthogonal polynomials were considered significant when the P value was < 0.05, and tendencies were identified when the P value was > 0.05 and < 0.10.

RESULTS

Cubic effects were not significant (P > 0.10). Thus, the P values for this component are not present in the tables.

Composition of supplemental JCO is shown in table 2. The moisture, impurity, and unsaponifiables (MIU) content of JCO was 1.42%, indicative of very high degree oil purity. No phorbol esters were detected in the supplemental JCO. Linoleic acid content (50.3%) is comparable to that of corn, cottonseed, soybean and sunflower seed oil.

Since there were no treatment effects on daily DM intake (averaging 1.288± 0.085 kg), daily intakes of JCO averaged 24.7, 51.1, and 77.3 g /day, or 0.57, 1.08 and 1.62 g/kg LW for levels 2, 4 and 6% of supplementation, respectively.

Treatment effects on carcass characteristics, composition of shoulder muscle and total CLA concentration in L. muscle are shown in table 3. There were no treatment effects (P>0.20) on HCW, LM area and KP. However, JCO supplementation decreased (linear effect, P=0.03) dressing percentage and increased (linear effect, P<0.01) fat thickness. Supplemental JCO inclusion decreased (linear effect P<0.04) the proportion (g tissue/100 g of shoulder weight) of muscle and increased (linear effect, P=0.02) the proportion of fat in whole shoulder clod. The average concentration of stearic acid in LM was not affected (P>0.47). However, JCO increased (linear effect, P<0.01) muscle CLA. Hence, JCO increased (linear effect, P=0.03) the CLA:stearic acid ratio.

Table 2 Composition of supplemental Jatropha crude oil. 

Item Jatropha crude oil
Free fatty acids, % 6.58
Fatty acid, %
C16:0 13.96
C16:1 0.49
C18:0 8.28
C18:1 26.00
C18:2 50.32
Others 0.95
Iodine value, g iodine/100 g fat a 82.77
Moisture, % 0.30
Impurities, % 0.50
Unsaponifiable matter, % 0.62
Phorbols sters ND

Treatment effects on visceral organ mass are shown in table 4. Replacing corn with JCO did not affect empty body weight (EBW, as percentage of full weight) or the organ weights as a proportion of EBW (g/kg EBW). Supplemental JCO did not affect omental fat, but increased (linear effect, P=0.03) visceral fat mainly due to increased (linear effect, P<0.01) mesenteric fat.

Table 3 Treatment effects on carcass characteristics, chemical composition of shoulder muscle, and C18:0 and CLA concentrations in longissimus muscle. 

0 2 4 6 SEMb L Q
Hot carcass weight (kg) 32.80 32.13 32.23 32.30 0.51 0.55 0.49
Dressing percentage 60.99 60.10 59.60 58.64 0.66 0.03 0.96
Cold carcass weight (kg) 32.31 31.90 32.06 32.01 0.56 0.88 0.51
LMc area (cm2) 17.32 16.40 16.44 16.38 0.55 0.25 0.56
Fat thickness (cm) 0.25 0.30 0.36 0.39 0.020 <0.01 0.61
Kidney pelvic and heart fat (%) 3.16 3.38 3.54 3.57 0.26 0.24 0.72
Shoulder clod composition
Total weight (kg) 2.432 2.375 2.364 2.320 0.072 0.31 0.94
Muscle (kg) 1.540 1.508 1.454 1.405 0.055 0.09 0.88
Fat (kg) 0.437 0.426 0.466 0.468 0.023 0.22 0.76
Bone (kg) 0.454 0.441 0.444 0.447 0.013 0.74 0.56
Shoulder composition (%)
Muscle 63.35 63.54 61.32 60.48 0.993 0.04 0.62
Fat 17.97 17.91 19.78 20.19 0.675 0.02 0.73
Bone 18.68 18.55 18.91 19.40 0.73 0.46 0.68
Muscle to fat ratio 3.53 3.60 3.12 3.03 0.17 0.03 0.62
Muscle to bone ratio 3.40 3.43 3.29 3.15 0.16 0.26 0.62
Longissimus muscle
Stearic acid (%) 14.67 13.81 14.09 14.11 0.58 0.59 0.47
CLA (%) 5.81 5.78 6.10 8.61 0.44 <0.01 0.02
CLA-to-C18:0 ratio 0.394 0.429 0.432 0.602 0.058 0.03 0.27

aP = observed significance level for linear, quadratic and cubic effect of supplementation level of JSC. Since cubic effects were not significant (P>0.10) the P-values for those components are not presented in the tables.

b SEM, standard error of mean.

Table 4 Treatment effects on visceral organ weight. 

Item Jatropha crude oil level (%) Pa value
0 2 4 6 SEMb L Q
GITc fill (kg) 4.17 4.24 4.37 4.33 0.26 0.59 0.83
Empty body weight, kg 49.63 49.23 49.74 50.43 0.69 0.36 0.44
Empty body weight (% of full weight) 92.28 92.10 91.89 92.05 0.47 0.68 0.73
Full viscera (kg) 10.01 10.30 10.40 10.57 0.32 0.26 0.89
Organs (g/kg, empty body weight)
Stomach complex 31.32 32.57 31.79 31.78 0.80 0.87 0.45
Intestines 42.46 45.10 45.02 45.62 1.22 0.11 0.42
Liver/spleen 21.42 22.86 21.24 22.73 1.08 0.64 0.98
Kidney 2.76 2.63 2.85 2.79 0.112 0.55 0.78
Heart/lungs 22.76 22.51 22.79 23.54 0.86 0.51 0.57
Omental fat 26.11 27.95 27.80 28.34 1.11 0.21 0.57
Mesenteric fat 4.02 5.56 6.20 7.11 0.49 <0.01 <0.53
Visceral fat 30.14 33.52 34.01 35.46 1.40 0.03 0.50

aP = observed significance level for linear, quadratic and cubic effect of supplementation level of JSC. Since cubic effects were not significant (P>0.10) the P-values for those components are not presented in the tables.

bSEM, standard error of mean. cGTI, gastrointestinal tract.

DISCUSSION

Jatropha curcas (non-toxic variety) is a plant native to Mexico, its wide distribution makes it a resource highly available with a low cost of production (Escoto et al 2014). Therefore, the diversification of their products (oil and meal) is appropriate.

The absence of phorbol esters in the JCO used in the present experiment is consistent with the findings of Goel et al (2007), who reported very low (> 0.27 mg/mg) or non-detectable levels of phorbol esters in oil extracted from nontoxic varieties of Jatropha curcas, a species native to tropical regions of Mexico and Central America. The FA composition of JCO used in this study is consistent with previous reports for the species (Rodríguez-Acosta et al 2010). The major fatty acids in JCO were C18:1 (26%) and C18:2 (50%). The ratio between the two may vary (more C81:1 than C18:2) depending on the region where the plant grows (Martínez-Herrera et al 2006, Ovando-Medina et al 2011). The JCO used in the present study was harvested in the Mexican state of Sinaloa. In a previous study, Soto-León et al (2014) observed that the FA composition of JCO harvested in Sinaloa was of 8.7, 6.4, 34.0, and 50.8% for C16:0, C18:0, C18:1 and C18:2, respectively, in close agreement with the composition of JCO used in the present experiment.

Carcass weight was not affected by treatments averaging 32.37±1.65 kg. Final carcass weight is consistent with other feedlot finishing studies using similar lamb breeds (Estrada et al 2013, Castro-Pérez et al 2014). The effects of supplemental fat on carcass characteristics of cattle have been variable. In some studies, fat supplementation increased HCW and dressing percentage (Zinn 1989, Zinn et al 2000), whereas in others (Quinn et al 2008, Donicht et al 2011) there were no effects of supplemental fat on carcass characteristics. In feedlot lambs, the effects of fat supplementation of carcass characteristics was minimal (Dutta et al 2008, Bhatt et al 2011). However, a greater fat thickness in lambs fed with supplemental fat had been previously observed (Solomon et al 1992, Popova et al 2011). The negative linear effect of supplemental JCO on dressing percentage observed in the present experiment is uncertain. Much of the inconsistency in carcass characteristics response to supplemental fat may be more related to total lipid intake rather than to percentage supplemental fat (Zinn 1994), and by degree of maturity at time of harvest (McPhee et al 2008). As mentioned below, the effects of JCO on visceral fat and weight of intestines are contributing factors to the lower dressing percentage.

Consistent with the present study, Popova et al (2011) also observed a decrease in the muscle:fat ratio of shoulder clods of lambs fed supplemental coconut oil. Likewise, Bhatt et al (2011) noted an 18% increase in carcass fat in finishing lambs supplemented with 5% of coconut oil. Increased carcass fat due to fat supplementation had also been observed in feedlot cattle (Zinn 1988, 1989). In contrast, Ferreira et al (2014) observed that the addition of a combination of soybean oil and fish oil up to 7.5% of diet DM did not affect carcass fat deposition in feedlot lambs.

In the last decades, the amounts of saturated fatty acids in the animal products have become in an important concerns of consumers and government institutions (Dilzer and Park 2012). However, the presence of FA isomers like CLA, may have important health benefits including anti-carcinogenesis, decreased blood cholesterol, and reduced body fat accumulation (Drackley 2000). Dietary fat sources fed to ruminants that are high in linoleic acid (C18:2) promote greater flows to small intestine of vaccenic acid (t11 C18:1) and conjugated linoleic acid. Following endogenous desaturation (D9 desaturase), t11 C18:1 is converted to c9, t11- C18:2 (Dhiman et al 2005, Bauman et al 2006). Due to anticipated health benefits of CLA, research efforts have been directed at evaluating this additional contribution of feedstuffs that are high in linoleic acid, including forages (Khanal and Olson 2004, Ortega-Pérez et al 2010) and as well as supplemental fats (Jenkins et al 2008, Wang and Lee 2015). Coupling both production efficiencies and the consumption of a more healthful meat product would mean significant enhancement economically for the ruminant meat industry1. Fat sources such as corn oil, soy oil and sesame oil, are good sources of C18:2 (~ 45%), but due to their higher cost are seldom used as feed ingredient in ruminants diets. In the present experiment, increased CLA in LM muscle as result of JCO supplementation confirms that trans-isomers and CLA formed during ruminal biohydrogenation of C18:2 result in great CLA incorporation into meat.

Kott et al (2010) also observed increased LM CLA concentration with no change in C18:0 concentration in lambs fed diets high in linoleic acid (with 21% of safflower seed). Likewise, CLA concentration in meat increased linearly in lambs fed diets supplemented with soy oil, fish oil, and canola oil (fat sources that have a C18:2 concentration similar to that of JCO used in the present experiment; Ferreira et al 2014, Adeyemi et al 2015).

Results of the effect of vegetable oils on non-carcass components are limited in the literature. Supplementation of 2% soybean oil to Texel x Santa Inês lambs increased small intestinal weight as a percentage of total carcass weight. Likewise, in our study, intestines weight (g/g of EBW) tended to increase along with dietary JCO. Dávila-Ramirez et al (2014) observed that inclusion of 6% supplemental soybean oil decreased lung and liver weight in Dorper x Pelibuey lambs. Consistent with our findings, Soarez et al (2012) observed a 23% of increase in mesenteric fat, in Texel x Santa Inês lambs supplemented with 2% of soybean oil during an 87-day feeding period, and they did not observe differences on omental fat deposits. In feedlot cattle, increased visceral fat has been a consistent response to increasing levels of fat supplementation (Zinn 1988, Plascencia et al 1999).

It is concluded that purging nut (Jatropha curcas, a Mexican non-toxic variety) oil supplementation at levels of up to 6% of diet dry matter does not negatively affect HCW and LM area, and represents a viable alternative for increasing CLA concentration in meat in finishing feedlot lambs.

REFERENCES

Adeyemi KD, Sabow AB, Shittu RM, Karim R, Sazili AQ. 2015. Influence of dietary canola oil and palm oil blend and refrigerated storage on fatty acids, myofibrillar proteins, chemical composition, antioxidant profile and quality attributes of semimembranosus muscle in goats. J Anim Sci Biotechnol 6, 51-64. [ Links ]

AOAC. 2000. Official Methods of Analysis Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Gaithersburg, MD, USA. [ Links ]

Bauman DE, Lock AL, Corl BA, Ip C, Salter AM, Parody PW. 2006. Milk fatty acids and human health: potential role of conjugated linoleic acid and trans fatty acids. In: Sejrsen K, Hvelplund T, Nilsen MO (eds). Ruminant Physiology Wageningen Academy, The Netherlands, Pp 529-562. [ Links ]

Bhatt RS, Soren NM, Tripathi MK, Karim SA. 2011. Effects of different levels of coconut oil supplementation on performance, digestibility, rumen fermentation and carcass traits of Malpura lambs. Anim Feed Sci Technol 164, 29-37. [ Links ]

Castro-Pérez BI, Estrada-Angulo A, Ríos FG, Dávila-Ramos H, Robles- Estrada JC, et al 2014. Effects of replacing partially dry-rolled corn and soybean meal with different levels of dried distillers grains with solubles on growth performance, dietary energetics, and carcass characteristics in hairy lambs fed a finishing diet. Small Rum Res 119, 8-15. [ Links ]

Dávila-Ramírez JL, U Macías-Cruz, NG Torrentera-Olivera, H González- Ríos, SA Soto-Navarro, et al 2014. Effects of zilpaterol hydrochloride and soybean oil supplementation on feedlot performance and carcass characteristics of hair-breed ram lambs under heat stress conditions. J Anim Sci 92, 1184-1192. [ Links ]

Dhiman TR, Nam SH, Ure AL. 2005. Factors affecting conjugated linolenic acid content in milk and meat. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 45, 463-482. [ Links ]

Dilzer A, Park Y. 2012. Implication of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) in human health. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 52, 488-513. [ Links ]

Donicht PAMM, Da L Restle J, Freitas S, Callegaro AM, Weise MS, et al 2011. Fat sources in diets for feedlot-finished steers- carcass and meat characteristics. Ciência Anim Bras 12, 487-496. [ Links ]

Drackley JK. 2000. Lipid Metabolism. In: D'Mello JPF (ed). Farm Animal Metabolism and Nutrition. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, UK, Pp 97-120. [ Links ]

Dutta TK, Agnihotri MK, Rao SBN. 2008. Effect of supplemental palm oil on nutrient utilization, feeding economics and carcass characteristics in post weaned Muzafarnagari lambs under feedlot conditions. Small Rumin Res 78, 66-73. [ Links ]

Escoto L, Flores RS, Maytorena E. 2014. Análisis de variables críticas en la cadena agroindustrial de Jatropha curcas In: Escoto L, Contreras G, Angulo MA (eds). Cadena agroindustrial de Jatropha curcas. Publicia Press, Alemania, Pp 267-333. [ Links ]

Estrada-Angulo A, YS Valdés, O Carrillo-Muro, BI Castro-Pérez, A Barreras, et al. 2013 Effects of feeding different levels of chromi um-enriched live yeast in hairy lambs fed a corn-based diet: Effects on growth performance, dietary energetics, carcass traits and visceral organ mass. Anim Prod Sci 53, 308-315. [ Links ]

FAO, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. 2010. Fats and fatty acids in human nutrition. Report of an expert con sultation Food and Agriculture Organization. Geneva, Switzerland. [ Links ]

Félix-Bernal JA, Angulo-Escalante MA, Estrada-Angulo A, Heredia JB, Muy-Rangel D, et al. 2014. Feeding value of nontoxic Jatropha curcas seed cake for partially replacing dry-rolled corn and soybean meal in lambs fed finishing diets. Feed Sci Technol 198, 107-116. [ Links ]

Ferreira EM, Pires AV, Susin I, Gentil RS, Parente MOM, et al. 2014. Growth, feed intake, carcass characteristics, and meat fattyacid profile of lambs fed soybean oil partially replaced by fish oil blend. Anim Feed Sci Technol 187, 9-18. [ Links ]

Goel G, Makkar HPS, Francis G, Becker K. 2007. Phorbol esters: structure, biological activity, and toxicity in animals. Int J Toxicol 26, 279-288. [ Links ]

Jenkins TC. 1994. Regulation of lipid metabolism in the rumen. J Nutr124, 1372S-1376S. [ Links ]

Jenkins TC, Wallace RJ, Moate PJ, Mosley EE. 2008. Bord-invited review: Recent advances in biohydrogenation of unsaturated fatty acids within the rumen microbial ecosystem. J Anim Sci 86, 397-412. [ Links ]

Khanal RC, Olson KC. 2004. Factors affecting conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) content in meat, milk, and egg: A review. Pak J Nutr 3, 82-98. [ Links ]

Kott RW, Hatfield PG, Bergman JW, Flynn CR, Van Wagoner H, et al2003. Feedlot performance, carcass composition, and muscle and fat CLA concentrations of lambs fed diets supplemented with safflower seeds. Small Rumin Res 49, 11-17. [ Links ]

Kucuk O, Hess BW, Rule DC. 2004. Soybean oil supplementation of a high-concentrate diet does not affect site and extent of organic matter, starch, neutral detergent fiber, or nitrogen digestion, but influences both ruminal metabolism and intestinal flow of fatty acids in limit-fed lambs. J Anim Sci 82, 2985-2994. [ Links ]

Lorenzen CL, Golden JW, Martz FA, Gruna IU, Ellersieck MR, et al2007. Conjugated linoleic acid content of beef differs by feeding regime and muscle. Meat Sci 75, 159-167. [ Links ]

Luaces ML, Calvo C, Fernández B, Fernández A, Viana JL, et al 2008. Predicting equation for tisular composition in carcass of Gallega breed lambs. Arch Zoot 57, 3-14. [ Links ]

Makkar HPS, Siddhuraju P, Becker K. 2007. Plant secondary metabo lites. Methods in molecular biology Humana Press, Totowa, New Jersey, USA. [ Links ]

Martínez-Herrera J, Siddhuraju P, Francis G, Dávila-Ortíz G, Becker K. 2006. Chemical composition, toxic/antimetabolic constituents, and effects of different treatments on their levels, in four provenances of Jatropha curcas L. from Mexico. Food Chem 96, 80-89. [ Links ]

McPhee MJ, Hopkins DL, Pethick DW. 2008. Intramuscular fat levels in sheep muscle during growth. Australian J Experimental Agric 48, 904-909. [ Links ]

Neville TL, Ward MA, Reed JJ, Soto-Navarro SA, Julius SL, et al 2008. Effects of level and source of dietary selenium on maternal and fetal body weight, visceral organ mass, cellularity estimates, and jejunal vascularity in pregnant ewe lambs. J Anim Sci 86, 890-901. [ Links ]

NRC, National Research Council. 2007. Nutrient requirement of small ruminant. Sheep, Goats, Cervids, and New World Camelids National Academy Press, Washington, DC, USA. [ Links ]

Ortega-Pérez R, Murillo-Amador B, Espinoza-Villavicencio JL, Palacios- Espinoza A, Carreón-Palau L, et al 2010. Chemical composition and proportion of precursors of rumenic and vaccenic acids in alternative forages for the feeding of ruminants in arid ecosystems. Trop Subtrop Agroecosystems 12, 33-45. [ Links ]

Ovando-Medina I, Sánchez-Gutiérrez A, Adriano-Anaya L, Espinosa-García F, Núñez-Farfán J, et al 2011. Genetic diversity in Jatropha curcas populations in the State of Chiapas, Mexico. Diversity 3, 641-659. [ Links ]

Plascencia A, Estrada M, Zinn RA. 1999. Influence of free fatty acid content on the feeding value of yellow grease in finishing diets for feedlot cattleJ Anim Sci 77, 2603-2609. [ Links ]

Popova T, Ignatova M, Marinova P, Abadjieva D. 2011. Effect of coconut oil supplementation on the carcass composition and muscle physicochemical characteristics in lambs. Biotechnol Anim Husbandry 27, 1139-1145. [ Links ]

Quinn MJ, Loe ER, Depenbusch BE, Higgins JJ, Drouillard JS. 2008. The effects of flaxseed oil and derivatives on in vitro gas production, performance, carcass characteristics, and meat quality of finishing steers. Prof Anim Sci 24, 161-168. [ Links ]

Rashid U, Anwar F, Jamil A, Bathi HN. 2010. Jatropha curcass seed oil as a viable source for biodiesel. Pak J Botany 42, 575-582. [ Links ]

Rodríguez-Acosta M, Sandoval-Ramírez J, Zeferino-Díaz R. 2010. Extraction and characterization of oils from three Mexican Jatropha species. J Mex Soc 54, 88-91. [ Links ]

SAS, Statistical Analysis System. 2004. SAS version 9 SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC, USA. [ Links ]

Soares SB, Furusho-Garcia IF, Pereira IG, Alves DO, da Silva GR, et al. 2012. Performance, carcass characteristics and non-carcass components of Texel x Santa Inês lambs fed fat sources and monensin. R Bras Zootec 41,421-431. [ Links ]

Solomon MB, Lynch GP, Lough DS. 1992. Influence of dietary palm oil supplementation on serum lipid metabolites, carcass characteristics and lipid composition of carcass tissues of growing ram and ewe lambs. J Anim Sci 70, 2746-2751. [ Links ]

Sosa-Segura MP, Oomah BD, Drover JGC, Heredia JB, Osuna-Enciso T, et al 2014. Physical and chemical characterization of three non-toxic oilseeds from the Jatropha genus. J Food Nutr Res 2, 56-61. [ Links ]

Soto-León S, López-Camacho E, Milán-Carrillo J, Sánchez-Castillo MA, Cuevas-Rodríguez E, et al. 2014. Jatropha cinerea seed oil as a potential non-conventional feedstock for biodiesel produced by an ultrasonic process. Rev Mex Ing Quím 13, 739-747. [ Links ]

USDA, United States Department of Agriculture. 1982. Official United States Standards for Grades of Carcass Lambs, Yearling Mutton and Mutton Carcasses Agriculture Marketing Service, Washington, USA. [ Links ]

Van Soest PJ, Robertson JB, Lewis BA. 1991. Methods for dietary fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and nonstarch polysaccharides in relation to animal nutrition. J Dairy Sci 74, 3583-3597. [ Links ]

Wang T, Lee HG. 2014. Advances in research on cis-9, trans-11 con jugated linoleic acid: a major functional conjugated linoleic acid isomer. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 55, 720-731. [ Links ]

Zinn RA. 1988. Comparative feeding value of supplemental fat in finishing diets for feedlot steers supplemented with and without monensin. J Anim Sci 66, 213-227. [ Links ]

Zinn RA.1989. Influence of level and source of dietary fat on its com parative feeding value in finishing diets for steers: feedlot cattle growth and performance. J Anim Sci 67, 1029-1037. [ Links ]

Zinn RA. 1994. Effects of excessive supplemental fat on feedlot cattle growth performance and digestive function. Prof Anim Sci 10, 66-72. [ Links ]

Zinn RA, Gulati SK, Plascencia A, Salinas J. 2000. Influence of ruminal biohydrogenation on the feeding value of fat in finishing diets for feedlot cattle. J Anim Sci 78, 1738-1746. [ Links ]

1McGinley S. 2003. Improving meat quality with CLA. Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report. https://cals.arizona.edu/pubs/general/resrpt2003/article3_2003.html. Accessed 20 June 2016.

1McGinley S. 2003. Improving meat quality with CLA. Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report. https://cals.arizona.edu/pubs/general/resrpt2003/article3_2003.html. Accessed 20 June 2016.

1McGinley S. 2003. Improving meat quality with CLA. Agricultural Experiment Station Research Report. https://cals.arizona.edu/pubs/general/resrpt2003/article3_2003.html. Accessed 20 June 2016.

Corresponding author: A Plascencia; Carretera Mexicali-San Felipe Km 3.5, Fracc. Campestre, CP 21386, Mexicali, B.C. México; aplas99@yahoo.com, alejandro.plascencia@uabc.edu.mx

Creative Commons License This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License