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versión On-line ISSN 0717-6996
ARQ (Santiago) n.75 Santiago ago. 2010
ARQ, n. 75 Houses, Santiago, August, 2010, p. 20-29.
Andrés Téllez* **
* Professor, School of Architecture, Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago, Chile.
** Profesor, School of Architecture, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Santiago, Chile
Due to the fact that houses are the most published works of architecture, the author comparatively analyzes the projects in this issue from four points of view: geographies or interior distribution, transformations of existing works, rural or urban location and previous references.
Key words: Architecture-Latin America, critical analysis, housing, interior spaces, publications.
THE HOUSE, THE ESSENTIAL ARCHITECTURE PROJECT / Who has not imagined or built their own home? It seems impossible to speak of architecture without speaking of the dwelling as the basic unit of human habitation. It is difficult to find a publication specializing in architecture that has not addressed the house: the privileged space, the last refuge of the private life, the material footprint of the basic unit of society -the family- and the architectonic principal. All this and more embodies the house. To prove this one must simply look at the panorama of houses published in Chile in the 80 years between 1930 and 2010. If one wishes to construct an overall idea of the state of architecture, one can begin by looking at houses. They are the "the visible face of modernity" (Téllez, 1996), modernity understood as the resulting condition of change, by the march towards the unexplored and undefined borders of knowledge and the trade itself. The conceptual arc reaches to include the house in its most contemporary version: the continuity of modern attitudes, some inherited, others superimposed from the experience of the Modern Movement. The continuity of this attitude runs parallel to the need for dedicating numerous monographs to houses in contemporary magazines, as was done in Chile Arquitectura y Construcción or Aucain during their respective periods.
On a second level, the single family dwelling is recognized by its condition as the private world. The home exists in our imagination through photography, sketches and plans that survive even its physical destruction. Culturally speaking, the idea that many times is built now by its daily occupance ─as occurs with the public building ─, but what is built by the photography, a summary and witness of a visitor.
On a third level, it is fitting to ask: What are the houses that are most published in the editorial world? An exercise of comparison allows the collation of the magazine Arquitectura y Construcción and ARQ. A particular Chilean feature comes to mind: the beach house. It is commonly known that many of the housing prototypes of the twentieth century fall into this typology. For some time in Chile, the beach house has occupied a significant place within the production of both established and young architects. In a country with 4500 km of coast from north to south and just 440 km at its widest point, accessing the coast from principal cities on the interior is relatively easy. The possibility of a second home touches all levels of society. It becomes an appropriate field for the local and international diffusion of Chilean architecture. And what happens to the urban house? The houses situated in the emerging neighborhoods of Santiago, those that are designed according to the Anglo-Saxon garden home model are suburban houses. The suburbia implies a certain condition of autonomy with respect to the normative restrictions and economical pressures of urban centers. In this aspect, nothing appears to have changed substantially between 1930 and now: the suburban house is, in essence, the Palladian luoco privilegiato. (Sato, 1999)
The three levels of proposed reflection serve as a starting point for the investigation to which this issue of ARQ adds to the extensive panorama of published houses, to those who have contributed to the construction of an architectonic culture that in the single family home of Chile has a face that continues to be as visible or more so than before. Take note of this paradox: they are visited with the contemplative consideration over printed paper or the computer screen, but rarely by being physically walked through
RETROSPECTIVE / I propose that the reader review some of the houses of the twentieth century in Chile, beginning in the architecture periodicals. From the beginning of the century, the grand particular residences were the object of much attention in the printed media. When, during the twenties the middle classes began their ascent and appeared as relevant players in society, the single family home began its transformation.
The magazine, Urbanismo y Arquitectura, official organ of the Association of Architects of Chile, included a rubric in its pages called "Modern Residences”(2). It addresses houses that presented certain themes differentiating them from the eclectic palates of just 20 years before and employing aesthetic references of origins sometimes exotic, mixed and recomposed. These modern residences represented a society completely anchored in rigid family structures. Their plans show a strong dependency on domestic services for their maintenance. It addressed isolated dwellings, without a doubt an advancement from the house between dividing walls in the city center. Its indelible suburban character placed architects in a new frontier. In this same magazine, there was a generous space for clearly modern houses. An example was the publication in 1937 of the houses for the Hasbún family, designed by Fedorov, Jayme and Peretiatkowicz, in Ñuñoa, Santiago. They represent an interesting counterpoint on the architectectonic path and how the prevailing taste could shift toward an acceptance of modern forms of habitation. However, judging by photos, this habitation must still overcome some obstacles. They are the expression of an emerging level of society that accepted the forms of modernity in their residences as a natural extension of their economic activity. However, the family structure remained rigidly bound to hierarchies inherited for generations.
The appearance of Arquitectura y Construcción in 1945 supposed an important turn in the consolidation of the architectonic culture of a modern matrix. The magazine dedicated, in its five years of life, two issues to the urban house, one to the beach house, an issue for vacation homes and a report on Richard Neutra houses. Undoubtedly, the more independent character of the magazine allowed them to published works that pushed further than the customary, the projects that reflected social changes with which Chile was experimenting. The prized forum for the young architects of the time ─Duhart, Castillo, Pérez de Arce, Galván, Despouy and Dvoresky─ without a doubt contributed to the formation of future generations, a certain idea of the modern house. Almost all of these where laboratory experiments demonstrating the advantages of modern construction, from the planning of the house to a life map equally planned, rational and unprejudiced in its schemes of rational functions and aesthetic resources. Also, with some of these projects a new pact between the natural realm and the built artifice was formed.
The 1950's marks an interlude in the editorial world for architecture(3). The disappearance of Arquitectura y Construcción and the sporadic appearance of publications such as la Arquitectura, the work of architects had to find new channels for diffusion. However, Zig-Zag and Eva rose to partially fill the void. In these magazines of countless issues and diverse subject matter, the architecture appeared here and there in many ways. The most interesting being Eva magazine, a publication for Chilean middle-class housewives. Highlighted here, domestic spheres as spaces are submitted to transformations to make them more practical and comfortable, cleaner and more luminous. The woman was assuming control of the domestic life, being liberating from the dependence of personal service. What architecture can be associated to a similar cultural change in Chile at the end of the 50's? Very little, if it is observed with attention to program, square meters and the distribution of the residential spaces of houses published years later?
The appearance of Auca in 1966 created a different tone from those previous. The single family house is addressed in articles and reports, sharing space with new or more urgent subjects. A new generation of architects comes on the scene, in the context of the maturity of the modern movement. Its precursory work prepares the terrain for house in which materials, techniques, programs and spaces appear adjusted to the Chilean nuclear family. In editorial notes, Auca highlights the details that make up the dwellings for well-to-do families with generous budgets and a way with certain materials such as stuccoes and wood used as references for local, native values. The panorama exhibited through six houses shows the formal possibilities and personal postures of the authors. Intense interior-exterior relationships are highlighted allowing both the immediate and distant landscapes acquire greater relevance; more open interior spaces with living and dining spaces sharing the same great space; bedrooms and service areas clearly compacted and separated.
The decades of the 70's and 80's meant a time of crisis in the valorization of the modern for Chilean architectonic production; patios, circles, bricks and arbors made up an important part of the formal repertoire employed in domestic architecture. The editorial scene at this time, with the exception of a more developed studio in its scope, can be characterized by the appearance and disappearance of editorial projects of certain importance, but above all by the absence of more critical positions, not from argument and rhetoric, but from the work itself.
Diluted as a building type by the growing variety of programs and scales, the single family dwelling continued to be a field for the construction of principles, in agreement with the values of these decades: a recuperation of forms, elements and materials denoting a certain local tradition. Without a doubt, the biennials, the Latin American Architecture Seminars and the growth of more or less fluid exchanges between magazines stirred the waters that had begun to stagnate at the beginning of the 90's. The Seville Expo in 1992 and later the UIA Congress in Barcelona, 1996, revealed a means of egress to more personal postures, in both the architects' arguments(4), and the work itself as a bearer of more open attitudes.
LATIN AMERICA ARRIVES ON THE SCENE / If the 1980's have left their mark on the editorial field, it would be the attention it gained in Argentina, Mexico and Brazil. The contribution of Chilean architecture on Latin American culture became more and more apparent. Favored with a healthy economic climate, an encouraging political environment and a generation of architects ready to take action the house took a prominent role for the growing critical mass of architects.
The houses published enter into a diffusion circuit of global scope. Together with the increased attention to the Latin American context, a renovated, critical vision appeared with respect to an inspiring period of modern architecture. The decades of the 1940's and 50's emerge again in the form of photography edited from the period, elegant publications on the Eames, Neutra, Breuer, Le Corbusier, Schindler and more. The formal keys that would be helping to redefine the contemporary house at the beginnings of the twenty-first century is, in part, in this archive of modern memory. For the panorama proposed in the present edition these houses do not make up nostalgic visions, mere reproductions or homages to the masters of the twentieth century. The 18 houses published here reaffirm the field of freedoms and the universe of ideas and memories of their authors, all deeply contemporary and therefore, in their own way, sustainers of the traditions in the magazines from the last century and remain alive on our continent.
GEOGRAPHIES / Faced with the practical impossibility of visiting the majority of the houses, I have decided to elaborate on my reflections given the material available digitally.(5)
The geographies that these houses propose describe the enormous variety of possibilities for domestic living. From the minimal hut/guard-house in Brazil to the complex residence in the Andean foothills of Chile, their architecture proposes recognizable and unknown elements in the way they associated with others or by the relationships they generate with their surroundings. If the houses of modernity, those published between the 1940's-70's, appealed to formal elements and unprecedented qualities in the local context, the houses published today seem less surprising precisely because many refer to already-seen episodes, foreseeable and established situations of domestic life. What draws the attention in almost all of them, is the strong personal seal of the architects, there to converse with their constituents to first define family life and then create an architecture that geographically describes the client's visions of the world.
The apparent contradiction among these established ways of life and the work of archtiecture to give them a more particular and specific meaning is what emphasized each of these proposed geographies. To begin with, an issue of chance: the houses that suggests relatively autonomous domestic spaces and shared social spaces for two nuclear families. The House in the Andes by Juan Carlos Doblado, situated in an irrigated valley interior, proposes a green tapestry over which two families, or one family and their guests, share a hard area containing a pool and living space. Smaller and more complex is comparable in the relationships it supposes, the Two Brothers house by Aguiló and Pedraza proposes two family lives that find each other on the grounds they share. While the lower volume conserves the basic preexisting structure of the house, the master bedroom is displaced towards a new second floor. Starting directly from the ground, as in so many of the houses from the 40's, a staircase leads directly to the second dwelling, a unique space integrating the living, kitchen and a bedroom. On this level, both share the terrace resulting from the displacement of the new volume with respect to the preexisting. Finally, the House for two golfers by Beals and Lyon shares the most domestic geography. Over a deck determining the shared surface plane, the common-space volume is organized around a hot point, the chimney-kitchen, the center of the inhabitants' social life. The two, tall volumes with the shared, covered terrace delimits the private space in each.
These methods of sharing life, specific to vacation homes, appear to penetrate the field of urban living. The Two Brothers House points to this direction. Greater flexibility motivated by more mobile and liquid families (Bauman, 2003) allows for the use of the small house on the second floor that can but doesn't need to be integrated with the domestic life of the larger dwelling.
In the opposing idea, there are houses whose more private areas, bedrooms and bathrooms, are located in independent volumes. The House in Santa Teresa by Angelo Bucci and team define, for the more intimate spaces, a large, suspended volume over an arrival esplanade whose roof is a prolongation of the intermediate later designated for more transparent social interaction: the pool, informal dining, playroom. Above, in a closed, perpendicular volume, more formal social life has its place. By being entirely closed, the middle level defines a shared horizon for the other two. While one offers a discovered terrace above the bedrooms, the other ensures a shaded space below the living. The supports of the tall volume fix the physical connection between the two by means of straight, enclosed stairs.
The House in Hidden Valley by Cruz and Purcell presents a domestic life that assures a location, a view and a specific level toward the extremes of three arms for each bedroom. At the midpoint the arms cross in a double height space. The social life occurs in this space over which a circuit of halls and stairs determine two differentiated levels of life. A floor surface of rough rock corresponds to the social spaces. Over and outside of this, the textured white walls of the bedrooms. This "white explosion" is reinforced by the horizontal lines of the windows and the ceilings sloping towards the landscape. A reference, although remote, of the well-known Errázuriz House by Le Corbusier over which the rough underlying rock the domestic live was framed by white walls and animated by the ramp and double height of the central space.
For the soft sloping site assigned in Marbella, Toyo Ito(6) proposes the prolongation of counter-slope to ensure the independence of the bedrooms and allow for access by means of a path from the front towards the interior. The deformed rectangle within which a central void is inscribed unites the domestic program of the house in a single continuous surface. The resulting geography can be described by means of a plan-sequence that begins by facing the sidewalk and ends facing the same sidewalk from the bathroom of the last bedroom on the upper level. A certain simultaneity of events, one linked to another, can be observed from the vertexes of the interior spaces. The living-dining room escapes by means of a ramp towards the living area of the bedrooms spanning almost the whole length of the house. The smooth, continuous surface of the glass accompanies the movement. The deformation inwards and backwards suffered by the rectangle achieves a stretching of the space towards the pool. Confines remain only behind the walls, the kitchen and the bedrooms. These spaces turn their backs to the house to lean out toward the neighbors roofs and the golf course. The landscape of the house is not only the Marbella complex but the house itself configures itself within the limits of the site through the central void and the opening towards the pool.
The most paradoxical of the houses is the House for Everyone. An attentive study of the photos by author,Verónica Arcos, taken during construction from a distant point provoke various reflections. Observe the neighboring catalogue houses. They seem so alien to the canyon around which they stand. The House for Everyone introduces its own canyon with the folds of its enclosure. This morphological accompaniment of the surrounding geography appears more appropriate than the neighboring architecture. The evident freedom with which the commission had been given, creates the possibility of escape from the established, commonly accepted formulas. The line of enclosure associated with the metallic structure that stretches progressively from one side of the terrain to the other forms the interior canyon that serves as a beach for the sleeping areas. The living and dining spaces open towards the landscape of the natural canyon protected by the cantilevered volume above. The dark wood surface suggests a relationship with the surrounding vegetation while the acutely defined angles speak of rocks, mountains and caverns in which domestic life can be built.
METAMORPHOSIS / The transformation of existing houses is a recurring architectural theme in these times of accelerated change in taste and lifestyle. The previously mentioned Two Brothers House is an excellent example. It does not only try to overcome the rigidity of architecture that was never designed to be flexible with lifestyles supposed to be durable and stable. The employed materials in the addition suggest that lightest condition superimposed, literally in this case over the more durable structure. Quoting Bauman (2003), "Thanks to the recently acquired flexibility and capacity for expansion, the modern age has been primordially converted into a weapon for conquering space. In the modern struggle between space and time, the space was the solid and the baseless, heavy and inert, capable only of a defensive stance, in the trenches... to be an obstacle for the onslaught of time".
Time shamelessly attacked the Tunquén house, designed in 1990. 18 years layer, Ulloa and Ding were charged with transforming the original house with the goal of extending its program and take advantage of the sloped roof to occupy it as a lookout-amphitheater facing the coastal landscape. Using metal structure juxtaposed to the wood of the original house, the house stretches, elongates, covers and opens the interior spaces while simultaneously multiplying the spaces for domestic living in this seasonal dwelling. Without doing away with the original elements, they have taken advantage of an element so rarely considered an advantage: the 20 degree sloping surface of the roofs of not only the main volume, but also the side extension. The new proposal of the house is not only superimposed over the house but amplifies the spaces to give independence to the various programs. The work of expanding these spaces is completed with an emphasis given to the patio that appears between the living and the second bedroom. The wood envelope, a reiteration of the original material in a contemporary key is modulated in such a way as to permit views out from the interior and opacity from the exterior. The paradox in this case is that the changes of time knew to take advantage of the soundness of these spaces without destroying them.
IMMIGRATIONS / For some time, Latin American architects have had opportunities for practicing outside of their native countries. For Jorge Marsino, a single plane, lightly bent and trimmed was utilized to give unity to the domestic program organized in a T in the Diamond House in Cordoba, Argentina. The dynamic geometry achieved by this plane creates triangles of shade and transparencies for the entrance, openings oriented towards the landscape and the formal unity for the whole house. However, this unity has different readings. Seen from the approach to the house, the volumes are inscribed beneath a succession of folds that accompany the soft slope of the sight. Seen from a distance and looking towards the living-dining area, the resulting figure has a single lash lifting up to the western sun. The house acquires a certain character thanks to the brick that roots it to the construction traditions of Cordoba.
In the House in Barueri, Sao Paulo, the Chilean, Andrés Gálvez returns to the L-scheme, whose vertex connects the three levels of the house located in the central stair. From this center, the social spaces are peeled off from the middle level and formed by stone walls, generous windows and sliding doors. The visual continuity between the interior and exterior spaces shared with the other Brazilian house in this issue marks the clear emphasis on playfulness and contact with the landscape. Also on equal terms with the house in Santa Teresa, the more private spaces are protected from the exterior with wooden blinds and lattice structures. These, along with the materials and the arrangement of the elements of program inevitably call to mind the houses of Wright, Neutra or Schindler.
URBANITY / Buenos Aires, Gran Canaria and Quito offer a field of more urban work. In the only example of collective house and public initiative in this issue, the building of 8 Houses and 3 Patios in Gran Canaria by Romera and Ruiz, skillfully resolves domestic program in a relatively small, irregular lot between dividing walls: four bedrooms, one and a half baths, kitchen and laundry room. The three patios introduce the necessary porosity of the complex to ensure light and fresh air. The honesty with which decisions were taken with respect to the interior space is exhibited in the facade. The tour de force that animated the urban front of the building dislocates the compulsory regularization of the plans with a mobile folding and alternation of the openings. While this provides structural rigidity, the lines of shadow, always strong in the Canarian latitude, simultaneously protect the interior environment.
The MCMC in Vicente López, a province of Buenos Aires, makes up part of the repertoire of dwellings designed by the Marian Clusellas Studio in sectors of the great Buenos Aires in its process of transformation. The house between dividing property walls is an almost obligatory typology in the city's architectural culture. The house is closed toward the street but not without allowing a balcony on the second floor and another opening on the third, while the intimate living spaces and the intimacy of the sleeping spaces extend towards the interior garden. In a single space, the living-dining-kitchen area extend from one wall to the other. In the second floor, a system of folding doors open and close the spaces of the bedrooms and a living area. The limits imposed on the place are considered and taken advantage of to allow for a visual simultaneity.
MEMORIES / Solano Benítez, the Paraguayan architect, remembered what he learned in the Eladio Dieste studio. Responding to a question made over the similarities between his work and that of the Uruguayan architect he ascertained that what he retained was not so much the structural calculations but learning to observe how structures behave and work with them. The La estancia LA, some 200 kilometers from Asunción, consists in a single volume, rectangular in plan, extruded from the ground under which the domestic program of the house is laid out. Without revealing the secrets of the dwelling, one of the facades is designed to reveal the sectional organization, structure and hierarchies. The supports of the volume lean outwards, the sloping covering, the tensors that ensure light without intermediary supports from the narrow side, the low volume of the bedrooms inserted within the main box and the superb folded wall that accompanies the circulation from the access to the living room at the opposite extreme of the rectangle. Under this blanket of brick lies a universe of interior spaces with mezzanines over the bedrooms, a large window over the long side of the rectangle, an open kitchen-bar over the living-dining and a barbecue for cookouts open underneath the grand box looking out to the patio. The emphatic clarity of the volume is amplified by the low walls that form the patio and enclose the parking.
Different from his more known urban houses, the estancia LA acquires a special quality. Without resorting to showy structural elements to protect the facades, the only volume that acts as a protecting cloak and defines the architectural form faces a practically flat landscape. The soft hill upon which it stands assists but without natural or artificial limits nearby, it could be said that the domain of the house is all that the eye can see.
In the central valley of Chile the houses of the inquilinos(7) who with their galleries and painted or whitewashed brick walls form part of the built landscape inherited from past times. Modernity passed over these and, on very abstract and conceptual levels, its profound sense of domestic life rooted in the region managed to transfer dogma and doctrine that became useful on more practical levels. The Chilean House 1 by Smiljan Radic is the result of varying levels of attention paid by the author to the place, to that abandoned of the poor culture” but simultaneously to “the most advanced products of the industry”. (Sato, 2007)
The first, expressed in the gallery open to the northeast, in the brick walls painted white, in the spaces arranged linearly and opening directly onto the gallery. The second, on a more conceptual level, appears in different ways. The sum of memories, evoked by a collection of fragments of architectonic culture stored in the mind of the architect, brings to this Chilean house pieces rescued from modern architecture without betraying its deep roots. The advances in technology come to the aide of the gallery that is transformed into a glazed living space in winter with a patio perforated by the lengthened void in the wall that encloses the house. One enters this white world through a painted black wall that acts like a portal that one must cross to leave the ordinary landscape of the residential complex behind. The walnut trees "that have been left in peace," punctuate each space silently.
The Boxe house, literally box, concludes these reflections on memories, metamorphosis and geography. Designed to house the caretaker of a complex on a rocky island in the state of Sao Paulo, replaces the former stone and tile-roof dwelling. From the original space shamelessly demolished over time (to recall Bauman again) only the curved retaining wall survives. The stones of the house suffer the metamorphosis that, as in other houses referred here (Errázuriz or Valle Escondido), are used to build the base of the house over which the new building is posed. The unstoppable march of time, the unrelenting lurch forward to forms of life that demand an integral, practical assimilation from material culture for the caretaker. The observation expands from the landscape and, as suggested in the photography taken from the bedroom reflected in the spherical screen of the television, abstracts everything, even the naked architecture of Chu and Kato.
The houses published yesterday and today are marked by the sign of change. Some advance more than others towards more open, flexible and socially integrated ways of life. Others, are bound to traditional family and social structures with radical abstractions. Almost all celebrate their landscapes, near and distant. Some experiment in assuming the risks of error and discover more subtle ways of qualifying their natural environment and escape stereotypes. The panorama is diverse and emerging. We must become accustomed, on this side of the world, and accept the words of Paul Valéry, as stated by Zygmunt Bauman (2003): “The interruption, the incoherence, the surprise are the habitual conditions of out life. It has become a real necessity for many people, whose minds are feed [...] by sudden change and permanently renovated stimuli [...] We no longer tolerate anything that lasts. We no longer know how to make boredom give fruit". For the architectural culture, the imprint of the periodicals of the modernity of the twentieth century are proof that to arrive at these 18 houses, they have had to confront the battle against time again and again. As these houses show, the battle is never completely won. There is always space for reinvention, not without a nod to memory, to the place nor without being a geography or the description of its surface.
1. This work forms part of the fondecyt 1090449 project, titled “The Chilean Architectonic Culture and the periodical publications: 1930-1960” led by investigators Hugo Mondragón López, Andrés Téllez Tavera and Horacio Torrent Schneider.
2. Max Aguirre notes: “UA: 1936, April N°3. Véase p16 and 17, the house designed by Eduardo Vijil and in UA: 1936, May N°4, p19, the house designed by Ricardo González Cortés. Both cases clearly illustrate the ambiguity with which the modern concept was employed at this time; apparently the term simply referred to the latest buildings, as in the most recent, without vinculating the application of the term to new forms and plans, based on the regimen of new principals.” Doctoral Thesis, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, ETSAM, 2004, p. 200.
3. In 1955, the curators of the exposition “Latin American Architecture since 1945” included two Chilean houses: the house that E. Duhart designed for himself and the the House on O'Brien Street by J. Costabal. See more details in Molina, Cristóbal. “Henry-Russell Hitchcock and Rollie Mackenna in Chile: Clarifications to the Chilean chapter ofthe exposition and book Latin American Architecture since 1945 del MoMA of Nueva York”. Revista 180, Nº 24. Universidad Diego Portales, Santiago, 2009, pp. 12-17
4. For Fernando Pérez Oyarzun, text and work were present in figures like Browne a the ends of the 80's and in Assadi, Klotz and Undurraga in the 90's. See Pérez Oyarzún, Fernando. “Poetics of the case. Chile, between the word and the case”. Arquitectura Viva Nº 85. Madrid, 2002, pp. 28-35.
5. The material utilized by the author to to know the houses comes, principally, from digital publications.
6. This house forms part of the real estate initiative developed by Interdesign, of design integrated with architecture, landscape and furniture Ochoalcubo, phase 2 “International Architects”, (N. del Ed.).
7. The Tenant house of housed people that worked on the large agricultural plantations of the region. It consisted of simple volumes separated from the main house, sometimes forming edified nuclei together with stables and storage spaces.
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ato, Alberto. “Introducción”. 24 casas. Ediciones ARQ, Santiago, 1999.
Sato, Alberto. “Al margen”. 2G, N° 44. Editorial Gustavo Gili, Barcelona, 2007.
Téllez, Andrés. “La cara visible de la modernidad: casas en Santiago 1935/1945”. ARQ, N° 33. Ediciones ARQ, Santiago, August 1996.
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[ Links ]