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versión On-line ISSN 0717-7712
Parasitol. latinoam. v.62 n.1-2 Santiago jun. 2007
Parasitol Latinoam 62: 35-41, 2007 FLAP
Two new species of Henneguya Thélohan, 1892 (Myxozoa, Myxobolidae), parasitic on the gills of Hoplosternum littorale (Callichthyidae) and Cyphocharax gilbert (Curimatidae) from the Guandu River, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
VANESSA D. ABDALLAH*, RODNEY K. DE AZEVEDO*, JOSÉ LUIS LUQUE** e TERESA C. B. DO BOMFIM**
* Curso de Pós-Graduacao em Ciencias Veterinarias, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica,Brasil.
Two new species of Henneguya (Myxozoa) were described from specimens collected on the gills of Hoplosternum littorale (Hancock, 1828) (Callichthyidae) and Cyphocharax gilbert (Quoy and Gaimard, 1824) (Curimatidae), from Guandu River, State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The species described were compared with the related species of the genus. The new species of Henneguya parasitic on H. littorale has cysts with synchronous development, the spore body was 14.6 (11.4-16.7) /urn long by 6.5 (4.9-7.9) μm wide. The total length of the spore was 33.6 (27.3-38.1) ¡mi and each valve had a caudal process measuring 19.0 (15.6-22.5) μm. The larger polar capsule was 4.4 (3.3-5.6)μm long by 2.0 (1.6-2.3) μm wide, the smaller polar capsule was 4.1 (3.3-5.3) ¡mi long by 2.2 (1.5-2.8) fum wide. Each polar filament with 3-6 coils. The new species of Henneguya parasitic on C. gilbert has cysts with synchronous development, the spore body was 11.3 (7.7-13.4) ¡mi long by 4.4 (2.9-6.3) μm wide. The total length of the spore was 35.1 (29.6-44.4) μm and each valve had a caudal process measuring 23.7 (20.8-31.5) μm. The larger polar capsule was 5.2 (4.2-6.3) μm by 1.9 (1.5-2.3) μm wide, the smaller polar capsule was 4.5 (3.4-5.2) ¡mi long by 1.7 (1.3-2.2) ¡mi wide. Each polar filament with 7-9 coils. The characteristics of these species were compared with all the species described so far.
Key words: Henneguya guanduensis n. sp., Henneguya cyphocharax n. sp., Guandu River, Myxozoa, Brazil.
Currently, Myxozoa contain 52 genus1, many of them are parasites of fish. Henneguya, is the second largest within Myxozoa and it contains about 150 described species2. Eiras (2002)2 listed 146 species in Henneguya. Since then, more nine species were described parasitic Brazilian freshwater fishes3"11. In total, there are currently 29 species described for Brazilian fishes1217. This number is surprisingly low when compared with the high number of fish species in Brazilian rivers6. The importance of these species as pathogens of freshwater fish has been described by several authors18. In 1997, occur the report of spores of Henneguya salminicola in human stool specimens, but no exist evidence that these parasites are capable of causing disease in humans19.
None species of Henneguya was recorded from Guandu River, which is the most important source of water supply of the city of Rio de Janeiro and characterized as the fluvial system with the highest fish biodiversity in the Basin Hydrographic of the Bay of Sepetiba20.
During a parasitological survey of fishes of Guandu River, were collected numerous cysts of Myxozoan on the gills of Hoplosternum littorale and Cyphocharax gilbert. In the present paper, two new species of Henneguya are described and illustrated.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Between May 2004 to February 2005, were collected 100 specimens of H. littorale and 60 specimens of C. gilbert from the River Guandu (22°48'32"S, 43°37'35"W), State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Once obtained, the fish were conditioned in boxes containing ice, to assure adequate conditions for the collection of the parasites and transport to laboratory. The fish were thoroughly dissected under a compound microscope and all the organs were inspected for the presence of parasites.
Thirty free spores from freshly prepared material obtained from different fish specimens were measured using a micrometer (Wild-PZO) 15X, coupled to a microscopy Leitz Wetzalar -Dialux 20 EB under 10X for the measurement of the cysts and it aims at of immersion (100 X) for measurement of the spores. The micrographs were took using Olympus BX-51 microscope with Phase Contrast 100X.
The characteristics used for the description of the new species are according to Lorn and Arthur21. The spores were treated with Lugol solution to determine the presence of iodinophilous vacuoles in the sporoplasma. For
the detailed observation, description and drawing of the species, the spores were stained with Giemsa, according an standard protocol22.
The syntypes are deposited at the Colecao Helmintologica do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz (CHIOC), Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.
Cysts polysporic 0.06-0.30 x 0.08-0.38 mm in diameter. Development was synchronous. Cysts in advanced stages contained only mature spores. Mature fresh spores surface smooth, with symmetric valves. Total length 33.6 (27.3 -38.1) μm, body length 14.6 (11.4 - 16.7) μm, body width 6.5 (4.9 - 7.9) μm, tail length 19.0 (15.6 - 22.5) μm. Distance from anterior extremity to polar capsule 1.5 (0.6-2.1) μm. Two polar capsules in the anterior pole of spore, unequal in size, elongate, more or less cylindrical, anterior extremity tapered. Polar capsules near one of the other, not leaning; Larger 4.4 (3.3-5.6) μm long, 2.0 (1.6 - 2.3) μm wide; smaller 4.1 (3.3 - 5.3) μm long, 2.2 (1.5-2.8) μm wide; 3 - 6 coils in the polar filament, obliquely to axis polar capsule. Tail not bifurcated at the end of spore body. Iodinophilous vacuole absent. Sporoplasm binucleate. Mucous envelope present.
- Type host: Hoplosternum littorale, Callichthyidae, "tamboatá".
- Etymology: the specific name derives from the type locality.
Cysts polysporic 0.10-0.32 x 0.12-0.35 um in diameter. Development was synchronous. Cysts in advanced stages contained only mature spores. Mature fresh spores surface smooth, symmetric valves. Total length 35.1 (29.6 - 44.4) um, body length 11.3 (7.7 - 13.4) um, body width 4.4 (2.9 - 6.3) um, tail length 23.7 (20.8 -31.5) um. Distance from anterior extremity to polar capsule 1.2 (0.7-1.6) um. Two polar
capsules in the anterior pole of spore, well unequal in size, elongate, anterior extremity tapered. Polar capsules near one of the other if leaning; Larger 5.2 (4.2 - 6.3) μm long, 1.9 (1.5 - 2.3) μm wide; smaller 4.5 (3.4 - 5.2) μm long, 1.7 (1.3-2.2) |j,m wide; 7-9 coils in the polar filament, perpendicularly, with spiraled appearance. Tail not bifurcated at the end of spore body. Iodinophilous vacuole present. Sporoplasm binucleate. Mucous envelope absent.
- Type host: Cyphocharax gilbert, Curimatidae, "sairu".
Henneguya guanduensis n. sp. was first compared with the other Henneguya species described from Brazilian fishes. Only three species showed a general morphology and total length similar to H. guanduensis n. sp.: H. adherens Azevedo and Matos, 1995; H. curimata Azevedo and Matos, 2002 and H. pellucida Adriano, Arana and Cordeiro, 2005. Henneguya adherens described from Acestrorhynchusfalcatus (Bloch, 1794) differ from H guanduensis n. sp. because it has smaller length and width of polar capsules, smaller number of coils in the polar filament and asymmetry the valves. Henneguya curimata described from Curimata inormata Vari, 1989 is quite different from H guanduensis n. sp. because it has the larger length and smaller width of polar capsules and higher number of coils in the polar filament. Henneguya pellucida described from Piaractus mesopotamicus differs from H guanduensis n. sp. because it has smaller body length, larger tail and smaller body width (Table 1).
Our species was also compared with spore characteristics of 146 species of Henneguya, including listed by Eiras2. Only three species have morphology general and total length similar to H guanduensis n. sp.: H. laterocapsulata Landsberg, 1987 in Israel, H mystusia Sarkar 1985 in India and H. nyongensis Fomena and Bouix, 1996 in Cameroon. Henneguya later ocapsulata described from Ciarías lazera Valenciennes, 1840 has smaller body width, larger length of polar capsules and larger size of cysts. Henneguya mystusia described from Mystus sp. differentiates by smaller body length and very much smaller body width, larger length and smaller width of polar capsules. Finally, Henneguya nyongensis described from Mar-cusenius moorii has smaller body length and smaller body width, larger tail and larger length of polar capsules (Table 1).
Henneguya guanduensis n. sp. was also compared with H amazónica23 parasitizing the ovarian follicles from Hoplosternum littorale, but measurements are quite different compared with our species, showed larger tail length (45.4 |j,m), smaller length of polar capsules (3.3 μm) and smaller size of cysts (0.05 - 0.15).
The same comparision was accomplished to Henneguya cyphocharax n. sp. Only two species described from Brazilian fishes showed a general morphology and total length similar to H. cyphocharax n. sp.: H eléctrica Jakowzka and Nigrelli, 1953 and H.friderici Casal, Matos and Azevedo 2003. Henneguya eléctrica described from Electrophorus electricus (Linnaeus, 1766) differs from H. cyphocharax n. sp. because it has larger body length, larger body width and smaller tail. H. friderici described from L. friderici differs from H. cyphocharax n. sp. because it has smaller length and larger body width, smaller number of coils of the polar filament and polar capsules in equal size (Table 2).
After the comparison with the spore characteristics of 146 species of Henneguya, listed by Eiras2, only two species had a morphology general and total length similar to H. cyphocharax n. sp.: H. australis Johnston and Bancroft, 1919 in Australia and H. shaharini Shariff, 1982 in Malaysia. Henneguya australis described from Plectroplites ambiguus Richardson, 1845 has smaller tail length, smaller body width, larger body length and smaller length of polar capsules; Henneguya shaharini described from Oxyeleotris marmoratus (Bleeker, 1852) has very much smaller body width, larger length and smaller width of polar capsules and smaller number of coils of the polar filament (Table 2). Additionally H. cyphocharax n. sp. was compared with H. singhi Lalita-Kumari, 196924 described in India from Notopterus osmanii Rahimullah and Das, 1991, due to the similarity of the general morphology and of some measured, in spite of the difference among the total length (51.3μm), tail length (39.0 μm) and polar capsule length (5.7μm), that healthy much larger than Henneguya cyphocharax n. sp.
Henneguya cyphocharax n. sp was also compared with H garavelli Martins and Onaka, 2006 found parasitizing the gills from Cyphocharax nagelli, whose measures are quite different compared with our species, showed larger total length (46.6 μm), larger body length (13.6 μm), larger tail (33.0μm) and larger length of polar capsules (5.4μm).
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Acknowledgements: Jose L. Luque was supported by a Research fellowship from CNPq (Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Tecnológico). Vanessa D. Abdallah and Rodney K. Azevedo were supported by student fellowships from CAPES (Coordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior) and CNPq, respectively.