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ARQ (Santiago)

versão On-line ISSN 0717-6996

ARQ (Santiago)  no.95 Santiago abr. 2017

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-69962017000100118 

Works & projects

Salamanca Municipal Gymnasium. Salamanca, Chile

Mario Carreño 1   , Piera Sartori 2   **  

1Profesor, Escuela de Arquitectura, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. mcarrenz@uc.cl

2Profesora, Escuela de Arquitectura, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile. pierasartori@gmail.com

Abstract:

Conceiving the building as a public space activator has a wide range of precedents, not only in a threshold logic - with the building's facade as a public backdrop - but rather in a contemporary fashion, where the structure frees urban land in order to expand the building's program. This project, in a small town in the north of Chile, uses this genealogy of references to deliver a new public space.

Keywords: void; public; sports; façade; folds

(c) Marcos Mendizabal

Figure 1. 

Given that the first construction company filled for bankruptcy, the works on the building begun in 2007 (design stage) and were completed in 2016 (completion certificate). This 9-year period allowed for changes based on observations and opportunities that developed once on site.

Manuel V. Botelho (c) Creative Commons

Figure 2 OMA, Casa da Música. Oporto, Portugal, 2005. 

Images taken from Federico Kulekdjians

Figure 3 Mario Roberto Álvarez. Teatro San Martín. Buenos Aires, 1960. 

Images taken from Federico Kulekdjians

Figure 4 Mario Roberto Álvarez. Teatro San Martín. Buenos Aires, 1960. 

El despeje bajo las graderías del Teatro San Martín en Buenos Aires, de Mario Roberto Álvarez, se traslada directamente a la propuesta: tanto la continuidad interior con el suelo de la vereda, convertida en antesala, como el uso de los espacios laterales como circulaciones en torno a la sala del teatro. Ambos edificios tienen una diferencia radical en su relación con la manzana; la primera llena y de fachada continua, la segunda vacía de edificios aislados. En Salamanca se logran espacios intersticiales con la introducción de una envolvente plegada que sustituye a los muros medianeros de Buenos Aires, dando forma a un edificio singular, distinto del edificio anónimo y notable que sirve de referente.

A place of fragmented land

The structure was designed based on the features of an urban site next to a hill, considering a public building for 2,000 spectators. The plot had a precarious gymnasium, near a football field as well as an old abandoned swimming pool. These lots were used as independent, private enclosures with obscuring fences, fragmenting the land and preventing possible circulation. All three programs occupied the plot nearly up to its borders, which remained wasted.

Figure 5 Building a paper plane. 

Figure 6 Building a paper plane. 

El procedimiento de plegado de papel - para un avión u otras construcciones - recoge y ordena el plano de la hoja de carta para convertirla en un cuerpo geométrico laminar que da origen a una serie de espacios intersticiales de luz controlada. La forma resultante se toma como referente para el control de la luz del interior de la obra, que entra por reflexión entre los planos distanciados. Este distanciamiento entre los planos de cerramiento abre una serie de espacios perimetrales donde se ubican distintos programas y recorridos complementarios a la nave principal.

Public ground

(c) Marcos Mendizabal

Figure 7. 

Since the municipality owned the three lots, the fences' removal was seen as an architectural opportunity. Thus, the submission for the open competition was a proposal for a joint sports arena where the new gymnasium substituted the walls and activated the use of the former boundaries among plots with different programs, paths and entrances on all its sides.

Facing the city, the south façade has the building's main access, which is used sporadically. The north façade - which receives direct sunlight - includes entrances and programs connected to everyday use, such as exercise machines, cafeteria and offices. To the east, the public sidewalk is accompanied by a ramp leading to the northern bleachers, while to the west, there are fire exits and programs complementing the neighboring soccer field: a journalists booth and dressing rooms. The ground proposal is thus open to sidewalks, incorporating the originally enclosed plots to the public use.

Public ceiling

(c) Marcos Mendizabal

Figura 8. 

The space remaining under the bleachers is always tricky to solve, both for structural issues as for its challenging geometry. In most of the cases studied, presence of structural elements prevailed over spatial clearness.

Image taken from Kampee Patisena

Figure 9 Oil platform 

With its main access on the southern side and without any other free space between the street and the building's entrance, the slanting plane under the grandstands suddenly becomes of value. By reducing pillars to a minimum and eliminating any vertical enclosures, the resulting void serves as a public hall for crowds to gather, a 'public ceiling' that canopies and protects from the rain. Once the project was already built, the municipality decided to replace the old pool with a 40 × 40 m esplanade, thus incorporating a new public square to the urban pedestrian system.

(c) Marcos Mendizabal

Figure 10. 

Displaced planes

A controlled, indirect indoor light allows for both practicing sports and holding public meetings and events. This kind of light is achieved by a high wooden ceiling, mounted on the bleachers' concrete steps and arranged by the interplay of interstitial spaces resulting from folded surfaces, resembling paper airplanes. These series of planes are arranged according to sun exposure and program, starting from the high point of the main access. This generates the building's characteristic faceted geometry.

(c) Marcos Mendizabal

Figure 11. 

Load transferring

The project does not follow the structural optimum (transferring loads directly onto the ground); its logic instead consists in systematizing weight transfer through the different mismatches between resistant elements. These transmissions - from wood to metal to concrete - take the weight to the foundations on the ground. This displacement deceives the eye, making the constructive pieces and planes appear to be floating. Thus, the structural strategy achieves ground clearance and controls the admission of sunlight into the interior.

Figure 12 Site plan. Published scale 1: 2.500 

Figure 13 Plan level ±0,00 m. Published scale 1: 500 

Figure 14 Plan level +4,00 m. Published scale 1: 500 

Figure 15 Plan level +8,40 m. Published scale 1: 500 

Figure 16 West elevation. Published scale 1: 500 

Figure 17 Section BB. Published scale 1: 500 

Figure 18 South elevation. Published scale 1: 500 

Figure 19 Section AA. Published scale 1: 500 

Architects: Carreño Sartori Arquitectos (Mario Carreño Zunino, Piera Sartori del Campo)

Collaborators: Pamela Jarpa, Pia Mastrantonio, Claudia Wagner

Ubicación: Calle Matilde Salamanca esquina José Manuel Infante, Salamanca, Región de Coquimbo, Chile

Client: Ilustre Municipalidad de Salamanca

Structural engineering: SyS Ingenieros Consultores

Building contractor: Constructora INCA Ltda. - Constructora Lohse y Villablanca ltda.

Mechanical engineering: Roberto Pavez Mujica

Electrical system: ICG S.A.

Landscape architects: Carreño Sartori Arquitectos

Cost: 38 UF/m2 - 1,504 USD/m2

Buit area: 3.258 m2

Project year: 2007

Construction year: 2009 - 2016

Photographs: Marcos Mendizábal

Renderings and models: Carreño Sartori Arquitectos

* Mario Carreño Undergraduate studies, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso, 1990-1992. Architect and Graduate studies, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 2000. He is currently Assistant Professor at the Escuela de Arquitectura, PUC. Co-founder in 2000 of Carreño Sartori Arquitectos, his work has been published in different media, exhibitions and biennials.

** Piera Sartori Architect, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 1999. Graduate studies in Landscape Architecture, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, 2003. She is currently visiting professor at the Escuela de Arquitectura, PUC. Co-founder in 2000 of Carreño Sartori Arquitectos, her work has been published in different media, exhibitions and biennials.

Creative Commons License Este es un artículo publicado en acceso abierto bajo una licencia Creative Commons