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Chilean journal of agricultural research

versión On-line ISSN 0718-5839

Chilean J. Agric. Res. vol.71 no.2 Chillán jun. 2011

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-58392011000200020 

Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research 71(2) April-June

SCIENTIFIC NOTE

Lleuque-INIA, New High Yield Spring Durum Wheat Variety for Chile

Lleuque-INIA, Nueva Variedad de Trigo Candeal de Primavera de Alto Potencial de Rendimiento para Chile

Iván Matus1*, Ricardo Madariaga1, Christian Alfaro2, and Claudio Jobet3

1Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA, Casilla 426, Chillán, Chile. *Corresponding author (imatus@inia.cl).
2Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA, Casilla 13, Rengo, Chile.
3Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA, Casilla 58-D, Temuco, Chile.



ABSTRACT

The Lleuque-INIA spring durum wheat variety (Triticum turgidum var. durum L.) originated from a cross carried out by the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), National Wheat Program, in the Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina, Santiago, Chile, in 1993. This variety has an upright growth habit in the seedling stage; the adult plant is of medium height and varies between 80 and 90 cm. The spike is medium-sized, white, and exhibits long whitish awns along its full length. The grain is large-sized, elongated, golden yellow, and vitreous. The variety was sown in mid-August in the Santa Rosa Experimental Station (36°31' S; 71°54' W), Chillán, head emergence occurred between 89 and 91 d after sowing, and was 6 to 8 d later than 'Llareta-INIA' and 'Corcolén-INIA'. In La Platina, 'Lleuque-INIA' had a mean yield of 16.7 and 20.8% higher than vars. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA, respectively, whereas the yield was higher in Chillán by 10.3 and 10.1%, respectively. On the other hand, in Yungay located in the Ñuble foothills, 'Lleuque-INIA' yield exceeded 'Llareta-INIA' by 13.07% and var. Corcolén-INIA by 16.97%. In Humán, var. Lleuque-INIA yield exceeded the control vars. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA by 15.23 and 24.03%, respectively. Lleuque-INIA variety is a type of wheat with good hectoliter weight, good wet gluten content (%), and a protein value mean fluctuating between 10.47 and 12.3%.

Key words: Durum wheat, Triticum turgidum var. durum, Lleuque-INIA.



RESUMEN

La variedad de trigo candeal (Triticum turgidum var. durum L.) de primavera Lleuque-INIA proviene de un cruzamiento efectuado el año 1993 por el Programa Nacional de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias INIA en el Centro Regional de Investigación La Platina, Santiago, Chile. Es un trigo con hábito de crecimiento erecto al estado de plántula, la planta adulta es de altura mediana y varía entre 80 y 90 cm. La espiga es de tamaño medio, compacta, de color blanco, presenta barbas largas de color blanquizco en toda su extensión. El grano es de tamaño grande, de forma alargada, color amarillo dorado y vítreo. Sembrado a mediados de agosto en el Campo Experimental Santa Rosa (36°31' S; 71°54' O), Chillán, la emisión de espigas ocurre entre los 89 y 91 días después de la siembra, siendo entre 6 a 8 días más tardío que 'Llareta-INIA' y 'Corcolén-INIA'. En La Platina 'Lleuque-INIA' tuvo un rendimiento medio 16,7% y 20,8% superior a la vars. Llareta-INIA y Corcolén-INIA, respectivamente; en la localidad de Chillán este rendimiento fue superior en 10,3% y 10,1%, respectivamente; por otro lado en Yungay, precordillera de Ñuble, el rendimiento de 'Lleuque-INIA' superó a 'Llareta-INIA' en 13,07% y a la var. Corcolén-INIA en 16,97%. En la localidad de Humán el rendimiento de la var. Lleuque-INIA también superó en 15,23% y 24,03% a las variedades testigo Llareta-INIA y Corcolén-INIA, respectivamente. La var. Lleuque-INIA es un trigo de buen peso del hectolitro, buen contenido de gluten húmedo (%) y con valores medios de proteína que fluctúan entre 10,47% y 12,3%.

Palabras clave: trigo candeal, trigo duro, Triticum turgidum var. durum, Lleuque-INIA.


INTRODUCTION

Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum var. durum L.) in Chile is destined to the manufacture of noodles and pasta. It has large-sized grains, a vitreous aspect, hard texture, high hectoliter weight, and yellow pigment. This cereal has been cultivated in Chile since the 1950s and represents about 10% of the area sown with bread wheat. The traditional cultivation area has been moved from the central-northern zone of the country to the central-southern zone. 'Lleuque-INIA' is the first released product variety of the selection carried out in the central-southern zone of the country.

Origin
'Lleuque-INIA' is a spring durum wheat variety originated from a cross carried out in 1993 by the National Wheat Program of Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA) in the Centro Regional de Investigación (Regional Research Center) (CRI) La Platina (33º34' S; 70º38' W) Santiago, Chile. A mass selection was carried out in 1995 on the F2 generation. The F3 to F5 selection stages were carried out between 1996 and 1998 using the pedigree method. A preliminary yield trial was evaluated in 1999 and included in the main yield trial in the year 2000. Regional bread wheat trials of CRI La Platina were studied in 2001 and 2002. Standard bread wheat trials of CRI-Quilamapu (36°31' S; 71°54' W) were studied between 2004 and 2008. These trials were registered in 2005 and 2006 as variety trials applying for Registration of Varieties Suitable for Certification (RVSC), condition required by the Ministry of Agriculture through the Servicio Agrícola y Ganadero (Agriculture and Livestock Service). The experimental line for all these trials was identified as V-116.

Crossing and pedigree
The following is the genealogy of Lleugue-INIA:

YEL'S'/BAR'S'/3/GR'S'/AFN//CR'S'/5/DOM'S'//CR'S'*2/GS'S'/3/SCO'S'/4/HORA/6/LAP76/GULL'S'/7/LICAN

A-27735-0P-3P-1P-1P

Morphological description of the plant
This durum wheat habitually develops in the spring and has an upright growth habit in the seedling stage (Figure 1). The adult plant is of medium height and varies between 80 and 90 cm (Figure 2). Glaucocity of the flag leaf sheath is medium. The leaf blade (underside) of the flag leaf exhibits nil or weak glaucocity. Glaucocity is medium in the spike neck during anthesis. Stalk medulla is medium and has low to moderate resistance to lodging.


Figure 1. Lleuque-INIA planted in Chillan. Santa Rosa Experimental Station.

Figure 2. Adult plant of Lleuque-INIA planted in Yungay a location of  the foothills of Ñuble province.



Spike and grain characteristics
The spike is medium-sized, compact, white, and with high glaucocity in anthesis, has parallel edges, and exhibits long whitish awns along its full length (Figure 3). The peak of the lower glume is very long and the bottom does not exhibit hairiness.

Figure 3. Spike  of  Lleuque-INIA in anthesis.

 

The grain is large-sized, elongated, golden yellow, and vitreous. The weight of 1000 seeds is 65 to 70 g.

Agronomic and phytopathological characteristics
The variety was sown in mid-August in the Santa Rosa Experimental Station (36°31' S; 71°54' W), Chillán, head emergence occurred between 89 and 91 d after sowing, and was 6 to 8 d later than 'Llareta-INIA' (Ramírez et al., 1997) and 'Corcolén-INIA'.

Up to the 2008-2009 season, 'Lleuque-INIA' showed resistance to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici), leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Erikss.), and resistance to moderate resistance to powdery mildew caused by the Blumeria graminis DC. f. sp. tritici Marchal fungus (Tables 1 and 2).

Table 1. Behavior of stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis), leaf rust (P. triticina), and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) of cv. Lleuque-INIA compared to control cv. Llareta-INIA in four irrigated locations and five agricultural cycles.

Table 2. Behavior of stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis), leaf rust (P. triticina), and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis) of cv. Lleuque-INIA compared to control cv. Corcolén-INIA in four irrigated locations and five agricultural cycles.


Grain yield
From 2004 to 2008, 'Lleuque-INIA' was evaluated in standard trials conducted in irrigated soils in the provinces of Santiago (CRI La Platina, 33º34' S; 70º38' W), Ñuble (Santa Rosa Experimental Station, 36°31' S; 71°54' W), and Yungay (Ñuble foothills 37º08' S; 72º0' W), and Bío Bío (Humán Experimental Center in Los Ángeles 37º26' S; 72º14' W). 'Lleuque-INIA' had a mean yield of 16.7 and 20.8% higher than the vars. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA, respectively, in La Platina. Yield in Chillán was 10.3 and 10.1% higher than 'Llareta-INIA' and 'Corcolén-INIA', respectively. On the other hand, 'Lleuque-INIA' yield in Yungay was higher than 'Llareta-INIA' by 13.07% and 'Corcolén-INIA' by 16.97%. 'Lleuque-INIA' yield in Humán was also higher than the control vars. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA by 15.23 and 24.03%, respectively (Table 3).

Table 3. Grain yield of cv. Lleuque-INIA compared to control cvs. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA standard trials conducted in four irrigated locations from 2004 to 2008.

 


Quality
Lleuque-INIA is a variety of wheat with mean hectoliter weight between 81 and 84 kg hL-1, wet gluten mean percentages between 28.83 and 35.66%, and mean protein values fluctuating between 10.47 and 12.3% (Tables 4, 5, and 6). In La Platina, hectoliter weight was low for the three varieties in 2004 because of viruses (Table 4). The grain showed a very low yellow berry percentage (Table 7) and very low incidence of black tip (Table 8). Low levels of black tip over time in the different locations must also be highlighted.

Table 4. Hectoliter weight of cv. Lleuque-INIA compared to control cvs. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA standard trials conducted in four irrigated locations from 2004 to 2008.

Table 5. Wet gluten of cv. Lleuque-INIA compared to control cvs. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA standard trials conducted in four irrigated locations from 2004 to 2008.

Table 6. Protein of cv. Lleuque-INIA compared to control cvs. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA standard trials conducted in four irrigated locations from 2004 to 2008.

Table 7. Yellow berry (%) of cv. Lleuque-INIA compared to control cvs. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA standard trials conducted in four irrigated locations from 2004 to 2008.

Table 8. Black tip (%) of cv. Lleuque-INIA compared to control cvs. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA standard trials conducted in four irrigated locations from 2004 to 2008.


Cultivation area and sowing dates
Data obtained in the regional and standard trials allow recommending 'Lleuque-INIA' for the zone between the Metropolitan Region to the Bío Bío Region.

Sowing in irrigated soils is recommended between June and August. This variety can be sown earlier than the vars. Llareta-INIA and Corcolén-INIA.

CONCLUSIONS


This is a new spring durum wheat variety with a high yield potential, mean hectoliter weight values between 81 and 84 kghL-1, wet gluten percentages between 28.83 and 35.66%, and mean protein values fluctuating between 10.47% and 12.3%. The var. Lleuque-INIA has exhibited resistance to stripe rust, leaf rust, stem rust, and a low to moderate resistance to powdery mildew.

The sowing zone for this variety stretches from the Metropolitan Region to the Bío Bío Region between June and August in irrigated soils.

LITERATURE CITED

Peterson, R., J. Campbell, and A. Hannah. 1984. A diagrammatic scale for estimating rust intensity of leaves and stems of cereals. Canadian Journal of Research Section C-Botanical Sciences 26:496-500.         [ Links ]

Ramírez, I., R. Cortazar, E. Hacke, D. Granger, y M. Zerene. 1997. Llareta-INIA, variedad de trigo candeal Triticum turgidum var. durum para la Zona Central de Chile. Agricultura Técnica 57:212-214.         [ Links ]

Saari, E., and J. Prescott. 1975. A scale for appraising the foliar intensity of wheat diseases. Plant Disease Reporter 59:377-380.
        [ Links ]
Received: 29 September 2010.
Accepted: 04 January 2011.