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Calidad en la educación

versão On-line ISSN 0718-4565

Calidad en la educación  no.46 Santiago jul. 2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-45652017000100008 

Articles

OVERVIEW

Paula Barros Mc Intosh1 

1Directora Revista Secretaria Ejecutiva Consejo Nacional de Educación Chile

Number 46 of the Calidad en la Educación (Quality in Education) journal contains six articles with the results of international, national, and local research into topics that are relevant to the work of CNED and currently part of educational discussion. Accordingly, through the pages of this journal it is possible to visit various findings and reflections on topics spanning from initial teacher training for inclusion all the way to factors with a major impact on educational achievement, including topics such as access to higher education for students coming from vocational secondary education, and the challenges posed by intercultural education, seen from the viewpoint of including indigenous heritage in the curriculum and also the reality of adaptation for migrant students. In addition to these articles, and following the tradition that characterizes this publication, this number of the journal also includes an essay on the manner how and perspectives with which the phenomenon of school violence is researched and analyzed in Chile.

Researchers Constanza San Martín, Cristóbal Villalobos, Carla Muñoz, and Ignacio Wyman in their article titled Formación inicial docente para la educación inclusiva. Análisis de tres programas chilenos de pedagogía en educación básica que incorporan la perspectiva de educación inclusiva (Initial teacher training for inclusive education. Analysis of three Chilean primary education pedagogy programs that adopt the inclusive education perspective) inquire into one of the challenges unavoidably posed for Chilean school education and teachers by the gradual entrance into force of Law 20845: this is, inclusion in the classroom. In this way, by analyzing graduation profiles and the curriculum the authors show how inclusive education is understood in the curricular design of three primary education pedagogy programs, and how this dimension is included in their formative processes. The results suggest that -at least for the cases analyzed- the approach to inclusive education is rather weak in terms of coherence, depth, and articulation with pedagogical practices that could actually be implemented in the classroom. Hence the door is left open for further research and advancement in public policies to support educational practice in this regard.

The next text called Gestión Institucional, involucramiento docente y de padres de familia en escuelas públicas de México (Institutional management and the involvement of teachers and parents at public schools in Mexico) by Carlos Acevedo, Giovanna Valenti, and Eduardo Aguiñaga analyzes the impact of involving teachers and parents, as well as institutional management, in the academic achievement of children studying at public schools in Mexico. This was done by analyzing the databases of the ENLACE 2012 test called Evaluación Nacional de Logros Académicos en Centros Escolares (National Assessment of Academic Achievement at Schools) as well as the 2012 CONTEXTO questionnaire given to 4th and 6th graders. The results show that involving parents and teachers has a positive impact on academic achievement and that institutional management measured with these tools has no significant effect on this performance. The paper reflects on the challenges of measuring those institutional management factors that do have an impact on classroom work, understanding how this impact is created, and inquiring into development and consolidation processes at actual schools.

Faithful to its spirit of disseminating knowledge in all spheres of education, the journal includes two articles with the results of research linked to Vocational Training. The first of these, Factores individuales, sociodemográficos e institucionales en el acceso de los egresados de la educación media técnico profesional a las instituciones de educación superior (Individual, sociodemographic, and institutional factors involved in access by vocational training secondary education graduates to higher education institutions), by Andrés Antivilo-Bruna, Valentina Poblete-Orellana, Jorge Hernández-Muñoz, Constanza García, and Paola Contreras. This article assesses the influence of various factors on how students graduating from vocational training secondary schools access Chilean higher education. The results show that despite everything done and changes introduced in recent years, the factors that allow making a distinction in student trajectories that enroll at a university vis-à-vis those who enroll at a technical training center continue to be the educational level of the mother, the occupational status of the father, and the number of correct answers in the Spanish language and mathematics university proficiency test (PSU - Prueba de Selección Universitaria). This is a warning with regard to the efficacy of the measures adopted and suggests the need to continue assessing and making proposals to overcome issues related to equity in terms of access to Chilean higher education.

The article titled La educación técnico profesional y las competencias para la ciudadanía. El caso de las comunas de la provincia de Concepción, Chile (Vocational training and citizenship skills. The case of districts in the province of Concepción, Chile) by Olga Carrillo and Pedro Jurado, studies perceptions of achievement with regard to citizenship skills among students attending vocational secondary education in the province of Concepción. The results were analyzed with a self-perception survey of students and qualitative information gathered among students and teachers. The survey results show that students have a high perception of their acquired citizenship skills, whereas analysis of qualitative information shows the achievement of these skills in the vocational training modality is associated to the curricular development of this modality and which includes apprenticeships at enterprises, as well as student personal conduct and characteristics.

Lastly, the studies section includes two articles that provide research results in relation to interculturality and its challenges. In the first of these articles, Análisis comparado sobre patrimonio cultural indígena y su currículo: Australia, Chile y Sudáfrica (Comparative analysis of indigenous cultural heritage and the curriculum: Australia, Chile, and South Africa), the academic Felipe Aravena contributes important and relevant evidence given the current discussion in our country with regard to the preparation of future Curricular Bases for Indigenous peoples’ Language and Culture. In this text the author reflects on how the cultural heritage of indigenous communities is addressed in the national curriculum in Australia, Chile, and South Africa. Three dimensions were qualitatively analyzed in each case: identity, curricular categorization, and indigenous knowledge and learning. The results show that -given the apparent interculturality of the analyzed curriculums- all maintained a single-culture curriculum, which partially integrated heritage, identity, and the indigenous language according to a rationale which the author describes as “curricular compensation”, leading to specific effects on the process of constructing identities, national integration, and cultural differentiation.

For its part, the article titled Adaptación académica de estudiantes migrantes en contexto de frontera (Academic adaptation of migrant students in border contexts) by Raúl Bustos and Joaquín Gairín provides evidence and reflections on a topic of increasing relevance in national affairs such as migration in school contexts. Through focus groups and in-depth interviews, the authors inquired into the characteristics of the academic adaptation process of primary and secondary school migrant students in the city of Arica in Chile. The results show that the context under study denotes a limited intercultural disposition, and that schools operate on the premise that it is each individual student who should adapt to the school system, and that the role of the education institution is to implement normalizing procedures to promote “formal equality” among students, overlooking the diversity and needs proper to this type of students and their families. Undoubtedly this is evidence that we cannot ignore and which signals the urgent need to further elaborate on the matter.

This number of the journal ends with an essay titled Las violencias escolares en el escenario educativo chileno. Análisis crítico del estado del arte (School violence in the Chilean educational scenario. Critical analysis of the state of the art). The article systemizes cumulate knowledge on school violence in Chile, with critical analysis and review of the most prevalent theoretical matrixes, as well as an outline of the multiple rationales or figures of violence that emerge and are reproduced at schools. The author ends the paper presenting the challenges that emerge and an analysis for addressing this theoretically as well as for research and the public policies to deal with school violence in our country.

In addition to thanking each of the authors for their reflections, contributions, and evidence, I also wish to thank the entire team of professionals and researchers who support the editing and production of this journal. The Calidad en la Educación journal is an open space to disseminate knowledge and exchange ideas with a high degree of excellence. It is an active contribution toward achieving the main aim of the Consejo Nacional de Educación, namely to promote the quality of Chilean education at all levels, and which is undoubtedly an aspiration of all and not only this particular institution.

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