International Journal of Morphology
versión On-line ISSN 0717-9502
Int. J. Morphol. v.25 n.2 Temuco jun. 2007
Int J. MorphoL, 25(2):329-333, 2007.
Morphogenesis of a Tunica Mucosa of Oviduct of the Hens
Morfogénesis de la Túnica Mucosa del Oviducto de Gallinas
R. YU. Khokhlov & S. I. Kuznetcov
Penza State Agricultural Academy, Russian Federation.
SUMMARY: The authors have used non-laying and laying hens (Lohmann Brown), in order to study morphological aspects development of tunica mucosa of the oviduct. The results showed that the oviduct of the hen is well-developed at the left side, atrophied at the right side and consists of five different regions: infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, shell-gland and excretory section (vagina). During 1-120 days in oviduct is the most advanced caudal part, where height and width folds of a tunica mucosa is more than in cranial part, that probably, is caused with the future function of these departments. In the period oviposition (150-540 days), the tunica mucosa is most advanced in such departments, as: magnum, isthmus, shell-gland.
KEY WORDS: Oviduct; Anatomy; Histology; Morphology.
RESUMEN: Se utilizaron gallinas no ponedoras y ponedoras (Lohmann Brown), para estudiar aspectos morfológicos del desarrollo de la túnica mucosa del oviducto. Los resultados mostraron que el oviducto de gallina está bien desarrollado en el lado izquierdo, atrofiado en el lado derecho y consiste de cinco diversas regiones: infúndíbulo, magnum, istmo, glándula cascara y sección excretoria (vagina). Durante 1-120 días en el oviducto la parte caudal está más avanzada, donde la altura y ancho de la túnica mucosa es el doble que en la parte cranial, probablemente, causado por la futura función de ese compartimiento. En el periodo de ovoposición (150-540 días), la túnica mucosa esta más avanzada en los compartimientos: magnum, istmo, y glándula cascara.
PALABRAS CLAVE: Oviducto; Anatomía; Histología; Morfología.
Morphology of oviduct of the hens, not looking on numerous attempts of research of this body (Warren & Scott 1935;Kubar, 1957; Krok, 1962;Aitken, 1963;Traynis, 1968; Stoljarovae? al., 1979; Manukhina et. al., 1983; Czareva, 1990; Stepina, 1997; Yoshimura & Ogawa, 1998), remains investigated not full. In the large contribution to study of reproductive system of birds have brought (Morris, 1985; Baturevich, 1966; Grasgof, 1966; Schwarz, 1967; Karapetyan, 1962; Mamura, 1976; Follet & Farner, 1966; Fuyii, 1981;Aupov, 1987).
As observed, no work concerning morphology of the hen's oviduct in interval from hatching to stopping oviposition was found. Facing this data and the analysis of the literature, we committed ourselves to studying the morphological aspects of the tunica mucosa of the hen's oviduct, during non-laying and laying period.
MATERIAL AND METHOD
The material for research was served oviducts of the hens strain "Lohmann Brown" in daily, 15-, 30-, 60-, 90-, 120-, 150-, 180-, 210-, 540-day's age. All was investigated 60 person. The hens were killed by decapitation and the oviduct was excised, followed by weighing on weights of the stamp Adventurer AR-3130. Length of oviduct was defined with the help wax sewing. Then a known site sewing measured by a ruler.
For histological observations licks of oviduct from each section fixing in liquid Carnoy. After fixing tissues were dehydrated and embedded in paraffin. Sections of 5-8 µm thickness were stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Sections were examined under a light microscope. On histological sections defined height epithelial cell, height and width of a fold of tunica mucosa.
Up to 150-day's age oviduct of hen is divided on 2 departments: cranial and caudal. Since 150-day's ages in oviduct are distinguish: infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, shell gland and excretory section (vagina).
In daily age oviduct of chickens is subdivided on cranial and caudal departments. It has the form flat tension bar, lasting from caudal of edge of last rib up to sink. Cranial the department typographic adjoins with ovary, and caudal falls into the sink. Folds of a tunica mucosa are absent, epithelium is single-layered/one-layer. Outside oviduct is covered single-layered flat mesothelium.
In 15-day's age the tunica mucosa cranial of a part oviduct of chickens is covered single-layered multiserial epithelium, which height is 8,5±0,5 µm. In caudal of a part oviduct height of epithelium is 9,0±0,5 µm, that on 5,9 % is more, than in cranial. At 15-day's age begin to be formed folds of a tunica mucosa. In cranial of a part oviduct of chickens height folds of a tunica mucosa is 21,3±1,4 µm, and in caudal 31,7±3,1 µm, that on 48,8 % is more. Width folds of a tunica mucosa cranial of a part 19,3±1,3 µm, caudal 63,1±5,2 µm, that is 3 times is more.
At 3 0-day's age height folds of a tunica mucosa cranial department of a oviduct has increased in 1,7 times and has made 35,7±3,5 µm. In caudal department by 2,3 times -71,4±5,1 µm. Width folds of a tunica mucosa cranial of department has increased by 2,4 times and has made 46,9±10,5 µm, and caudal by 1,3 times and has made 85,1 ±7,2 µm. Epithelium in both departments single-layered biserial, which height in cranial of a part 12,6±1,2 µm, in caudal - 12,8±1,2 µm.
At 60-day's age height folds of a tunica mucosa cranial of a part oviduct has increased, in comparison with 3 0-day's by 1,7 times and has made 61,6±9,4 µm. Height folds caudal of a department for the similar period has increased by 1,5 times and has made 110,0±5,1 µm. Width folds of a tunica mucosa cranial of a department has increased by 1,1 times and has made 50,3±8,6 µm, in caudal a department width folds has increased by 1,3 times and has made 110,8±13,5 µm. A tunica mucosa of both departments cover single-layered biserial epithelium, which height in cranial of a part 12,9±0,5 µm, in caudal 15,1±1,1 µm.
At 90-day's age, height folds of a tunica mucosa cranial of a department oviduct has increased, in comparison with 60-day's, but not considerably and has made 61,8±9,4 µm. In caudal a department height folds has increased by 1,2 times and has made 13 7,2±5,2 µm. Width folds of a tunica mucosa for the same period has increased in cranial of a part by 1,6 times and has made 79,3±4,5 µm, in caudal by 1,04 times and has made 142,8±7,2 µm. In cranial a department its height 15,1 ±0,5 µm, in caudal 17,4±0,6 µm. Epithelium is still a single-layered biserial.
At 120-day's age oviduct is still divided only on two departments: cranial and caudal. The border between them is circular stria of a smaller diameter, than the cranial and caudal departments. Height folds of a tunica mucosa at 120-day's age in cranial of a part has increased, in comparison with 90-day's age by 3,2 times and has made 195,3±13,7 µm. In caudal of a part oviduct this parameter has increased by 2,1 times and has made 294,2±20,9 µm. Width folds cranial of a department for the specified period has increased
by 1,7 times and has made 134,2±7,9 µm. In caudal of a part width folds has increased by 1,4 times and has made 162,6±7,9 µm. In 120-day's age single-layered biserial epithelium which height in cranial of a part 16,2± 1,1 µm, in caudal 18,8±1,2 µm is replaced prismatic.
At 150-day's age oviduct of the layer is differentiated on 5 departments: infundibulum, magnum, isthmus, shell gland and excretory section. Tunica mucosa of a infundibulum 1l50-day's oviduct cover biserial epithelium in height 18,0±0,3 µm. Height folds of a tunica mucosa in this department are equal 116,1 ±13,4 µm, and width 78,2±2,3 µm.
Tunica mucosa magnum cover prismatic epithelium in height 25,0±1,1 µm. Height folds of a tunica mucosa magnum is 2036,0±168,3 µm. Width folds -993,6±69,2µm.
Tunica mucosa of an isthmus oviduct cover biserial epithelium, which height 16,8±0,7 µm. Height folds is 1850,2± 170,9 µm. Width folds is 724,2±49,9 µm.
Tunica mucosa shell gland cover single-layered prismatic epithelium, which it is possible to call biserial, as its structure includes two kinds of crates: ciliated and scyphiform of their nucleus settle down at different levels. Height folds of a tunica mucosa is 783,9±61,9 µm, width is -251,9±26,0µm.
Tunica mucosa excretory section cover biserial epithelium, which height is 25,4±1,5 µm. Height folds is 1307,3±82,1 µm, width - 317,4±24,7 µm.
At 180-day's age a tunica mucosa of a infundibulum cover biserial epithelium, height 12,9±0,8 µm. Height folds of a tunica mucosa of a infundibulum have increased, in comparison with 150-day's age in 2,3 times and has made 261,4±27,2 µm. Width folds in this department have increased, in comparison with 150-day's age by 1,3 times and have made 105,5±10,9 µm.
Inumagnum height of biserial epithelium has made 17,2±0,6 µm. Height folds of a tunica mucosa 755,2±85,0 µm, width folds have made 206,1 ±12,4 µm.
Height epithelial cells is equal an isthmus 24,0±1,6 µm. Height folds of a tunica mucosa of an isthmus has increased, in comparison with 150-day's age, by 1,4 times and has made 2648,0±52,8 µm. Width folds have increased for the similar period by 1,27 times and have made 917,0±31,6µm.
In shell gland height epithelium has increased, in comparison with 150-day's age by 1,2 times and has made 26,1 ±1,2 µm. Height folds of a tunica mucosa in this department have increased for one month in 2,2 times and have made 1745,4± 150,5 µm. Width folds have increased by 1,9 times and have made 486,1 ±45,9 µm.
In excretory section height epithelial cells have increased insignificantly - by 1,1 times and have made 24,0±1,5 µmHeight folds have made 530,5±35,1 µm, and width - 202,7±9,2 µm.
In 210-day's age epithelial cells of a tunica mucosa of a infundibulum have height of 16,2±0,8 µm. Height folds of a tunica mucosa of a infundibulum have increased, in comparison with 180-day's age by 3,5 times and have made 921,6±50,1 µm Width folds of a tunica mucosa of a infundibulum, have increased for the similar period by 2,2 times and have made 230,8±9,8 µm.
Inumagnum epithelial cells achieve 20,1 ±1,3 µm. Height folds mucous magnum have increased, in comparison with 180-day's age, by 2,1 times and have made 1574,8±74,0 µmWidth folds of a tunica mucosa of an analyzed department have increased by 1,6 times and have made 322,9±8,6 µm.
In an isthmus height epithelial cells makes 23,2±0,6 µm. Height folds of a tunica mucosa of this department have made 2007,3±196,8 µm, and their width - 850,6±50,3 µm.
In shell gland of oviduct of the 210-day's layer height epithelium 26,3±1,4 µm. Height folds are equal 1300,8±137,5 µm, and width 200,0±14,2 µm.
In excretory section of oviduct height epithelium 24,9±1,3 µmHeight folds of a tunica mucosa in this department are equal 767,4±94,9 µm, and their width 266,0±32,9 µm.
At 540-day's age height epithelial cells, cover a tunica mucosa of a infundibulum has made 10,0±0,5 µm. Height folds of a tunica mucosa 146,8±16,2 µm. Width folds of a tunica mucosa of a infundibulum have decreased, in comparison with 210-day's age by 6,8 times and have made 33,8±2,1 µm.
Inumagnum height epithelium mucous is equal 18,5±0,8 µmHeight folds of a tunica mucosa have made 2057,1 ±50,6 µmWidth folds of a tunica mucosa magnum is equal 1082,2±44,5 µm.
In an isthmus height epithelial cells 15,5±0,7 µm. Height and width folds 1330,2±102,6 µm and 504,2±24,1 µmaccordingly.
In shell gland average height epithelial cells 21,7±1,0 µm. Height folds is equal this department 1557,6±88,3 µm. Width in them is fixed at a level of 282,9±17,9 µm.
In excretory section epithelium has height of 17,3±0,6 µm. Height folds of a tunica mucosa in this department are equal 997,4±47,9 µm. Width folds matters 228,5±13,5 µm.
In development of oviduct of the hens in after incubation period by us is marked certain nonsynchronment. This phenomenon is marked, on the data Litovchenko (1971) in the embryonic period and also testifies to direct dependence after incubation period from embryonic.
From daily age oviduct of chickens is differentiated on cranial and caudal departments. At 30-day's age the relief of a tunica mucosa oviduct has a similar structure with those of the chicken. At the same time, there are essential differences in the form, height, and width folds. The thickness of epithelium a tunica mucosa cranial of a part oviduct is increased by 1,9 times, caudal by 2,1 times. Thus, epithelium caudal of a department develops more intensively, than in cranial.
Height folds in cranial of a part oviduct for the period 15-120 day have increased by 9,2 times. In caudal of apart height folds have increased by 9,3 times. It is necessary to note, that height folds have the greater importance in caudal of a part.
Width folds, for the period 15-120 days, in cranial of a part have increased by 7,0 times, in caudal by 2,6 times. Width folds of a tunica mucosa, as well as height in caudal of a part is more, than in cranial.
Analyzing the received results, we see, that the tunica mucosa among departments oviduct layer of 150-day's age is most strongly advanced in an isthmus, shell gland and magnum.
Comparing morphometric parameters of investigated departments oviduct 180-day's layers, we mark, that greatest height epithelium is fixed in shell gland a department 25,4±1,5 µm and least in a infundibulum 12,9±0,8 µm. Greatest height folds of a tunica mucosa are marked in an isthmus - 2648,0±52,8 µm, least in a infundibulum -261,4±27,2 µm. Greatest width have folds of a tunica mucosa of an isthmus - 917,0±31,6 µm, least - folds of a infundibulum-105,5± 10,9 µm.
As to histometric of parameters oviduct 210-day's layers, greatest height epithelium is fixed in shell gland -26,3±1,4 µm, least in a infundibulum - 16,2±0,8 µm. Greatest height folds - in an isthmus 2007,3± 196,8 µm, least in excretory section - 767,4±94,9 µm. Greatest width folds are marked in an isthmus - 850,6±50,3 µm, least in shell gland - 200,0±14,2 µm.
Analyzing morphogenesis oviduct 540-day's layers it is necessary to note, that greatest height epithelium is marked in shell gland - 21,7±1,0 µm, least - in a infundibulum - 10,0±0,5 µm. Greatest height folds of a tunica mucosa is marked inumagnum- 2057,1 ±50,6 µm, least - in a infundibulum -146,8±16,2 µm. Greatest width folds is marked inumagnum- 1082,2±44,5 µm, least in a infundibulum - 33,8±2,1 µm.
The second period - period of intensive development oviduct begins with 150 and up to 180-day's age lasts. The given period is characterized by intensive increase of weight, length and thickness of a wall oviduct, beginning differentiation on departments. Average thickness epithelium in the second period in a infundibulum -15,5±0,6 µm, inumagnum- 21,1 ±0,9 µm, in an isthmus - 20,4±1,2 µm, in shell gland - 23,5±1,3 µm, in excretory section -24,7±1,8nm.
Height folds of a tunica mucosa of a infundibulum oviduct in the second period have increased by 2,3 times, inumagnum by 2,7 times, in an isthmus by 1,4 times, in shell gland by 2,2 times, in excretory section height folds has decreased by 1,7 times.
Thus, in the second period greatest height folds is marked in an isthmus - 2648,0±52,8 µm, and least in a infundibulum- 116,1 ±13,4 µm.
As to width folds, greatest width folds for the second period is fixed in an isthmus - 917,0±31,6 µm, and least in a infundibulum - 78,2±2,3 µm.
The third period - "of stable functioning" oviduct proceeds with 210 untill 540-day's age. The thickness of an epithelium in the third period tends to reduce in all departments. Height folds of a tunica mucosa to 540-day's age decreases only in a infundibulum and isthmus, and inumagnum, shell gland and excretory section, opposite is increased in 1,3; 1,2; 1,3 times, accordingly.
Dynamics of changes of width folds is subject to the same tendency, that is the general reduction of width folds is observed, that is caused by approximation of the involution period.
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Received: 26-02-2007 Accepted: 27-03-2007
Dr. Roman Khokhlov