versión On-line ISSN 0717-6643
Gayana Bot. v.60 n.2 Concepción 2003
A NEW NAME IN SECTION ANDINIUM W. BECKER OF THE GENUS
VIOLA L. (VIOLACEAE)
UN NUEVO NOMBRE EN LA SECCION ANDINIUM W. BECKER DEL
GENERO VIOLA L. (VIOLACEAE)
The rule of priority requires a new name for Viola pulchella Leyb. ex Reiche from Chile as it is antedated legitimately by an earlier homonym, V. pulchella Salisb. Viola escarapela J. M. Watson et A. R. Flores is proposed as replacement. The validity of V. pulchella Salisb. is explained.
1Casilla 161, Los Andes, Chile. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
During the course of preliminary studies in the Chilean Viola flora, we have uncovered a specific epithet within section Andinium which is catalogued (Marticorena & Quezada 1985), but in need of taxonomic revision. V. pulchella Leyb. ex Reiche, a rare and localised high mountain endemic annual, occurs in the IV and VII Regions (Squeo et al. 1994), and was first described in 1893.
Previously, Salisbury (1796) had also published the name V. pulchella in his Prodromus, as follows: `V. pulchella. 7. V. canina Linn. Sp. Pl. ed. 2, p.1325.' V. canina is a common and widespread species of the temperate northern hemisphere. Salisbury would appear to have disapproved of Linnaeus's choice of `canina' for such an attractive wild flower, so he was presenting a substitute.
No direct diagnosis or description exists for V. pulchella Salisb. However, the clear indication that it was intended as an alternative, later epithet for V. canina at a time when no rules existed to prohibit such procedures is sufficient to qualify it as an effective synonym rather than a nomen nudum. This leaves the later V. pulchella Leyb. ex Reiche as an illegitimate homonym to be replaced.
Viola escarapela J.M. Watson et A.R. Flores, nom. nov.
Basionym: Viola pulchella Leyb. ex Reiche, Bot. Jahrb. Syst. 16: 438. 1893, homonym. illeg. et synon. nov., non Salisb., Prod. Stirp. Chap. Allerton: 130. 1796.
The new name, Viola escarapela, is founded on the well-established practice in the Chilean flora of ethnic names as latin specific epithets. Escarapela, meaning a rosette, is a Spanish word employed locally since colonial times as a generalisation for various section Andinium violas which exhibit that particular type of growth form (Mösbach 1992).
We thank several colleagues at RBG Kew who are experienced in taxonomic practice for guidance towards resolution of this unusual nomenclatural problem. Mrs Kim Blaxland also provided essential data.
Marticorena, C. & M. Quezada. 1985. Catálogo de la flora vascular de Chile. Gayana Botánica 41: 78-79. [ Links ]
Mösbach, E. W. de. 1992. Botánica indígena de Chile. Editorial Andrés Bello, Santiago. 140 pp. [ Links ]
Salisbury, R.A. 1796. Prodromus stirpium in horto ad Chapel Allerton vigentium. London. 422 pp. [ Links ]
Squeo, F. A., R. Osorio & G. Arancio. 1994. Flora de los Andes de Coquimbo: Cordillera de Doña Ana: pp. 128-130, ic. p.30, fig. 14. Ediciones Universidad La Serena, La Serena. [ Links ]
Recibido 3 octubre 2003
Aceptado 10 octubre 2003