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Gayana (Concepción)

versión On-line ISSN 0717-6538

Gayana (Concepc.) v.65 n.2 Concepción  2001

http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-65382001000200001 

AN ANNOTATED CHECKLIST OF THE SPHINGIDAE OF BOLIVIA
(INSECTA: LEPIDOPTERA)

UNA LISTA COMENTADA DE LOS SPHINGIDAE DE BOLIVIA (INSECTA:
LEPIDOPTERA)

Ian J. Kitching1, Julieta Ledezma2 & Joaquín Baixeras3

1Department of Entomology, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, United Kingdom.
2Natural History Museum Noel Kempff Mercado, Department of Entomology, P.O. Box 702, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia.
3Instituto Cavanilles de Biodiversidad y Biologia Evolutiva, Universidad de Valencia, Apartado oficial de correos 22085, 46071 Valencia, Spain.

ABSTRACT

An annotated checklist of the Sphingidae (hawkmoths) of Bolivia is presented. A total of 189 species and subspecies are confirmed. Locality data derived from specimens in the collections of the Department of Entomology of the Natural History Museum Noel Kempff Mercado of Santa Cruz de la Sierra; the Bolivian Collection of Fauna, La Paz; The Natural History Museum, London; and the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, are given. A map of these localities and a synoptic discussion of their geography and ecology are also provided. Data on species not represented in these collections are collated from the publications of J. Haxaire and D. Herbin and presented. Diagnostic features to enable identification of a number of closely related species pairs are described.

Keywords: Bolivia, Sphingidae, hawkmoth, checklist, fauna.

RESUMEN

Se presenta una lista comentada de los Sphingidae (esfíngidos) de Bolivia. Se confirma un total de 189 especies y subespecies. Todos los datos se refieren a ejemplares depositados en las colecciones del Departamento de Entomología del Museo de Historia Natural Noel Kempff Mercado en Santa Cruz de la Sierra, la Colección Boliviana de Fauna en La Paz, el Natural History Museum en Londres (U.K.) y el Carnegie Museum of Natural History en Pittsburgh (U.S.A.). También se incluye un mapa de las localidades así como una sinopsis geográfica y ecológica. Los datos de las especies no representadas en estas colecciones se han derivado a partir del trabajo de J. Haxaire y D. Herbin. Se describen los caracteres que facilitan la identificación en aquellas especies intimamente relacionadas.

Palabras claves: Bolivia, Sphingidae, esfíngidos, lista, fauna.

INTRODUCTION

The beauty and elegance of hawkmoths have long appealed to lepidopterists and, consequently, these insects are one of the most frequently collected groups of Lepidoptera. Almost every general systematic collection, large or small, includes hawkmoths. The large size and spectacular appearance of both the adults and caterpillars has meant they are also among the most frequently reared Lepidoptera. This has led to a relative wealth of information on sphingid life histories and biology. Furthermore, the conspicuousness of hawkmoths at lights, to which many species are easily attracted, often leads to them being one of the first moth families surveyed in a faunal inventory. This has provided with a much better insight into the distributional patterns and range sizes of sphingids than for the majority of the Lepidoptera.

However, in comparison to other regions of the world, most notably North America (Hodges 1971) and the Western Palaearctic (Pittaway 1993; Danner et al. 1998), but also Southeast Asia (Kitching & Spitzer 1995, and references therein), Australia (Nielsen et al. 1996) and even parts of Africa (Vari & Kroon 1986; Vuattoux et al. 1989), the hawkmoths of the Neotropical Region are poorly documented. Carcasson & Heppner (1996) provided a checklist of all New World taxa but no detail. The fauna of French Guiana is reviewed in part in a series of papers by Haxaire (1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1990, 1992, 1993, 1996a) and Haxaire & Rasplus (1987a, b). Latterly, Drechsel (1994) published a checklist of the Sphingidae of Paraguay, while a checklist for Ecuador is in preparation (Cadiou, Haxaire & Venedictoff, in prep.). Surprisingly, there is no comprehensive overview of Brazilian or Peruvian hawkmoths, while the most modern treatment of the Argentine fauna is that of Orfila (1933).

Until recently, knowledge of the Bolivian sphingid fauna was in similar dire straits. It was to rectify this deficiency that we undertook this project. Our aim was to make accessible the locality data held in two collections in Bolivia and in two major museums of global importance. However, we were pre-empted by the studies of Haxaire & Herbin (1999, 2000), which were based largely on recent collecting by these authors in Bolivia, but which also collated data from a number of other private collections. Regrettably, circumstances dictated that they publish their results in a relatively obscure journal. As a result, their data are not readily available to those workers most in need of them: systematists, ecologists and conservation biologists in Bolivia and neighbouring countries. Consequently, we decided to proceed with our checklist and to supplement our data with information from Haxaire & Herbin (1999, 2000) as appropriate. Not only will this draw the attention of a wider audience to their papers, but we also consider that the resulting synthesis benefits greatly from such treatment.

DATA SOURCES

The list presented here is based primarily on the scientific collection of the Department of Entomology of the Natural History Museum Noel Kempff Mercado of Santa Cruz de la Sierra (MNK), the Bolivian Collection of Fauna, La Paz (CBF), The Natural History Museum, London (BMNH), and the Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh (CMNH). Additional information, mostly regarding type material, is also included from the following collections:

JMCC: J.-M. Cadiou private collection, France; MNHU: Museum für Naturkunde der Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany; PANS: Philadelphia Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, United States; ZIMH: Zoologisches Institut und Zoologische Museum, Universität von Hamburg, Hamburg, Germany; ZSM: Zoologische Staatssammlung München, Germany.

Many collectors have contributed to these collections over a long period. The names of collectors who contributed material to the MNK and CBF are abbreviated as follows: Raul Altamirano (RA), W. Angulo (WA), Jose Luis Aramayo (JLA), Juan Pablo Arce (JPA), Joaquín Baixeras (JB), Nuria Bernal (NB), Paolo Bettella (PB), R. Copetina (RC), O. Cordero (OC), Eduardo Forno (EF), Fernando Guerra (FG), Werner Hanagarth (WH), Koppa (K), Andrés Langer (AL), María Ledezma (ML), Jhonn Medina (JM), R. Meneces (RMe), Romer Miserandino (RMi), Guery Morales (GM), Angel Pastrana (AP), L. Peña (LP), Efrain Peñaranda (EP), M. Porqui (MP), Ramiro Rengel (RR), Helmuth Rogg (Frederiche) (HR), Claudio Rosales (CR), Cristina Tapia (CT), Massimo Tosco (MT), Roberto Urioste (RU), Nelson Vaca (NV), Israel Vargas (IV), L. Vargas (LV).

GEOGRAPHY AND ECOLOGY OF BOLIVIA

Bolivia occupies 1,098,575 km2 of central South America and is politically divided into nine Departments and 101 provinces. The southwestern third is obliquely traversed by three Andean mountain chains. The Cordillera Occidental follows the border with Chile. Running parallel, about 500 km east, the Cordillera Central cuts dramatically across the country. Between these mountains extends a high plateau, the Altiplano, with an average altitude of 3.500 m. The third and most easterly range, the Cordillera Oriental, is a broad belt of mountains and river valleys with a complex orography. Most Bolivian rivers that flow into the Amazon basin arise in this area. The Cordillera Oriental forms the transition to the "Oriente", a huge lowland that comprises the northern and eastern two-thirds of the country.

The western part of Bolivia is dominated by a mountainous landscape that is cold and arid in the higher elevations and the Altiplano, becoming progressively temperate towards the east. In contrast, the rainfall gradient is latitudinal, ranging from the humid rain forests of Pando and Beni in the north, where there is extensive seasonal flooding, to the arid conditions of the Chaco in the south, where little or no rain falls for more than six months during the long, hot summer. Centred on this gradient, the eastern part is rich in semi-deciduous forests and dry savanna (the Cerrado), which reach their optimum development in southern Brazil. As a consequence, four broad phytogeographic regions of South America meet in Bolivia: the Andes from west, the Amazon Basin from the north, the Cerrado from the east and the Chaco from the south; and the interaction between these influences gives rise to a complex scenario.

Biologists are only now beginning to integrate floral and faunal information from this poorly known country. A consensus regarding habitat recognition and delimitation has yet to be reached and currently over 40 ecological units, grouped in 9-10 regions, may be distinguished. The following brief overview is based largely upon the work of Moraes & Beck (1992), Beck et al. (1993) and Ribera et al. (1994), while plant nomenclature follows Gentry (1993). We are not familiar with the totality of Bolivian geography and the ecological features of some localities were derived from maps, not direct observation. Likewise, interpretation of some collecting sites, as stated on specimen labels, is difficult. Some localities are indicative only of the starting point for an expedition. In other instances, collecting may have been carried out in the environs of a village, so that the material collected may not necessarily be representative of nearby ecosystems. As a consequence, our interpretation is sometimes tentative. In a few cases topographic positioning of a locality has not been possible. Numbers in parentheses after localities refer to Figure 1.

Figura 1. Map showing localities derived from data in the MNK, CBF, BMNH and CMNH. For key numbers, see Appendix 1.

Figura 1. Mapa mostrando las localidades correspondientes a los datos de MNK, CBF, BMNH y CMNH. Ver Apéndice 1 para la clave de los números.

The highest altitudes, above 4.200 m, define the coldest habitats. The only plants that live under these conditions are Poaceae, some Juncaceae and Cyperaceae, and shrubby rosette and cushion-plants. This High-Andean habitat is arid in the Cordillera Occidental and more humid in the Cordillera Central.

Between 3.700 m and 4.200 m is the puna, which is the typical landscape of the Altiplano between the Cordillera Central and Cordillera Occidental. It is an extensive grassland that has been strongly modified by humans and their stock. Its biodiversity is somewhat higher than in the high

Andean ecosystems. The vegetation is characterized by coarse Poaceae (Stipa, Festuca) and small, resinous shrubs (e.g. Baccharis). Again, there is a latitudinal gradient in rainfall, from semihumid conditions in the north to arid conditions in the south. In the southern part of this region, there are large, salty lakes (of which the Salar de Uyuni is the largest) that have a flora strictly adapted to the saline conditions. The entomology of the high Andes and the puna has been poorly explored and the sampling effort is so small that its relative contribution of records should not be overemphasized. More systematic and exhaustive collecting in these interesting areas is urgently needed. The departments of Oruro, Potosi and Chuquisaca, where puna is extensive, have been completely ignored by collectors.

The Cordillera Oriental is an intricate network of habitats and one of the biodiversity hotspots of Bolivia. There are two basic ecosystems: dry valleys and Yungas. The latter name was derived from that of the two provinces in the Department of La Paz, Nor Yungas and Sud Yungas, where this particular ecosystem was originally predominant. The Yungas is a belt of evergreen forest along the eastern slopes of the Cordillera Oriental, from Peru to the Amboro Mountains in the Department of Santa Cruz, where it meets the southern influence of the Chaco. The terrain is generally rugged and not readily accessible. The belt is broad in altitude, ranging from cloud forests at 3.600 m to less humid forests at just 700 m. The vegetation is luxuriant, highly diverse and rich in epiphytes, especially mosses and lichens. Representative tree genera are Weinmannia, Oreopanax, Myrica, Podocarpus and Clusia. Lauraceae are abundant, together with tree ferns, which are progressively replaced by Palmae at lower elevations. Many rivers arise in the Yungas, so it is a critical ecosystem from a conservation perspective. For example, from the Yungas of Cochabamba and Santa Cruz, mainly within the Carrasco and Amboro National Parks, arise the tributaries of Río Mamoré. The Yungas of La Paz include the sources of the tributaries of the Río Beni. However, the Yungas is also one of the most threatened areas in Bolivia. The evergreen forest is subjected to seasonal burning and other alteration by farming activities, including the traditional crop of coca. Fern forests are destroyed to produce peat. All these activities have secondarily transformed the landscape into a savanna. Accurate figures for how much of the Yungas has been transformed, or for how long, are unavailable. Most classical collecting localities in the Department of La Paz, northeast of the city of La Paz, are referable to this habitat, including some reported by Schreiber (1978). Localities that may be referable to Yungas in the Department of La Paz include all sites around the Zongo Valley (Murillo province) (24), Yanacachi (Sud Yungas province) (28), Caranavi (Nor Yungas) (27), Apolo (Franztamayo province) (13) and Tipuani (Larecaja province) (20), as well as some sites in the Department of Cochabamba, most probably Yunga del Espíritu Santo (11), and Agua Clara in the Department of Santa Cruz (Florida province) (36) (numbers refer to the map in Figure 1). However, an indication of altitude is not normally found on specimen labels, while some humid valleys show transition to dry valleys depending on orientation. These problems may produce inaccuracies in the correct characterization of the fauna of the Yungas.

Overlapping the Yungas is a subandean belt of forest with a strong Amazonian influence. This is usually divided into four levels depending on humidity conditions. The level lowest in altitude and highest in latitude is transitional to the Chaco. This type of forest is tall, with a well-developed canopy at about 25m and emergents reaching 40 m. The most common genera of trees are Cedrela, Ceiba, Ficus, Spondias, Swietenia, Terminalia, Virola and a large number of Palmae. The trees are rich in epiphytes (Bromeliaceae, Orchidaceae). This is a highly threatened habitat due to aggressive wood extraction, farming and coca crops. The localities at Chapare (Cochabamba) (10) and Quiquibey (Beni) (2) are probably assignable to this habitat.

The dry valleys, also called mesothermic or interandean valleys, occur mainly on the western (occidental) and southern slopes of the Cordillera Oriental and always in rain shadow. In other words, they are on the opposite side of the Cordillera Oriental to the Yungas. The altitudinal range of the dry valleys is broad, from 700 m to 3600 m, and their extent and depth increases towards the south (Cochabamba). Dry valleys are relatively scarce and scattered in the north, where they are transitional to the puna (Cota Cota, 22; La Paz, 23). In contrast, in the south, they are the dominant landscape. Localities in the Department of Santa Cruz are continuously transitional with the Chaco (e.g. Mataral, 37; Pampa Grande, 38; Samaipata, 39; Santa Rosa de Lima, 40). The characteristic vegetation consists of columnar Cactaceae, spiny shrubs and deciduous forest. The most common plant genera include Aspidosperma, Celtis, Schinopsis, and mimosoids such as Acacia and Prosopis.

The Departments of Pando and Beni, and the north of the Department of La Paz, are where the true Amazonian influence is found. The weather is typically tropical, with constant temperatures throughout the year. The area is essentially a low-lying plain, mostly at an altitude of 200-500m, but reaching as 100m in the major river valleys and the eastern half of Pando. The vegetation is dominated by high canopy evergreen forest, including trees of such genera Bertholettia, Calophyllum, Dypterix, Eschweilera, Gustavia, Hevea, Swietenia, Terminalia, many of which are of high commercial value. This is an area of very high diversity, but it is poorly known. Communications are difficult and few expeditions have explored the uninhabited northern areas. There are no data on the sphingid fauna except from Nicolas Suárez province (El Porvenir, 29). However, this is not a representative locality as it is in a disturbed area between the Río Manuripi and Río Tahuamanu. Originally semihumid and drier than the rest of Pando, it is now a broad savanna used as pasture.

The true Amazonian region is continuous with a huge area of lowlands, the Benian Plains, which includes most of the Department of Beni and the north and centre of the Department of Santa Cruz. The northern part of this territory is mostly unexplored. Most records come from the relatively accessible areas in José Ballivián province, Department of Beni: Espíritu (1), Reyes (3), Rurrenabaque (4) and all the localities around Yacuma river (5), now within the Beni Biological Station. The region is subject to seasonal flooding and shows a varied range of vegetation, from evergreen high forest to extensive humid savanna. Forests include a mix of subandean, amazonian and cerrado elements, including the genera Ficus, Guazuma, Scheelea, Syagrus and Tabebuia. The strongest amazonian influence is found in localities north of Santa Cruz, such as Perseverancia (42) and Esperanza (48). However, most records come from disturbed areas in the provinces of Andrés Ibáñez (30-34), Manuel María Caballero (47) and Ichilo (43-46), all of which are within 300 km northwest of the city of Santa Cruz.

The eastern part of Bolivia comprises habitats that are best developed in southern Brazil and eastern Paraguay and are, in general, called cerrado. This area is a huge mosaic of forests at low elevation (250-700 m) and savanna. The Noel Kempff National Park (50), in the northeast of the Department of Santa Cruz, is one of the biodiversity treasures of Bolivia. It comprises humid forest with Amburana, Anadenanthera, Astronium, Copaifera, Ficus, Schizolobium, Swietenia and Terminalia. There are also many palms, some of which are particularly associated with this habitat (e.g. Diplothenium). The savanna areas may be dry and semihumid (Velasco, 51) but some remarkable eastern areas are subject to seasonal flooding (Mutun, 41). The vegetation includes patches of low forest with, among others, Amburana, Anadenanthera, Astronium, Cedrela and palms (mainly Curatella americana and Orbignya phalerata), separated by areas of grass and complex, often impenetrable, thickets of shrubs and bamboos.

In the central part of the Department of Santa Cruz is an unusual area of mixed semi-deciduous forest (the Chiquitania in Chiquitos province) at an average altitude of 500 m. This forest shows clear influences of both amazonian and cerrado elements. The most important tree species are in the genera Astronium, Anadenanthera, Jacaranda, Luehea, Swietenia and Tecoma. The only locality surveyed so far is San José de Chiquitos (35).

The Chaco is the predominant habitat of southeastern Bolivia, in the south of the Department of Santa Cruz, the east of the Department of Chuquisaca and most of the Department of Tarija. It is a flatland enclosed by the subandean belt in the west and the Chiquitania in the northeast and is continuous with similar habitat in Argentina and Paraguay. Weather conditions are subtropical with a broad thermal range between summer and winter. The semi-deciduous forest is shorter than in other such habitats and the landscape is always open, with numerous columnar Cactaceae and spiny shrubs. Characteristic trees belong to the genera Acacia, Aspidosperma, Bougainvillea, Celtis, Chorisia, Prosopis, Schinopsis and Ziziphus. Ranching is the main human activity. Although one of the most interesting areas of Bolivia, the only localities surveyed so far are Entrerríos (53) and Yacuiba (54) in the Department of Tarija.

CHECKLIST OF THE SPECIES AND SUBSPECIES

The order of genera follows the provisional phylogenetic sequence of Kitching & Cadiou (2000). The sequence of species within genera largely follows Haxaire & Herbin (1999), with a number of changes to facilitate comparison. Confirmed species for Bolivia are allocated a unique number, 1-189. Unconfirmed species or erroneous records are allocated the number of the preceding taxon followed by "a". Localities derived from specimens in the MNK, CBF, BMNH and CMNH are mapped in Figure 1 and a key to the numbering system is provided in Appendix 1. Locality data from specimen labels have been edited and updated to conform to modern spelling. Data on species and subspecies not represented in the MNK, CBF, BMNH and CMNH are derived from Haxaire & Herbin (1999, 2000). These localities are not included on Figure 1. For a number of species pairs that are difficult to distinguish, we provide diagnostic features to facilitate identification.

Subfamily: Smerinthinae
Tribe: Ambulycini

1 Protambulyx eurycles (Herrich-Schäffer, [1854])

La Paz: Valle de Zongo, Río Chuchulluni, 8.iii.1983, 2020 m, 1 male (EF); Caupolican, Mamacona, 18.viii.1982, 5 males (JPA).

Santa Cruz: Buena Vista, 400m, x.1933, Fr Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

P. eurycles is similar in external appearance to P. euryalus, with which it is sometimes confused. However, the form of the olive-green submarginal band on the forewing easily distinguishes the two species. In P. euryalus, this band is narrow (between veins M1 and M2, it is about as broad as the marginal brown band), whereas in P. eurycles, it is markedly broadened medially (between veins M1 and M2, it is about four times the width of the marginal brown band).

2 Protambulyx euryalus Rothschild & Jordan, 1903

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH]; 3 males 1female [CMNH];

Nor Yungas: Yungas de Coroico, 1800m, Garlepp, 1male [BMNH].

3 Protambulyx ockendeni Rothschild & Jordan, 1903

Haxaire & Herbin (2000) recorded this species from the road between Caranavi and Yocumo [Yacuma] (1600m), Department of Beni.

4 Protambulyx sulphurea Rothschild & Jordan, 1903

Haxaire & Herbin (2000) recorded this species from Yocumo [Yacuma] and the road between Caranavi and Yocumo [Yacuma] (235-1000m, but particularly around 850m), Department of Beni.

5 Protambulyx goeldii Rothschild & Jordan, 1903

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 1 female (RR); Guarayos, Perseverancia, 15.x.1990, 1 male (PB).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 3 males [BMNH]; 1 male [CMNH].

6 Protambulyx astygonus (Boisduval, [1875])

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, El Chore, 23.x.1996, 1 female (JB).

P. astygonus is very similar in external appearance to P. goeldii. However, the two species can easily be distinguished by the presence of a prominent dark spot at the apex of the forewing discal cell in P. goeldii that is missing in P. astygonus. Schreiber (1978) listed this species from Bolivia. However, Haxaire & Herbin (1999) considered this record was very probably a misidentification of P. goeldii and so excluded P. astygonus from their list. We can now confirm the presence of P. astygonus in Bolivia. (See also Eumorpha translineatus and Xylophanes aglaor.)

7 Protambulyx strigilis (Linnaeus, 1771)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 30.v.1988, 1 female; 28.x.1987, 1 male (NV); Florida, Pampa Grande, 7.vi.1995, 1 male; 3.vi.1995, 1 female (AL);

Ichilo, Buena Vista, 20.xii.1987, 2 males 3 females; Parque Nacional Amboró, Río Saguayo, 27.xii.1987, 2 males (PB); La Víbora 1.iv.1991, 1 male; 7.iv.1991, 2 males (RR/PB); El Chore, 20.x.1996, 1 male (ML); Velasco, Parque Nacional Noel Kempff, 12.vii.1991, 1 male (RMi). Sucre: Hernando Siles, Monteagudo, 13.v.1990, 1 female (FG). La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 female [BMNH]; xi.1914, Steinbach, 1 male; Sarah: J Steinbach, 1 male; 450 m, xii.1910, Steinbach, 2 males; 400m, viii.1914, Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

8 Orecta lycidas eos (Burmeister, 1878)

Haxaire & Herbin (2000) recorded a single male captured on the road between Padilla and Monteagudo (2000m), Department of Chuquisaca.

9 Adhemarius gannascus gannascus (Stoll, 1790)

La Paz: Franztamayo, Caupolican, Mamacona, Apolo, 18.viii.1982, 1 male (JPA).

Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male. Cochabamba: Chapare, Yunga del Espíritu Santo, 1888-1889, P Germain, 4 males; Cochabamba, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Sarah, Buena Vista, J Steinbach, 1 male; ix.1914, Steinbach, 2 males; Sarah, 450m, xii.1920, Steinbach, 1 female [CMNH].

10 Adhemarius dentoni (Clark, 1916)

Haxaire & Herbin (2000) recorded this species from the road between Caranavi and Yocumo [Yacuma] (1000m), Department of Beni.

11 Adhemarius ypsilon (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH].

12 Adhemarius palmeri (Boisduval, [1875])

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Parque Nacional Amboró, Río Surutú, 27.xii.1987, 1 male (PB).

La Paz: Murillo: Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 female [CMNH].

12a Adhemarius eurysthenes (R. Felder, [1874])

The possible inclusion of A. eurythenes in the Bolivian list rests solely on ambiguous data associated with the holotype of a junior synonym, Ambulyx crethon Boisduval ([1875]). This taxon was described from a single damaged male (now in the CMNH) sent to Boisduval from "Peru or Bolivia". We examined the holotype and found it is labelled "Brasilia" (i.e. Brazil). Thus, the presence of A. eurythenes in Bolivia is unconfirmed, although being known in northern Argentina and Paraguay, it could also occur in southeastern Bolivia.

13 Adhemarius gagarini (Zikán, 1935)

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Parque Nacional Amboró, Río Saguayo, 27.xii.1987, 2 males (PB); El Chore, 22.x.1996, 1 male (JB).

This species is frequently confused with A. gannascus. However, the two species are easily separated by the shape of the subapical mark on the forewing costa (Haxaire, 1986). In A. gannascus, this mark is a narrow, comma-shaped lunule, whereas in A. gagarini, it is broadly trapezoidal, similar in shape to that of A. ypsilon. Haxaire & Herbin (2000) recorded this species from Yocumo [Yacuma] (350m), Department of Beni.

14 Adhemarius tigrina tigrina (R. Felder, [1874])

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH].

15 Adhemarius sexoculata (Grote, 1865)

La Paz: Caupolican, Mamacona, Apolo, 18.viii.1982, 2 males (JPA).

Cochabamba: Cochabamba, M Moss, 1 male [BMNH]; Cochabamba, 1 male 1 hembra; Cochabamba, J Steinbach, 1 male 1 female; Cochabamba, 1921, J Steinbach, 40m, 1 female [CMNH].

Subfamily Sphinginae
Tribe Sphingini

16 Sphinx arthuri Rothschild, 1897

La Paz: Murillo, Cota Cota, 30.xi.1982, 1 male (EF).

[La Paz: Murillo,] La Paz, 11000', xii.1895, AM Stuart, 1 male (Holotype) [BMNH].

17 Sphinx maura Burmeister, 1879

La Paz: Inquisivi, Río Sacambaya, 6500', v-x.1928, AM Kettlewell, 1G [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 450m, 1925, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

18 Sphinx aurigutta (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)

La Paz: Murillo, Valle de Zongo, Río Chuchulluni, 2020 m, 10.iii.1983, 3 males (EF).

La Paz: Yungas, 14.xii.1899, Garlepp, 1 female; Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 2 males [BMNH], 6 males [CMNH]. Cochabamba: Ceroado, Cochabamba, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

19 Sphinx phalerata Kernbach, 1955

Chuquisaca: Tomina, road from Sucre to Camiri, 10km past Padilla, PK210, 2000m, 22-24.ii.1984, T Poríon & G La Chaume, 1 male [BMNH].

20 Neogene steinbachi Clark, 1924

[Santa Cruz: Sarah,] Province del Sara[h], 450m, viii.1914, J Steinbach, 2 males (Syntypes) [CMNH].

21 Neogene corumbensis Clark, 1922

Haxaire & Herbin (1999) recorded this species from Santiago de Chiquitos (700m), Department of Santa Cruz, and Muyupampa (1650m), Department of Chuquisaca.

22 Manduca sexta paphus (Cramer, 1779)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 26.iii.1989, 1 male (GM); 6.xi.1987, 1 female; 8.i.1989, 1 male;

Ichilo, Buena Vista, 13.i.1990, 1 male (PB); Florida, Pampa Grande, 14.x.1994, 1 male; Ichilo, La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 1 male (PB).

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 450m, J Steinbach, 1 male, 1 female [CMNH].

23 Manduca mossi (Jordan, 1911)

Beni: José Ballivián, Espíritu, 21.i.1988, 1 female (WH).

This is the first record of this species from Bolivia.

24 Manduca diffissa mesosa (Rothschild & Jordan, 1916)

Santa Cruz: Sarah, 450m, J Steinbach, 1 male [BMNH]; Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 450m, ix.1909, J Steinbach, 1 male; Ichilo, Buena Vista, J Steinbach, 2 male [CMNH].

Manduca diffissa mesosa was described from the northwestern Argentine provinces of Salta and Tucumán. It is a small subspecies, similar in size to M. d. diffissa, which is found in the lowlands of Buenos Aires province and neighbouring areas of Argentina and in Uruguay, but differing in its markedly darker coloration. In this respect, M. d. mesosa agrees with M. d. petuniae, which occurs in Paraguay and SE Brazil. However, this latter subspecies is much larger than M. d. mesosa. Although quite worn, the single male in the BMNH from "Prov. del Sara" is a good match for specimens of M. d. mesosa from northwest Argentina. We consider the specimens recorded by Haxaire & Herbin (1999) from the road between Cochabamba and Villa Tunari (1500-2000m), Department of Cochabamba, Mataral (1800-2000m) and Ipati (1000m), Department of Santa Cruz, as M. d. diffissa are better placed as M. d. mesosa. However, as noted by Haxaire & Herbin (1999), the differences between most subspecies of M. diffissa, which are quite consistent elsewhere in South America, break down in Bolivia. As a result, assigning Bolivian specimens to subspecies can be difficult. A careful study of specimens from precise localities is required to determine whether the subspecies of M. diffissa are valid or if they simply grade into each other in Bolivia and adjacent areas of Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina.

25 Manduca diffissa petuniae (Boisduval, [1875])

Santa Cruz: Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 1 female [BMNH]; Sarah, x.1911, J Steinbach, 1 male; Warnes, x-xii.1914, 2 males [CMNH].

These specimens are much larger than the M. d. mesosa from "Prov. del Sara" noted above and are a very close match for M. d. petuniae in the BMNH from Paraguay and SE Brazil. This is the first record of this subspecies from Bolivia.

26 Manduca diffissa tropicalis (Rothschild & Jordan,, 1903)

Haxaire & Herbin (1999) recorded this subspecies from Yocumo [Yacuma] and the road between Caranavi and Yocumo [Yacuma] (350-1200m), Department of Beni.

27 Manduca diffissa zischkai (Kernbach, 1952)

Cochabamba, 2600m, 1 female (Holotype) [ZIMH]; 1 female (Paratype) [coll. Zischka, Cochabamba].

M. d. zischkai was described from Cochabamba province, Bolivia. This subspecies is distinguished from both M. d. mesosa and M. d. petuniae by a grey, rather than brown, ground colour. In addition, the transverse markings in M. d. zischkai are stronger than in most other populations of M. diffissa, giving the forewings a very contrasting appearance. Haxaire & Herbin (1999) recorded this subspecies from the road between Santa Cruz and Cochabamba, Comarapa (2700-2900m), Department of Cochabamba, and Valle Grande (2000-2400m), Department of Santa Cruz. However, they were undecided whether M. d. zischkai was a separate species or simply a high altitude form of M. diffissa.

28 Manduca contracta (Butler, 1875)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 24.v.1988, 1 female (JLA); 26.iii.1989, 1 male (GM); Florida, Pampa Grande, 13.xi.1996, 2 males (JB); Ichilo, La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 1 male 2 females (RR/PB); Manuel María Caballero, San Juan del Potrero, 28.iv.1996, 1 males (FC); Parque Nacional Amboró, Río Saguayo, 27.xii.1987, 1 male (PB). Beni: José Ballivián, Yacuma, Estación Biológica del Beni, 22-28.vii.1993, 1 males (HR).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 2 males [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: Sarah, ii-iv.1904, J Steinbach, 1 female [BMNH]; [Ichilo,] Buenavista, 450m, J Steinbach, 1 male Santa Cruz, [Ichilo,] Buenavista, J Steinbach, 1 male; Prov. Sara[h], Buenavista, J Steinbach, 1 male (Paralectotypes of Protoparce lucetius argentina Clark, 1926); Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 450m, xi.1914, J Steinbach, 1 male; Warnes, x-xii.1914, 2 males [CMNH].

Until recently, this species was known as Manduca lucetius (Cramer, 1780). However, Kitching & Cadiou (2000) showed that the moth illustrated by Cramer was actually a specimen of what was until then known as Manduca perplexa (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903). Consequently, this latter species must now be referred to as Manduca lucetius. Kitching & Cadiou (2000) established M. contracta as the available senior name for the present species.

29 Manduca reducta (Gehlen, 1930)

Haxaire & Herbin (1999) recorded this species from Yocumo [Yacuma] (300-800m) and the road between Caranavi and Yocumo [Yacuma] (1000-1700m), Department of Beni; and also Alto Palmar (1100m), and El Limbo (2200m), Chapare, Department of Cochabamba. They commented that the latter altitude was unexpected and required confirmation because M. reducta is usually restricted to middle elevations, where it co-occurs with M. contracta. These two species are similar in colour and pattern. However, M. reducta can be distinguished by its narrower, more elongate and pointed forewings, and there are also a number of diagnostic features in the male genitalia (Haxaire & Herbin, 1999; Kitching & Cadiou, 2000).

30 Manduca jordani (Giacomelli, 1912)

Haxaire & Herbin (1999) recorded this species from the road between Santa Cruz and Cochabamba, Comarapa (2700-2900m), "Department of Cochabamba" [Department of Santa Cruz]. The two males were captured at around 05.00 hours and Haxaire & Herbin (1999) speculated that this pre-dawn flight period might account for the great rarity of this species in collections.

31 Manduca hannibal hannibal (Cramer, 1779)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Terebinto, 17.x.1988, 1 female (AP); Potrerillos del Güendá, 13.x.1996, 2 male (JB); Ichilo, La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 1 male 1 female (RR); Buena Vista, 20.xii.1987, 1 male (PB); Guarayos, Perseverancia, x.1996, 1 female (PB). La Paz: Murillo, Zongo-Pocollo, 8.ii.1991, 1 male (IV).

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 female [BMNH]; 1 male [CMNH]; 450m, Steinbach 1 male [CMNH]; Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz, 1 male [BMNH].

32 Manduca lucetius (Cramer, 1780)

Haxaire & Herbin (1999) recorded this species from Yocumo [Yacuma] (350-850m), Department of Beni. As noted above, until recently this species was known as Manduca perplexa, now regarded as a junior synonym of lucetius.

33 Manduca scutata (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1male [BMNH]; 3 males 1 female [CMNH].

Cochabamba: Chapare, Yunga del Espíritu Santo, 1888-1889, P Germain, 1 male [CMNH].

34 Manduca boliviana (Clark, 1923)

"Bolivia", 1 male (Lectotype of Protoparce scutata boliviana) [CMNH]; 1 male [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 1 female [BMNH].

M. boliviana was originally described as a subspecies of M. scutata. However, examination of the male genitalia has shown that it is a species more closely allied to Manduca brasiliensis (Jordan, 1911) than to M. scutata (Haxaire & Herbin, 1999; Kitching & Cadiou, 2000).

35 Manduca clarki (Rothschild & Jordan, 1916)

Santa Cruz: Sarah, 450m, xi.1909, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

36 Manduca tucumana (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)

Haxaire & Herbin (1999) recorded this species from Mataral (1800-2000m) and Valle Grande (2000-2400m), Department of Santa Cruz, and Tajira [Tarija] (1600m), Department of Tajira [Tarija]. They also noted its occurrence at an unspecific location in the south of Bolivia that they described as the "very poorly wooded zone at high altitude (2400-2600m), with sparse vegetation composed for the most part of Mimosoideae and Schinus molle".

37 Manduca lefeburii lefeburii (Guérin-Méneville, [1844])

Santa Cruz: Warnes, x-xii.1914, 1 male; xii.1915, 3 males [CMNH].

This species was described from "la Bolivie" and dedicated to M. Lefébure de Cerisy (not Alexander Lefebvre, as some subsequent misspellings of the species' name would suggest). Haxaire & Herbin (1999) stated the type locality was "Bolivie (Chapare)" but did not give the source of this additional detail. Rothschild & Jordan (1903) considered that the type locality might be erroneous. However, in addition to the above specimens, Haxaire & Herbin (1999) reported M. l. lefeburii from Ipati (1000m), Department of Santa Cruz, pk 30 on the road from Sucre to Camiri (1200m), Department of Chuquisaca, and Riberalta, Department of Beni.

Daniel (1949) described Protoparce incisa pallidula based on a holotype from Mexico (Volcan Colima), two paratypes from "Matto Grosso" and another paratype from Bolivia (Chiquitos, Los Toronocos, captured by the German Grand Chaco Expedition). The holotype is a specimen of Manduca lefeburii bossardi (Gehlen, 1926), with which P. i. pallidula was synonymized by Haxaire (1995). We have not examined the paratypes. They may be M. l. lefeburii, but it is also possible that they are M. prestoni.

38 Manduca prestoni (Gehlen, 1926)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Potrerillos del Güendá, 13.x.1996, 1 female (JB). Santa Cruz: 1 male [BMNH].

Manduca prestoni is an amazonian species that Haxaire & Herbin (1999) considered would probably occur in the "Cordillère royale (Nor Yungas)". The above specimens are the first records from Bolivia.

39 Manduca incisa (Walker, 1856)

Haxaire & Herbin (1999) recorded this species from Ipati (1000m), Department of Santa Cruz.

40 Manduca andicola (Rothschild & Jordan, 1916)

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH].

41 Manduca stuarti (Rothschild, 1896)

La Paz: Murillo, Cota Cota, 10.xi.1989, 1 male (FG); 19.xi.1990, 1 male, (EP); 30.xi.1982, 1 male (EF); 5.xii.1982, 1 male (EF); 7.xii.1981, 1 male, (EF); 6.xii.1994, 1 female (OC). "Bolivia", 1 male [BMNH], 1 male [CMNH]. [La Paz: Murillo,] La Paz, x.1895, AM Stuart, 2 males 1 female (Lectotype and paralectotypes); Murillo, La Paz, 23 males 4 females [BMNH]; 1 male [JMCC]; 1 male [PANS]; 5 males 1 female [CMNH]; La Paz, 11000ft, x.1895, 3 males [BMNH]; La Paz, 3600-4000m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH]; Río Zongo, 1 male [BMNH].

M. stuarti was described from two males and a female captured by Arthur Maxwell Stuart at La Paz in October 1895 (Rothschild & Jordan, 1896). However, according to Haxaire & Herbin (1999), M. stuarti was based on "a very beautiful series (38 examples) collected at the street lights of La Paz by Maxwell Stuart". This erroneous claim is certainly derived from Rothschild & Jordan (1903), who noted, "In the Tring Museum 38 specimens from La Paz". In the BMNH, there is also a male and a female from Tafi del Valle, Tucumán, Argentina (2500m).

42 Manduca brunalba (Clark, 1929)

Haxaire & Herbin (1999) recorded this species from Yocumo [Yacuma] (350m), Department of Beni.

43 Manduca manducoides (Rothschild, [1895])

Described from Chiquitos, Bolivia, Haxaire & Herbin (2000) recorded this species from Abapó, on the road between Camiri and Santa Cruz (1000m), Department of Santa Cruz.

44 Manduca leucospila (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH], 2 males [CMNH].

45 Manduca rustica rustica (Fabricius, 1775)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 8.i.1989, 1 male 1female; 9.xii.1989, 1 male; 6.iii.1991, 1 female (JV); 3.iii. 1989, 1 female (IV); 12.i.1990, 1 female (PB); 25.i.1988, 1 female (PB); 22.vi.1990, 1 male (PB); Florida, Santa Rosa de Lima, 2.ii.1994, 1 male; Pampa Grande, 14.x.1994, 1 male; 24.iv.1996, 2 males (AL); Ichilo, Buena Vista, 20.xii.1987, 3 males (RR); La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 1 male (PB); Guarayos, Perseverancia, x.1990, 1 male (PB). Beni: José Ballivián, Rurrenabaque, 10.i.1982, 1 male (EF).

Santa Cruz: Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 2 males [BMNH]; Sarah, Steinbach, 1 male; Warnes, x-xii.1914, 2 males; Warnes, xii.1915, 3 males [CMNH].

46 Manduca albiplaga (Walker, 1856)

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: Santa Cruz, Janson, 1 male; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 450, 1925, J Steinbach, 1 male[CMNH]; Mutún, 20 miles W of Puerto Suárez, 1500', 7-14.xi.1927, CL Collenette, 1 female [BMNH].

47 Manduca trimacula (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 2 males [BMNH].

48 Manduca dalica dalica (Kirby, 1877)

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH], 3 males [CMNH].

49 Manduca bergi (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)

Santa Cruz: Florida, Santa Rosa de Lima, 1.ii.1994, 4 males (AL); Pampa Grande, 8.xi.1994, 1 male (JB); 24.iv.1996, 1 male 1 female (AL); 1.ix.1996, 1 male; Samaipata, 5.i.1996, 1 female (AL).

50 Manduca florestan (Stoll, 1782)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 17.x.1988, 1 male; 14.xi.1987, 1 female (PB); Ichilo, La Víbora 7.iii.1991, 3 male (RR/PB).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 2 machos; Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, xii.1917, 1 male [BMNH]; German Busch, Puerto Suárez, 150m, xi.1908, J Steinbach, 1 male; Sarah, 450m, xi.1909, 1 male [CMNH]. Tarija: Gran Chaco, Yacuiba, x.1915, J Steinbach, 1 female [CMNH].

50a Manduca vestalis (Jordan, 1917)

Haxaire & Herbin (2000) recorded a single male of this species from Coroico, Department of La Paz, but commented that "this citation requires confirmation, the locality being particularly doubtful (and imprecise)". Although this species would not be unexpected in northwestern Bolivia, it has yet to be confirmed.

51 Manduca extrema (Gehlen, 1926)

[La Paz: Murillo,] Río Songo [Zongo], 750m, Fassl, 1 male (Syntype) 1 female [ZSM]; Larecaja, Guanay, x.1992, L Peña, 1 male [JMCC].

52 Manduca corumbensis (Clark, 1920)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 14.xi.1987, 1 female (PB); 10.xii.1990, 1 male (ML).

53 Manduca armatipes (Rothschild & Jordan, 1916)

Haxaire & Herbin (2000) recorded this species from Tajira [Tarija] (1600m) and Villa Montes (600m), Department of Tajira [Tarija], and at Ipati (1000m) and Valle Grande (2000-2400m), Department of Santa Cruz.

54 Manduca schausi (Clark, 1919)

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 2 males 1 female [BMNH], 4 males [CMNH]; Nor Yungas, Coroico, 1200m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: Sarah, 450m, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

Haxaire & Herbin (1999) recorded this species as Manduca lichenea. However, Kitching & Cadiou (2000) showed that M. lichenea is restricted to southeastern Brazil (Minas Gerais to Río Grande do Sul) and that M. schausi is the species that occurs from southern Mexico to Bolivia. Schreiber (1978) listed Manduca muscosa (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903) from Bolivia but this is certainly an error for Manduca muscosa Jones (1908), which was synonymized with M. lichenea by Kitching & Cadiou (2000).

55 Euryglottis aper (Walker, 1856)

Haxaire & Herbin (2000) recorded a single male from Chuspipata (2800m), Department of Beni.

56 Euryglottis dognini Rothschild, 1896

La Paz: Caupolican, Mamacona, Apolo, 16.viii.1982, 2 females (JPA); Murillo, Zongo Pacollo, 9.ii.1991, 1 male (EF). Beni: José Ballivián, Espíritu, 21.viii.1982, 1 male (EF).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1male [BMNH], 2 males [CMNH]. Cochabamba: Cochabamba, J Steinbach, 24 males 2 females [CMNH].

57 Euryglottis guttiventris Rothschild & Jordan, 1903

"Bolivia", 1 male (Paratype); [La Paz: Murillo,] Río Songo [Zongo], Garlepp, 1 male (Holotype); [Sud Yungas,] Chulumani, 2000m, xii.1900, Simons, 1 male (Paratype) [BMNH]; "Charaplaya", 65°W 16°S, 1300m, vi.1901, Simons, 1 male [BMNH]; La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 2 males. Cochabamba: Cochabamba, J Steinbach, 12 males 4 females; Yunga del Espíritu Santo, 1888-1889, P Germain, 1 male [CMNH].

The original description implied there were two paratypes from Chulumani. We could not find a second specimen from that locality in the BMNH. However, it is clear from its labels that Rothschild & Jordan (1903) must have had the Charaplaya specimen before them at the time they described E. guttiventris. We consider this specimen is the "missing" paratype and that Rothschild & Jordan accidentally omitted its details from the list of type data.

58 Amphimoea walkeri Boisduval, ([1875])

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, La Víbora, 31.iii.1990, 1 male 2 females; 1.vi.1990, 1 male 1 female (RR).

59 Neococytius cluentius (Cramer, 1775)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Potrerillos del Güendá, 13.viii.1991, 1 female (JLA); Andrés Ibáñez 21.iv.1988, 1 male (FO); 6.xi.1991, 1 female (RR); 24.x.1988, 1 male; 22.vi.1990, 2 females (PB); Ichilo, La Víbora, 31.iii.1990, 2 females; 1.iv.1990, 1 male (RR); Buena Vista, 20.xii.1987, 1 male (RR); Parque Nacional Amboró, Río Saguayo, 27.xii.1987, 1 male (PB).

Santa Cruz: Ñuflo de Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 3 males; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 female [BMNH]. Sarah, 450m, xii.1910, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH]. Cochabamba, J Steinbach, 1 female [CMNH].

60 Cocytius duponchel (Poey, 1832)

Santa Cruz: Florida, Mataral, 18.iv.1994, 1 female (AL); Ichilo, Buena Vista, 20.xii.1987, 2 males; La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 8 males (RR/PB); 1.vi.1990, 7 males 3 females (RR). Beni: José Ballivián, Espíritu, 13.vii.1987, 1 female (EF); 20.ix.1980, 1 female JPA); Río Andacuma, 1 male (WH). La Paz: Murillo, Zongo Cuticucho, 10.iii.1983, 1 female (EF).

La Paz: La Paz, 1 female; La Paz, 11000', x.1895, 1 male [BMNH]; Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 1 female [BMNH]; Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 female [BMNH].

61 Cocytius mortuorum Rothschild & Jordan, 1910

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 2 males [BMNH], 4 males [CMNH].

62 Cocytius antaeus (Drury, 1773)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Terebinto, 12.x.1988, 1 female (AP); Ichilo, La Víbora, 31.iii.1990, 1 female (PB).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male. Santa Cruz: Sarah, 450m, iii.1909, J Steinbach, 1 male; 450m, xii.1910, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

63 Cocytius lucifer Rothschild & Jordan, 1903

Santa Cruz: Florida, Mataral, 18.iv.1994, 1 female (AL); Ichilo, La Víbora, 7.iv.1990, 2 males; 31.iii.1990, 1 female, 1.vi.1990, 2 females (RR /PB).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male 1 female [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Santa Cruz, 1 male [BMNH].

64 Cocytius beelzebuth (Boisduval, [1875])

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH], 3 males 1 female [CMNH].

Tribe: Acherontiini

65 Agrius cingulata (Fabricius, 1775)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Potrerillos del Güendá, 14.xi.1987, 1 male 2 female; 12.i.1990, 2 female; 25.viii.1986, 1 male; 12.i.1990, 1 male; Florida, Pampa Grande, 14.x.1995, 1 male; 22.viii.1995 1 female (AL); Ichilo, Buena Vista, 13.i.1990, 1 male 1 female (PB). La Paz: Murillo Zongo Cuticucho, 10.iii.1983, 2 males (EF); Cota Cota, 12.vii.1989, 1 female (RA).

La Paz: La Paz, 1 female [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 male 1 female [BMNH]. Cochabamba: Bolivar, Balzapamba, iii-iv.1894, de Mathan; Ceroado: Cochabamba, J Steinbach, 11 males 11 females; Chapare, Yunga del Espíritu Santo, 1888-1889, Germain, 2 males. Santa Cruz: Sarah, 1 male; Sarah, 450m, xii.1910, J Steinbach, 1 male; Warnes, x-xii.1914, 1 male [CMNH].

Subfamily: Macroglossinae

Tribe: Dilophonotini
Subtribe: Dilophonotina

66 Pachygonidia caliginosa (Boisduval, 1870)

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 2 males; Nor Yungas, Coroico, 1200m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH].

67 Pachygonidia hopfferi (Staudinger, [1876])

La Paz: Nor Yungas, Coroico, 1200m, Fassl, 1 macho [BMNH]. Cochabamba: Chapare, Yunga del Espíritu Santo, 1888-1889, P Germain, 1 male [CMNH].

This is the first record of this species from Bolivia. The publication date of P. hopfferi is generally given as 1875. However, Staudinger's paper could have been published no earlier than April 1876 (G. Lamas, pers. comm.) and so should be quoted as Staudinger ([1876]).

68 Pachygonidia martini (Gehlen, 1943)

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 2 males [CMNH]; Río Songo [Zongo], 2 males (Paralectotypes) [ZSM].

This species was listed by Haxaire & Herbin (2000) as "Pachygonidia cf. hopferri [sic]". Kitching & Cadiou (2000) showed that P. martini was not a junior synonym of P. hopfferi. The two species can be easily separated by the form of the outer edge of the postmedian transverse band on the forewing. In P. martini it is wavy, whereas in P. hopfferi it is straight. The specimen illustrated by d'Abrera ([1987]: 109) as P. hopfferi is P. martini.

69 Enyo lugubris lugubris (Linnaeus, 1771)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 3.xii.1988, 1 male; 31.x.1987, 1 macho; 10.xi.1988, 1 male (PB); Ichilo, El Chore, 21.x.1996, 1 macho (ML); Florida, Pampa Grande, 22.viii.1995, 1 male; 6.vi.96, 1 male (AL). La Paz: Murillo, Zongo Cuticucho, 10.iii.1983, 1 female (EF); Cota Cota 20.ix.1988, 1 male (RA). Beni: José Ballivián, Estación Biológica del Beni, 22-28.vii.1993, 2 males (HR).

La Paz: Murillo, La Paz, 1 female; Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 1 female [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: Sarah, 450m, xii.1910, J Steinbach, 1 male; German Bush, Puerto Suárez, 150m, xii.1908, J Steinbach, 1 male; "Cuatro ojos", xi.1913, Steinbach, 1 male; Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz, xi, J Steinbach, 1 female. Beni: "Lower Mamoré", 15.i.1914, Steinbach, 1 female [CMNH].

70 Enyo ocypete (Linnaeus, 1758)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 3.xi.1987, 1 male; 4.i.1988, 1 male; 5.ii.1988, 1 male (PB); Ichilo, Buena Vista, 20.xii.1987, 1 male 2 females; La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 1 male 1 female (RR); Florida, Pampa Grande, 7.viii.1995, 1 female (AL). Beni: José Ballivián, Espíritu, 15.i.1986, 1 female (EF); Yacuma, Estación Biológica del Beni, 22-28.vi.1993, 1 female (HR).

La Paz: Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 1 male; Guanay, Mapiri R. 1500', viii.1895, Stuart, 1 male [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906 -iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 male [BMNH]; Sarah, 450m, xi.1909, J Steinbach, 1 male; iv.1909, J Steinbach, 1 male; German Busch, Puerto Suárez, 150m, xi.1908, J Steinbach, 1 male; Ichilo, Buena Vista, ix.1914, Steinbach, 1 male; iii.1915, Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

71 Enyo gorgon (Cramer, 1777)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, xii.1989, 1 female (PB).

La Paz: Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 1 female [BMNH].

Haxaire & Herbin (2000) noted that their six specimens, collected in six different localities, all arrived at light within the same two minute period of 18:50-18:52h.

71a Enyo taedium taedium Schaus, 1890

Under this species, Rothschild & Jordan (1903) recorded a male with the following data: "Charuplaya, Bolivia, vii. (Simons)". However, subsequent examination proved this specimen belonged to a different taxon, Enyo bathus (Rothschild, 1904), of which it is a paratype. At present, E. t. taedium is not known south of Ecuador, but there is a disjunct second subspecies, E. t. australis (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903), in southeastern Brazil and Paraguay (Drechsel, 1994).

72 Enyo bathus otiosus (Kernbach, 1957)

La Paz: Murillo, La Paz, 1000m, Garlepp, 1 male [BMNH]; Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH], 1 male [CMNH]; Río Songo [Zongo], 750m, 4 males (Holotype and paratypes) [ZSM]; "Charaplaya", 16°S 65°W, 1300m, vii.1901, Simons, 1 male (Paratype of Epistor bathus Rothschild, 1904) [BMNH].

E. bathus otiosus was described from "Río Songo". It can be distinguished from the nominotypical subspecies, E. b. bathus (Rothschild, 1904), only by features of the male genitalia (Kernbach, 1957; Kitching & Cadiou, 2000). We provisionally treat all specimens of E. bathus from Bolivia as E. b. otiosus and those from Panama, Ecuador and Peru as E. b. bathus. However, of the seven specimens of E. b. otiosus listed above, we have confirmed the identity only of the holotype and the BMNH specimen from Río Zongo by examination of their genitalia. There is no discernible biogeographical boundary between the Peruvian and Bolivian localities of E. bathus and thus no apparent reason why it should form subspecies in this region. Thus, it is possible that E. b. bathus and E. b. otiosus are two externally indistinguishable species with overlapping distributions.

Haxaire & Herbin (2000) repeated the erroneous assertion of Carcasson & Heppner (1996) that the type locality of Enyo b. bathus is Bolivia. The type locality of the nominotypical subspecies is "Huancabamba, east of Cerro del Pasco, Peru".

73 Enyo cavifer (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 2 males [BMNH].

74 Aleuron carinata (Walker, 1856)

La Paz: Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 1 macho [BMNH];

Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 3 males [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz, Janson, 1 male 1 female; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 female; Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 1male [BMNH].

75 Aleuron chloroptera (Perty, [1833])

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 17.viii.1991, 1 male (PB).

La Paz: Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 3 males; Guanay, Mapiri R., 1500', viii.1895, Stuart, 1 male [BMNH]; Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 3 males [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz, xi, J Steinbach, 1 male; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 1925, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH]; Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 3 males [BMNH]; Sarah, 450m, xii.1910, J Steinbach, 1 male [MNH].

76 Aleuron iphis (Walker, 1856)

La Paz: Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 2 males 1 female [BMNH]; Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH]. Santa Cruz, 1E; Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 2 males [BMNH]; Sarah, 400m, viii.1914, J Steinbach, 1 female [CMNH].

77 Aleuron neglectum Rothschild & Jordan, 1903

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 2 males [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz, 1 female [BMNH]; Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 450m, xi.1914, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH]; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 male; Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 3 males 2 females [BMNH]; Nuflo de Chavez [Ñuflo de Chávez], Esperanza, O.E. Janson, 1 female (Syntype of Aleuron leo Clark, 1935) [CMNH]; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 450m, viii, J Steinbach, 1 male; [CMNH].

78 Aleuron cymographum Rothschild & Jordan, 1903

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 3 males [BMNH], 3 males [CMNH]; (Yungas), Río Songo [Zongo], (1200m), 1895-6, Garlepp, 1 male (Syntype) [BMNH]; (Yungas), Río Songo [Zongo], (1200m), 1895-6, Garlepp, 1 male (Syntype) [MNHU]; Nor Yungas, Coroico, 1200m, 1 male [CMNH].

79 Unzela japix japix (Cramer, 1776)

Santa Cruz: Manuel María Caballero, San Juan del Potrero, 28.iv.1996, 1 male (FC).

La Paz: Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 1 male [BMNH]; Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 5 males 3 females [BMNH]; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 2 males; Buena Vista, 1925, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

80 Unzela pronoe pronoe Druce, 1894

[La Paz: Larecaja,] San Augustin [San Agustín], Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 2 males (Syntypes of Unzela variegata Rothschild, 1896) [BMNH]; Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH].

81 Callionima nomius (Walker, 1856)

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 1 male (RR); Velasco, Parque Nacional Noel Kempff, 26.xi.1993, 1 male (PB).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH].

82 Callionima inuus (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: Sarah, 350m, xii.1912, J Steinbach, 1 male; 450m, xi.1909, J Steinbach, 1 male; Warnes, 1915, 1 male [CMNH].

83 Callionima parce (Fabricius, 1775)

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 20.xii.1987, 1 male; La Víbora, 27.iv.1991, 1 female (RR); Santa Cruz, Andrés Ibáñez, 15.i.1990, 1 female (PB); 13.xi.1991, 1 male (IG); 15.i.1990, 1 male (PB); Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Potrerillos del Güendá, 23.xi.1994, 2 males (PB); 12.x.1996, 1 female (JB); Velasco, Parque Nacional Noel Kempff, 26.xi.1993, 1 female (PB); Florida, Pampa Grande, 15.x.1996, 3 males (AL). Beni: José Ballivián, Yacuma, Estación Biológica del Beni, 25.vii.1993, 1 male (WH).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH], 2 males [CMNH]; Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 1 female [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz, 2 males [BMNH]; Santa Cruz, xii.1916, W. Reiff, 1 male [CMNH]; German Bush, Puerto Suárez, 150m, xii.1908, 6 males [CMNH]; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 2 males; Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 11 males 2 females; Warnes, xi-xii.1915, 3 machos; xii.1915, 4 males [CMNH].

Callionima parce and C. falcifera (Gehlen, 1943) are not easy to distinguish using external characters. In general, the forewing apices of C. falcifera tend to be more pointed and falcate (hence the name) but this feature is often difficult to assess. A more reliable, though not entirely consistent character relates to the colour and pattern near the forewing apex. In C. falcifera, the thin pale line from the forewing apex expands basally into a broader pale band that is recurved towards the outer margin of the wing. This encloses an apical lunular area on the wing margin that is the same colour as is the forewing between the thin apical line and the costa. In contrast, in C. parce, the broader pale area is expanded along the outer margin of the wing back towards the apex, so that the area distal to the thin pale line is lighter than the area basal to it towards the costa. The difference can be seen in the specimens illustrated by d'Abrera ([1987]), particularly on the right-hand wings. Any doubtful determinations of males can be confirmed easily by examination of the genitalia, which show several good and reliable characters (described by Kitching & Cadiou, 2000 and illustrated by Soares, 1993). So far, C. falcifera has not been captured in Bolivia.

84 Callionima acuta (Rothschild & Jordan, 1910)

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 1 male (RR).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 2 males [BMNH], 3 males [CMNH], 1 male [PANS];1200m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH].

85 Callionima pan (Cramer, 1779)

Haxaire & Herbin (2000) recorded this species

from Santa Cruz (250-300m), Department of Santa Cruz.

86 Callionima denticulata (Schaus, 1895)

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 3 males 1 female [BMNH], 1 male [CMNH].

Following Rothschild & Jordan (1903), C. denticulata was, for a long time, treated as a subspecies of C. pan. Fernández Yépez (1978) reinstated C. denticulata as a species, although his only reason for doing so seems to have been personal preference. Kitching & Cadiou (2000) concurred with this decision on the grounds that the two taxa were sympatric in Ecuador. Garcia (1978) noted that C. parce and C. falcifera had different preferred flight times during the night, with C. parce flying predominantly before midnight (84.9% of moths captured at light) and C. falcifera after midnight (94% of captures). Although the sample sizes are very small, the data of Haxaire & Herbin (2000) suggest a similar phenomenon may be operating in C. pan, which flies soon after dark (18.56-19.31h, n = 2), and C. denticulata, which flies much later (00.18h, n = 3). This temporal separation of adult flight time may be acting an isolating mechanism between these two closely related species.

87 Callionima grisescens grisescens (Rothschild, 1894)

Santa Cruz: Florida, Pampa Grande, 7.viii.1995, 1 male; 28.vi.1995, 1 female; 3.vi.1996, 1 female; 13.vii.1994, 1 female; 4.x.1996 (AL).

La Paz: Inquisivi, Sacambaya, 6500', v-x.1928, AM Kettlewell, 1 male [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, xii.1916, 1 male; xii.1916, W. Reiff, 1 male; 450m, xi.1914, J Steinbach, 2 males [CMNH]; German Busch, Puerto Suárez, 150m, x.1908, J Steinbach, 5 males [CMNH]; Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 4 males [BMNH]; Sarah, 450m, ix.1912, J Steinbach, 1 male; Chiquitos, 200m, 12.xi.1909, J Steinbach, 1 male; Warnes, x-xii.1914, 1 male [CMNH].

88 Madoryx oiclus oiclus (Cramer, 1779)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 11.iv.1989, 1 female (CT).

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, J Steinbach, 1 hembra [CMNH].

89 Madoryx bubastus bubastus (Cramer, 1777)

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 male [BMNH].

90 Madoryx plutonius plutonius (Hübner, [1819])

La Paz: Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 1 male [BMNH].

This taxon was listed by Haxaire & Herbin (2000) as the unavailable junior homonym, Madoryx pluto pluto (Cramer, 1779).

91 Stolidoptera tachasara (Druce, 1888)

Santa Cruz: Sarah, Río Juntas, 1 male [CMNH].

This is the first record of this species from Bolivia.

92 Protaleuron rhodogaster Rothschild & Jordan, 1903

Haxaire & Herbin (2000) recorded a female of this species from the road between Caranavi and Yocumo [Yacuma] (1450m), Department of Beni. It was captured at 06:40h, just as the sun was rising.

93 Pachylia ficus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Cotoca, 25.vi.1989, 1 female (PB); Florida, Pampa Grande 25.viii.1995, 1 female; Samaipata, 5.i.1996, 1 female (AL); Ichilo, La Víbora, 31.iii.1990, 1 female (RR/PB); 7.iv.1991, 1 female; Parque Nacional Amboró, Río Saguayo, 27.xii.1987, 1 female; Buena Vista, 20.xii.1987, 1 female (PB); Guarayos, Perseverancia, 15.x.1990, 1 male (PB). Beni: José Ballivián, Espíritu, 24.vii.1985, 1 male (EF). La Paz: Sud Yungas, road to Caranavi, undated, 1 female (K).

La Paz: Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 1 male; Murillo, La Paz, 1 male; Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH], 1 male [CMNH]. Cochabamba: Chapare, Yunga del Espíritu Santo, 1888-1889, P Germain, 1 male [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: German Busch, Puerto Suárez, 150m, xi.1908, J Steinbach, 1 male 1 female [CMNH]; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 female [BMNH]; Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 2 males; Sarah, 450m, x.1909, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

94 Pachylia syces syces (Hübner, [1819])

Beni: José Ballivián, Río Quiquibey, 9.vii.1983, 1 male (WH/JPA).

La Paz: Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 3 females. Santa Cruz, ii-iv.1904, J Steinbach, 1 male[BMNH].

95 Pachylia darceta Druce, 1881

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 2 males 3 females (RR/PB); El Chore, 24-10-1996, 1 male (JB). Beni: José Ballivián, Río Quiquibey 8-13.vii.1983, 3 males (WH). Cochabamba, Carrasco, Chapare, 7.xii.1996, 1 male (JM).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 1200m, Garlepp, 1 female [BMNH]; 750m, 1 male; Fassl, 1 female [CMNH]. Beni: "Lower Mamoré River", 14.i.1914, Steinbach, 1 female [CMNH].

96 Pachylioides resumens (Walker, 1856)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 11.iv.1989, 1 female (CT); Florida, Pampa Grande, 7.vii.1994, 1 male 1 female; 1.vi.1995, 1 male; Agua Clara, 30.i.1996, 1 male (AL); Ichilo, La Víbora, 7.vii.1991, 1 male (RR); El Chore, 24.x.1996, 5 male (JB). Beni: José Ballivián, Estación Biológica del Beni, 22-28.x.1993, 1 male (HR).

La Paz: "Yungas de La Paz", 1000m, x.1899, Garlepp, 2 males; Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 1 male 1 female; 10 miles above Mapiri, 2000', 1895, Stuart, 1 male; Guanay, Mapiri R., 1500', viii.1895, Stuart; 1 male. Beni: "Lower Mamoré River", 10.i.1914, Steinbach, 1 female [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH]; German Busch, Puerto Suárez, 150m, J Steinbach, 1 male; xi.1908, J Steinbach, 2 males; xii.1908, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH]; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 male [BMNH]; Sarah, 450m, iii.1909, J Steinbach, 1 male; 350m, 1912, J Steinbach, 1 male; "Cuatro ojos", xi.1913, Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

97 Oryba kadeni (Schaufuss, 1870)

La Paz: Franztamayo, Caupolican, Tipuani, undated, 1 male (FG). Santa Cruz: Florida, Pampa Grande, 14.x.1995, 1 male (AL); Ichilo, El Chore, 24.x.1996, 1 male (JB).

"Bolivia", 1 female [CMNH]. La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH], 2 males [CMNH]; Larecaja, Guanay, Mapiri R., 1500', viii.1895, Stuart, 2 males; San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', x.1895, Stuart, 1 male [BMNH].

98 Oryba achemenides (Cramer, 1779)

Santa Cruz: Guarayos, Perseverancia, 15.iii.1990, 1 male (PB).

La Paz: Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 1 male [BMNH]; Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH].

99 Hemeroplanes ornatus Rothschild, 1894

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 3 males. Cochabamba: Cochabamba, 1921, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

100 Hemeroplanes triptolemus (Cramer, 1779)

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, El Chore, 20.x.1996, 1 male (ML).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH]; Nor Yungas, Yungas de Coroico, 1800m, x.1906-iii.1907, O. Garlepp, 1 male [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 1 male [BMNH].

101 Hemeroplanes diffusa (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)

La Paz: Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', x.1895, Stuart, 1 male [CMNH].

102 Nyceryx hyposticta (R. Felder, [1874])

La Paz: Murillo, Valle de Zongo, Cuticucho, 3200m, 10.iii.1989, 1 male (EF).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH]; ii-v.1896, 1 male[CMNH]; Nor Yungas, Coroico, 1200m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH]. Cochabamba: Cochabamba, J Steinbach, 4 males; 1921, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

103 Nyceryx coffaeae (Walker, 1856)

Haxaire & Herbin (2000) recorded this species from Yocumo [Yacuma] (350-800m), Department of Beni, and along the trail from Villa Tunari to Buena Vista (400m), Department of Santa Cruz.

104 Nyceryx tacita (Druce, 1888)

Río Songo [Zongo], 750m, Fassl, 1 male (Lectotype of Nyceryx clarki Fassl, 1915) [CMNH], 1 male (Paralectotype of Nyceryx clarki) [BMNH].

105 Nyceryx maxwelli (Rothschild, 1896)

[La Paz: Larecaja,] San Augustin [Agustin], Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 1 male (Holotype); La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH], 3 males [CMNH].

106 Nyceryx nictitans saturata Rothschild & Jordan, 1903

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 3 males [BMNH], 2 males [CMNH]; Nor Yungas, Coroico, 1200m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH].

107 Nyceryx continua cratera Rothschild & Jordan, 1916

La Paz: Franztamayo, Caupolican, Mamacona, 18.viii.1982, 2 males (JPA).

[La Paz: Murillo,] Río Songo [Zongo], 750m, Fassl, 3 males (Syntypes) [BMNH]; Río Zongo, 750m, 2 males; Río Songo [Zongo], 750m, Fassl, 3 males (including one syntype); "north Bolivia" 1 male [CMNH].

108 Nyceryx ericea (Druce, 1888)

"Bolivia", 1 male [BMNH]. La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH], 2 males [CMNH]; Nor Yungas, Coroico, 1200m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH].

109 Nyceryx alophus alophus (Boisduval, [1875])

First recorded from Bolivia by Burmeister (1878, 1879), Haxaire & Herbin (2000) recorded this species from Yocumo [Yacuma] (300-800m), Department of Beni, and luxuriant tropical wet forest at 850m in the south of the Department of Cochabamba.

110 Nyceryx furtadoi Haxaire, 1996

Haxaire & Herbin (2000) recorded this species from Ipati (1000m and 1300-1650m), Department of Santa Cruz.

111 Nyceryx riscus (Schaus, 1890)

La Paz: Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', vi.1895, M Stuart, 1 male [BMNH]; Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH].

112 Nyceryx stuarti (Rothschild, 1894)

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 1 male (RR).

"Bolivia", 1 male [BMNH]. "Peru-Bolivian Boundary", 14°15'-11°30'S 69°-69°30'W, v-xi, HS Toppin, 1 male [BMNH]. La Paz: Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 1 male [BMNH]; Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 2 males [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 1925, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

113 Perigonia grisea Rothschild & Jordan, 1903

"Bolivia", 2 males [CMNH]. [La Paz: Murillo,] Río Zongo to Río Suapi, 1100m, iii-iv.1896, Garlepp, 1 male (Holotype); [La Paz: Larecaja,] San Augustin [Agustín], Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 1 female (Paratype); "Yungas de La Paz", 1000', H Rolle, 1 male; Murillo, La Paz, 1000m, Garlepp, 1 male [BMNH]; Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH].

114 Perigonia stulta Herrich-Schäffer, [1854]

La Paz: "Charaplaya", 15°S 65°W, 1300m, v-vii.1901, Simons, 6 males; Sud Yungas, Chulumani, 2000m, xii, Simons, 1 male; "Yungas de La Paz", 1000m, xi.1899, Garlepp, 1 male; Murillo, La Paz, 1000m, Garlepp, 3 males; Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 2 males [CMNH]; Larecaja, Chimate, 760m, ix.1900, Simons, 1 male; San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', vi.1895, M Stuart; 5 males; ix.1895, M Stuart, 9 males 6 females; Mapiri, 1800', ix.1895, M Stuart, 11 males; Guanay, Mapiri R., 1500', viii.1895, Stuart, 4 males; Franztamayo, San Ernesto, 15°S 68°W, 1000m, viii-ix.1900, Simons, 1 male. "Río Solocame", 16°S 67°W, 1200m, i.1901, Simons, 2 males [BMNH]. Cochabamba: Chapare, Yunga del Espíritu Santo, 1888-1889, P Germain, 12 males [CMNH].

115 Perigonia pallida Rothschild & Jordan, 1903

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 18.xi.1987, 1 male (PB); Ichilo, Buena Vista, 20.xii.1987, 3 males (RR).

"Bolivia", 1895, A Stuart [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: German Busch, Puerto Suárez, 150m, xi.1908, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

116 Perigonia lusca lusca (Fabricius, 1777)

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, El Chore, 20.x.1996, 1 male (ML).

La Paz: Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 1 male (form interrupta Walker, [1865]). Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 450m, J Steinbach, 1 male (form restituta) [CMNH]; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 male (form restituta Walker, [1865]); Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 1 female (form tenebrosa R. Felder, [1874]) [BMNH].

Haxaire & Herbin (2000) listed this taxon as Perigonia lusca interrupta. However, Kitching & Cadiou (2000) considered that this subspecies did not warrant recognition.

117 Perigonia ilus Boisduval, 1870

La Paz: Larecaja, Guanay, Mapiri R., 1500', viii.1895, Stuart, 1 male [BMNH]; Nor Yungas,

Coroico, 1200m, Fassl, 2 males. Santa Cruz: Santa Cruz, xii.1916, W. Reiff, 2 males; Warnes, xii.1915, 1 male [CMNH].

Until recently, both P. ilus and P. passerina were treated as two of the many forms of the variable P. lusca. However, both are now recognized as species. P. ilus can be easily distinguished from the other two by the pale yellow anal patch on the hindwing underside (greyish-buff in P. l. lusca and P. passerina).

118 Perigonia passerina Boisduval, [1875]

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Chiquitos, 300m, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH]; German Bush, Puerto Suárez, 150m, J Steinbach, 2 males; xii.1908, J Steinbach, 6 males [CMNH]; Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 6 males; Santa Cruz, xii.1917, 1 male. Beni: José Ballivián, Reyes, vii.1895, Stuart, 1 male [BMNH].

P. passerina can be distinguished from P. l. lusca by its smaller size and relatively short forewings, the middle of the outer edge of which is strongly convex. In comparison, P. l. lusca is larger, with more elongate, triangular forewings that have relatively straight outer margins. The difference in wing shape can be clearly seen in the specimens illustrated by d'Abrera ([1987]). Also, the underside of the abdomen of P. passerina is uniform brown, while in P. lusca the anterior half of the abdomen is generally much paler than the posterior half, being the same colour as the hindwing anal patch. This can be difficult to appreciate if the specimen is worn or greasy.

119 Eupyrrhoglossum sagra (Poey, 1832)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 26.iii.1992, 1 female (RO).

La Paz: Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 3 males 2 females [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: Sarah, ii.1904, J Steinbach, 2 males; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 female [BMNH]; Buena Vista, 1 male; Buena Vista, i, J Steinbach, 1 male; Buena Vista, i.1915, Steinbach, 2 males; Sarah, J Steinbach, 1 male; x.1911, J Steinbach, 2 males; x.1913, J Steinbach, 1 male; 350m, xii.1912, J Steinbach, 1 male; German Busch, Puerto Suárez, 150m, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

120 Eupyrrhoglossum corvus (Boisduval, 1870)

"Bolivia", 1 male [CMNH]. La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo to Río Suapi, 1100m, ii-vi.1896, Garlepp, 2 males [BMNH]; Río Zongo, ii-v.1896, 1 male [CMNH].

121 Aellopos ceculus (Cramer, 1777)

"Bolivia", 1 macho [BMNH]. La Paz: Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 2 males [BMNH]; Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH]; Río Songo [Zongo], 750m, Fassl, 1 male (Holotype of Aellopos gehleni Closs, 1922) [ZSM]; "Yungas de La Paz", 1000m, xi.1899, Garlepp, 1 female [BMNH]. Cochabamba: Chapare, Yunga del Espíritu Santo, 1888-1889, P Germain, 2 males [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 male ; Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 2 males [BMNH]; Sarah, Steinbach, 2 males [CMNH].

122 Aellopos tantalus tantalus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 female [BMNH]; Sarah, 450m, iv.1909, J Steinbach, 1 female [CMNH].

This is the first record of this species from Bolivia.

123 Aellopos titan titan (Cramer, 1777)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 29.xi.1988, 1 female (PB); Ichilo, Parque Nacional Amboró, Río Saguayo, 24.xii.1987, 1 female (PB); Terebinto, 30.xi.1988, 1 male (MN).

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 6 males 7 females [BMNH]; iii.1915, Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH]; "Encorado", i.1904, J Steinbach, 1 male [BMNH]; Sarah, Steinbach, 1 female; xi.1913, Steinbach, 1 male; 450m, xii.1909, J Steinbach, 1 male; Santa Cruz, xii.1916, W. Reiff, 1 male [CMNH]; "Cuatro ojos", xi.1913, Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

124 Aellopos fadus (Cramer, 1775)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 3.xii.1988, 1 female (PB).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH]. Beni: Beni River, "Salinas", vii.1895, M Stuart, 1 male. Santa Cruz: German Busch, Puerto Suárez, 150m, xi.1908, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH]; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 2 males 3 females [BMNH]; i.1915, Steinbach, 1 female [CMNH]; Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 2 males 1 female [BMNH]; Sarah, xi.1913, Steinbach, 1female [CMNH].

125 Pseudosphinx tetrio (Linnaeus, 1771)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 22.vi.1990, 1 male (PB); Florida, Pampa Grande, 14.x.1995, 1 male; 14-10-1995, 1 female1; 25.ix.1995, 1 female; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 20.xii.1987, 6 males 1 females; Parque Nacional Amboró, 27.xii.1987, 2 males 7 females; La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 1 male (RR); Chore, 24.x.1996, 1 female (JB); Velasco, 9.vii.1989, 1 female (MDC). La Paz: Sud Yungas, Yanacachi 18.ii.1989 3 males (EF). Tarija: Oconnor, Entrerríos, 10.viii.1991, 1 male (FG). Cochabamba: Carrasco, Chapare, 7.xii.1996, 1 male (JM).

La Paz, 3 males [BMNH]. Cochabamba: Steinbach, 1 male 1 female [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 female [BMNH]; Sarah, 2 female; 350m, xii.1912, J Steinbach, 2 females; 450m, xi.1909, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

126 Isognathus menechus (Boisduval, [1875])

"Bolivia", 1 female [CMNH]. Cochabamba: Chapare, xii.1933, Fr. Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 4 males 4 females [BMNH]; 1925, J Steinbach, 1 male 1 female; Steinbach, 1 male 1 female; i.1915, Steinbach, 1 male 1 female; Sarah, 450m, iv.1909, J Steinbach, 1 female [CMNH].

126a Isognathus rimosa inclitus Edwards, 1887

Schreiber (1978) from Bolivia listed this species but this is certainly erroneous (Haxaire & Herbin, 1999).

127 Isognathus leachii (Swainson, 1823)

Pando: Nicolás Suárez, El Porvenir, 1.xi.1990, 1 male (FG).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 male [BMNH].

128 Isognathus swainsonii C. Felder & R. Felder, 1862

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 2 males 1 females (RR/PB); Buena Vista, 20.xii.1987, 1 male (RR); El Chore, 23.iii.1996, 1 male (JB).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH].

129 Isognathus caricae caricae (Linnaeus, 1758)

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 20.xii.1987, 1 male (RR).

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 1905/6, J Steinbach, 1 male [BMNH]; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 3 males 2 females [BMNH]; 1925, J Steinbach, 1 female [CMNH].

This is the first record of this species from Bolivia.

130 Erinnyis alope alope (Drury, 1773)

La Paz: Murillo, Zongo Cuticucho, 10.iii.1983, 1 male 1 female (EF). Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 18.xi.1987, 1 male (PB); Terebinto, 17.x.1988, 1 fema (AP); Ichilo, La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 3 females (RR); Buena Vista, 20.ii.1987, 2 females (RR); Florida, Santa Rosa de Lima, 2.ii.1994, 1 females; Pampa Grande, 1.ix.1996, 1 male (AL); Manuel María Caballero, San Juan del Potrero, 23.iii.1996, 3 males (FC).

Cochabamba: Cochabamba, J Steinbach, 1 male 1female [CMNH]; La Paz: Murillo, La Paz, 1 male; Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH], 1 male [CMNH]; Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 450m, J Steinbach, 1 male; Sarah, iv-v.1904, J Steinbach, 1 female [BMNH]; German Bush, Puerto Suárez, 150, xi.1908, J Steinbach, 1 male; Warnes, x-xii.1914, 2 males [CMNH].

131 Erinnyis lassauxii (Boisduval, 1859)E

La Paz: Murillo, La Paz, 1 female [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: Sarah, 450m, xii.1910, J Steinbach, 1 female [CMNH].

132 Erinnyis impunctata Rothschild & Jordan 1903

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 8.i.1989, 1 female (PB); Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 22.vi.1990, 1 male (ML); Florida, Pampa Grande, 3.iv.1996, 1 male; 7.viii.1995, 1 hembra; 28.vi.1995, 1 female, (AL); Manuel María Caballero, San Juan del Potrero, 23.iii.1996, 1 male (FC).

Beni: José Ballivián, Reyes, vii.1895, Stuart, 1 male [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: German Busch, Puerto Suárez, 150m, xi.1908, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

This taxon has generally been treated as one of the several forms of the variable E. lassauxii. However, Haxaire & Herbin (2000) considered that E. impunctata should be regarded as a species on the basis of its constantly small size (E. lassauxii is variable in size), its contrasting habitus of bright grey and white on black (which is never seen in E. lassauxii), and the absence of any trace of the five black spots on the underside of the abdomen (which are characteristic of E. lassauxii). They also noted that the distributions of the two taxa do not fully coincide in that E. impunctata is absent from the Amazon Basin, Guianas, Antilles and Mexico.

133 Erinnyis ello ello (Linnaeus, 1758)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 20-23.xi.1987, 1 male 1 female; 31.x.1987, 1 male; 14.xii.87, 1 male; 23, 29.xi.1987, 1 female; 8.i.1988, 1 male 1 female; 15.i.1990, 1 male (PB); 12, 15.i.1990, 1 male 1 female; 13.xi.1988, 1 female (JLA); 25.xi.1987, 1 female (PB); Potrerillos del Güendá 13.x.1996, 1 male (JB); Florida, Santa Rosa de Lima, 2.ii.1994, 1 female; Pampa Grande, 25.viii.1995, 1 female (AL); Manuel María Caballero, San Juan del Potrero, 23.iii.1996, 1 female (FC); Ichilo, Buena Vista, 20.xii.1987, 13 males 12 females; 13.i.1990, 2 males 2 females (RR/PB); Parque Nacional Amboró, 27.xii.1987, 1 females (RR). La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, Chachallani, 8.iii.1983, 2 males; Zongo, 10.iii.1983, 1 male; Cota Cota, 28.x.1986, 1 male; 5.iii.1987, 1 female. Beni: José Ballivián, Espíritu, 1.v.1985, 1 female (EF); Estación Biológica del Beni, 10.ix.1987, 2 female (MGP); Rurenabaque, 15.i.1982, 1 female (FG). Tarija: Oconnor, Entrerrios, 10.viii.1991, 1 male (FG). Sucre: Hernando Siles Monteagudo, 13.v.1990, 1 male (FG).

La Paz: Murillo, La Paz, x.1895, Stuart, 1 male 2 females; 3 males 6 females [BMNH]; Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH]. Cochabamba: J Steinbach, 17 males 4 females; Chapare, Yunga del Espíritu Santo, 1888-1889, P Germain, 2 females [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 450m, xi.1915, J Steinbach, 1 females [CMNH]; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 2 females [BMNH]; Buena Vista, xi.1914, Steinbach, 2 males; iii.1915, Steinbach, 1 females; Warnes, x-xii.1914, 2 males; xii.1915, 2 males [CMNH].

134 Erinnyis oenotrus (Cramer, 1780)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Cotoca, 25.vi.89, 1 female (PB); 8.i.1987, 1 female; 18.xi.1987, 1 female; 3.xii.1988, 1 female; 8.i.1989, 1 male; 11.iv.1989, 1 male; 12.i.1990, 1 male; 13-15.i.1990, 5 males (PB); Florida, Santa Rosa de Lima, 2.ii.1994, 1 females; Pampa Grande, 5.i.1996, 1 male (AL); 13.xi.1996, 1 male (JB); Ichilo, Buena Vista, 14.i.1990, 2 male; 20.xii.1987, 1 female (RR); Parque Nacional Amboró, Río Saguayo, 27.xii.1987, 1 female; La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 1 female, 4ex. (RR/PB); El Chore, 26.x.1996, 4 males (ML). Beni: José Ballivián, Quiquibey, 10.vii.1986, 1 male (WH); Espíritu, 13.vii.1987, 1 female (EF). Cochabamba: Carrasco, Chapare, 7.xii.1996, 1 male (JM).

Cochabamba: J Steinbach, 22 males 5 females [CMNH]. La Paz: Murillo, La Paz, x.1895, Stuart 2 males; La Paz, 1 male 1 female; Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH], 2 males [CMNH]; Larecaja, Guanay, Mapiri, 1500', viii.1895, Stuart, 1 male [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: Sarah, Buena Vista, xi.1914, Steinbach, 2 males; Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 450m, xi.1914, J Steinbach, 1 male; 450m, J Steinbach, 2 males; Warnes, xii.1915, 1 male [CMNH].

135 Erinnyis crameri (Schaus, 1898)

Santa Cruz: Florida, Pampa Grande 17.vii.1995, 1 female (AL); Ichilo, Buena Vista, 20.x.1987, 1 male; (RR); Río Saguayo 27.xii.1987, 1 male.

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz de La Sierra, 450m, J Steinbach, 1 male 1 female; Sarah, 450m, i.1915, J Steinbach, 1 male; Warnes, x-xii.1914, 1 male; Warnes, xii.1915, 2 males [CMNH].

136 Erinnyis obscura obscura (Fabricius, 1775)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 3.xii.1988, 2 males; 15.i.1990, 1 male (PB); Florida, Pampa Grande, 28.vi.1995, 1 male; 17.vii.1995, 1 male; Mataral, 1.x.1995, 1 female (AL); Ichilo, El Chore, 26.x.1996, 1 male (LC).

Cochabamba: J Steinbach, 10 males [CMNH]. La Paz: Murillo, La Paz, 2 males 1 female [BMNH]; Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male

[CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 450m, iii.1909, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH]; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 female [BMNH].

137 Erinnyis domingonis (Butler, 1875)

Cochabamba, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH]. La Paz: Murillo, La Paz, 1 male [BMNH]; Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH].

138 Phryxus caicus (Cramer, 1777)

Haxaire & Herbin (2000) recorded this species from Santa Cruz (350m), Department of Santa Cruz, and the road between Caranavi and Yocumo [Yacuma] (1000-1700m), Department of Beni.

Tribe: Philampelini

139 Eumorpha megaeacus (Hübner, [1819])

Listed by Haxaire & Herbin (1999) (as the unavailable junior homonym, E. eacus Cramer, 1780), this species was captured only at Yocumo [Yacuma] (300-800m), Department of Beni (J Haxaire, pers. comm.).

140 Eumorpha anchemolus (Cramer, 1779)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 22.vi.1990, 1 male (PB); Florida, Agua Clara, 30.i.1996, 1 male (AL). Cochabamba: Carrasco, Chapare, 7.xii.1996, 1 male (JM).

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 male [BMNH]; 4.iii.1915, 1male; 4.iii.1915, Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH]; Sarah, 350m, xii.1912, 2 males; 450m, iv.1909, 1 male; 450m, J Steinbach, 1 male 1 female [CMNH].

141 Eumorpha obliquus obliquus (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 2 males [CMNH]; Nor Yungas, Yungas de Coroico, 1800m, Garlepp, 1 male; Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 2500', ix.1895, M Stuart, 1 female [BMNH].

142 Eumorpha triangulum (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, xii.1989, 1male; Ichilo, La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 1 male 3 females; 1.iv.1990, 1 male; 31.iii.1990, 2 females; vi.1990, 1 male (RR); El Chore, 24.x.1996, 1 male 1 female (JB); Guarayos, Perseverancia, 23.iii.1990, 1 female (PB). La Paz: Sud Yungas, Yanacachi, 18.ii.1989, 1 male (EF); Valle Zongo, Río Chuchulluni, 8.iii.1983, 1 male (EF).

La Paz: Murillo, La Paz, 1000m, Garlepp, 1 male; Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH], 2 males [CMNH]; Sud Yungas, Chulumani, 2000', xii.1900, Simons, 1 male [BMNH].

143 Eumorpha cissi (Schaufuss, 1870)

Santa Cruz: Guarayos, Perseverancia, xi.1996, 1 male (MT); La Paz: Murillo, Zongo Pacollo, 9.iii.1991, 3 males 1 female (NB); 9.ii.1991, 1 male (RMe); Zongo Chancadora, 9.iii.1980, 1 female; Sud Yungas, Yanacachi, 18.ii.1989, 1 male; Larecaja, Teoponte, 30.x.1980, 1 male (EF).

Cochabamba: J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH]; Chapare, Yungas del Espíritu Santo, 1888-89, Germain, 1 male [BMNH], 5 males 2 females [CMNH]. La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH], 2 males [CMNH].

144 Eumorpha satellitia licaon (Drury, 1773)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 3.xii.1988, 1 female; 20.xi.1987, 1 hembra (PB); Ichilo, Buena Vista, 20.xii.1987, 1 female (RR/PB); Andrés Ibáñez, Terebinto, 12.x.1988, 1 female (PB).

La Paz: Larecaja, San Agustín, Mapiri, 3500', x.1895, M Stuart, 1 male. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 male [BMNH]; Sarah, Las Juntas, xii.1913, J Steinbach, 1 male; Warnes, x-xii.1914, 1 male; xii.1915, 1 male [CMNH].

145 Eumorpha analis (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 3.xii.1988, 1 male; 8.iii.1990, 1 male; xii.1989, 1 female (PB); Florida, Pampa Grande, 30.i.1994, 1 male (AL).

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 450m, J Steinbach, 1 male; xi.1914, J Steinbach, 1 male; Sarah, 450m, J Steinbach, 1 male; German Busch, Puerto Suárez, 150m, xi.1908, J Steinbach, 1 male 1 female; 150m, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

Until recently, E. analis was treated as a subspecies of Eumorpha satellitia (Linnaeus, 1771). However, Haxaire & Herbin (1999) recorded E. analis and E. satellitia licaon flying together in southern Bolivia, an observation that we also made. Consequently, E. analis cannot be retained as a subspecies of satellitia and was raised to species status by Haxaire & Herbin (1999).

146 Eumorpha neuburgeri (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 1 female; 1925, J Steinbach, 1 female [CMNH].

147 Eumorpha adamsi (Rothschild & Jordan, 1903)

"Bolivia", 1937, E. Flyer, 1 male [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 1925, J Steinbach, 1 male 1 female; Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1 female [CMNH].

148 Eumorpha translineatus (Rothschild, 1894)

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 450m, 1925, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

Schreiber (1978) listed this species from Bolivia. However, Haxaire & Herbin (1999) considered E. translineatus was restricted to the Santa Catarina area of endemism in southern Brazil. Thus, Schreiber's record was erroneous and they excluded the species from their list. We can now confirm the presence of E. translineatus in Bolivia. (See also Protambulyx astygonus and Xylophanes aglaor.)

149 Eumorpha vitis vitis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 20.xi.1987, 1 male; 10.vii.1988, 1 male; 17.x.1988, 1 male; 10.xi.1987, 1 male (PB); Ichilo, La Víbora, 1.vi.1990, 2 males; Buena Vista, 20.xii.1987, 1 female (RR); Florida, Pampa Grande, 30.i.1994, 1 male; 13.xi.1996, 1 male (AL).

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz de la Sierra, 450m, J Steinbach, 2 males [CMNH]; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 3 females [BMNH]; xi.1914, Steinbach, 1 male 1 female; i.1915, Steinbach, 1 male 1 female; "Río Yapacani", 600m, ix.1914, 1 female; Sarah, xi.1912, J Steinbach, 1 male; 350m, xi.1912, J Steinbach, 2 males 1 female; German Busch, Puerto Suárez, 150m, xii.1908, J Steinbach, 4 males; Warnes, x-xii.1914, 1 male [CMNH].

150 Eumorpha fasciatus fasciatus (Sulzer, 1776)

Beni: José Ballivián, Espíritu, Cañada, 13-24.vii.1985, 2 males 1 female (EF); Espíritu, Yacuma, 26.v.1981, 2 males (WH). La Paz: Franstamayo, Apolo, 15.viii.1989, 1 female (LP).

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, i.1915, Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

151 Eumorpha phorbas (Cramer, 1775)

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 1 male; 1.iv.1990, 1 male (RR).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH].

152 Eumorpha capronnieri (Boisduval, [1875])

Listed by Haxaire & Herbin (1999), this species was captured in the early evening (19:15-19:35h) on the road between Caranavi and Yocumo [Yacuma] (1000-1700m), Department of Beni, and at Yocumo [Yacuma] (300-800m), Department of Beni (J Haxaire, pers. comm.).

153 Eumorpha labruscae labruscae (Linnaeus, 1758)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 18.i.1990, 1 female; 2.ii.1990, 1 male (RR); 12-13.x.1988, 3 males (EG/PB); 10.xii.1988, 1 male (PB); 12.xii.1988, 1 female; 15.xi.1988, 1 male; 17.xii.1988, 1 male; 10.xii.1988, 1 male (RR/PB); 26.xii.1987, 1 male (RA). Beni: José Ballivián, Espíritu, 7.vi.1981, 1 female. La Paz: Murillo, Valle de Zongo, 3200 m, 10.iii.1983, 1 male (EF).

Cochabamba: J Steinbach, 1 female [CMNH]. La Paz: Murillo, La Paz, x.1895, Stuart, 1 male [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 1925, J Steinbach, 1 female. German Busch, Puerto Suárez, 150m, xi.1908, J Steinbach, 1 female; Warnes, x-xii.1914, 1 female [CMNH].

Tribe: Macroglossini
Subtribe: Choerocampina

154 Xylophanes pluto (Fabricius, 1777)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 7.xii.1990, 2 males; 23.xi.1987, 1 male (PB); Ichilo, La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 2 males (RR); Florida, Pampa Grande, 17.vii.1995, 1 male 1 female (AL).

La Paz: Murillo, La Paz, 1 male. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, x.1914, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH]; Sarah, iv-v.1904, J Steinbach, 1 male [BMNH]; German Busch, Puerto Suárez, 150m, xi.1908, J Steinbach, 1 male 1 female [CMNH].

155 Xylophanes tyndarus (Boisduval, [1875])

Guarayos, Perseverancia, 6.xii.1997, 1 male (MT).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 2 males [CMNH].

156 Xylophanes pistacina (Boisduval, [1875])

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH], 2 machos [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: 1 male; Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 5 male 1 female [BMNH].

157 Xylophanes porcus continentalis Rothschild & Jordan, 1903

Santa Cruz: Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 1 male [BMNH].

158 Xylophanes schausi serenus Rothschild & Jordan, 1910

Cochabamba: x.1963, 1 hembra [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, J Steinbach, 1925, 1 female [CMNH].

This taxon was listed by Haxaire & Herbin (1999) as X. schausi schausi (Rothschild, 1894). However, the nominotypical subspecies is restricted to southeastern Brazil. A male was captured on the

road between Caranavi and Yocumo [Yacuma] (1000-1700m), Department of Beni, and two further specimens in the same kind of biotope but higher (2040m) (J Haxaire, pers. comm.).

159 Xylophanes germen yurakano Lichy, 1945

Cochabamba: i.1964, 1 male. La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH].

160 Xylophanes hannemanni hannemanni Closs, 1917

Cochabamba: Chapare, Yunga del Espíritu Santo, 1888-1889, P Germain, 2 males [CMNH].

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH].

161 Xylophanes fusimacula (R. Felder, [1874])

Listed by Haxaire & Herbin (1999), this species was captured only at Yocumo [Yacuma] (300-800m), Department of Beni (J Haxaire, pers. comm.).

162 Xylophanes undata Rothschild & Jordan, 1903

Listed by Haxaire & Herbin (1999), this species was captured on the road between Caranavi and Yocumo [Yacuma] (1000-1700m), Department of Beni; at Yocumo [Yacuma] (300-800m), Department of Beni; and on the road between Cochabamba and Villa Tunari (1500-2000m), Department of Cochabamba (J Haxaire, pers. comm.).

163 Xylophanes ceratomioides (Grote & Robinson, 1867)

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 1 female (RR). La Paz: Sud Yungas, Yanacachi, 14.ii.1989, 1 male; Murillo, Zongo Chuchulluni, 8.iii.1983, 1 male (EF); Caupolican, Mamacona, Apolo, 16.viii.1982, 1 male (JPA). Cochabamba: Carrasco, Chapare, 7.xii.1996 (JM).

Cochabamba: Chapare, Yunga del Espíritu Santo, 1888-1889, P Germain, 2 males. La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male, 1 female. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, "Río Yapacani", viii.1913, Steinbach, 1 male; Buena Vista, 1920, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH]

164 Xylophanes guianensis (Rothschild, 1894)

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, El Chore, 24.x.1996, 1 male (JB).

X. guianensis is similar in external appearance to X. ceratomioides. However, the two species can be distinguished by the form of the three, dorsal, dark brown abdominal lines. In X. guianensis, the two outer lines run parallel to the median line along the entire length of the abdomen, whereas in X. ceratomioides, the outer lines converge towards the anterior margin of each abdominal segment, giving a chevroned appearance.

164a Xylophanes xylobotes (Burmeister, 1878)

Burmeister described X. xylobotes from "Arica, Peru", a town that is now in the very north of Chile. However, this is certainly erroneous because all other confirmed records of X. xylobotes are from southeastern Brazil. Kirby (1892) gave the type locality and distribution of X. xylobotes as "Buenos Aires", while Druce (1896) asserted that "Burmeister has separated the southern form (from Paraguay and the Argentine Republic) from C. [Choerocampa] ceratomioides under the name xylobates [sic]". Both statements are erroneous. The Argentine "records" probably originate from Burmeister's inclusion the description of X. xylobotes in his Description physique de la République Argentine, published in Buenos Aires, from which both Kirby and Druce incorrectly assumed an Argentine provenance. Druce (1881) recorded a specimen of X. ceratomioides from Paraguay in his own collection, which, in view of his statement above, is certainly the source of his Paraguay "record" of X. xylobotes. We found a likely candidate for this specimen in the BMNH and it is X. ceratomioides, which would explain why Druce (1896) was unable to discern any difference between the two species. Schreiber (1978: fig. 23) mapped X. xylobotes in the general area of Chulumani, Bolivia, but gave no detailed locality information. However, we consider these records are probably misidentifications of X. media (see below), which Schreiber did not record from Bolivia.

165 Xylophanes media Rothschild & Jordan, 1903

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 3 males 1 female [CMNH].

This species is common in Bolivia (J Haxaire, pers. comm.) and is most likely the species recorded by Schreiber (1978) as X. xylobotes.

166 Xylophanes anubus (Cramer, 1777)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 29.x.1990, 1 female (R. Quevedo; Guarayos, Perseverancia 23.iii.1990, 1 male (PB); Ichilo, Buena Vista, 20.xii.1987, 1 male (RR).

La Paz: Sud Yungas, Chulumani, 2000m, xii, Simons, 1 female. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 2 males [BMNH].

167 Xylophanes amadis (Stoll, 1782)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Potrerillos del Güendá, 13.x.1996, 1 male (JB).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [BMNH], 1 male [CMNH]. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 male 1 female; Sarah, ii-iv.1904, J Steinbach, 1 male [BMNH].

Haxaire & Herbin (1999) recorded this taxon as Xylophanes amadis stuarti (Rothschild, 1894). However, Kitching & Cadiou (2000), in their review of the Xylophanes amadis species-group, synonymized X. a. stuarti with the nominotypical subspecies.

168 Xylophanes docilis (Butler, 1875)

La Paz: Murillo, Zongo Chuchulluni, 8.iii.1983, 2 males (EF); Zongo, Pacollo, 9.iii.1991, 1 male (NB).

"Bolivia", 1 male [CMNH]. Cochabamba: Steinbach, 12 males ; Chapare, Yunga del Espíritu Santo, 1888-1889, P Germain, 2 males [CMNH]. La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo to Río Suapi, 1100', iii-iv.1896, Garlepp, 1 male [BMNH]; Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 2 male; Nor Yungas, Coroico, 1200m, Fassl, 1 female [CMNH].

169 Xylophanes cosmius Rothschild & Jordan, 1906

Listed by Haxaire & Herbin (1999), this species was captured on the road between Caranavi and Yocumo [Yacuma] (1000-1700m), Department of Beni, and at Yocumo [Yacuma] (300-800m), Department of Beni (J Haxaire, pers. comm.).

170 Xylophanes rothschildi (Dognin, 1895)

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 2 males [BMNH]; Río Songo [Zongo], 750m, Fassl, 1 male (?Holotype of Xylophanes fassli Gehlen, 1928) [CMNH].

170a Xylophanes macasensis Clark, 1922

Listed by Haxaire & Herbin (1999), only a single male is known, which was purportedly collected at pk 330 on the road between Sucre and Camiri (1200m), Department of Chuquisaca, on 26.ii.1984 (J Haxaire, pers. comm.). However, while there is no doubt as to the identity of the moth, the locality is suspect. The source, T. Porio, also collected that year in Ecuador, where X. macasensis is well known. Thus, it is possible that the moth was mislabelled.

171 Xylophanes chiron nechus (Cramer, 1777)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Potrerillos del Güendá, 15.ii.1996 (PB); Florida, Mataral, 10.iv.1994, 1 female; Pampa Grande, 22.viii.1995, 1 male; 1.ix.1996, 1 male; 17.vii.1995, 1 female (AL); Ichilo, La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 2 males 2 females (RR); 1.iv.1990, 1 male (RR); Buena Vista, 20.xii.1987, 1 male 2 females. La Paz: Murillo, Cota Cota, 16.iv.1987, 1 female (CR); Zongo, Cuticucho, 10.iii.1983, 1 female (EF); 7.vii.1981, 1 male (EF). Beni: José Ballivián, Espíritu, Cabaña, 24.vii.1985, 1 female (EF). Cochabamba: Carrasco, Chapare, 7.xii.1996, 1 female (JM).

Cochabamba: J Steinbach, 1female. Santa Cruz: Sarah, 450m, J Steinbach, 1 male; iv.1909, J Steinbach, 1 male; 350m, xii.1912, J Steinbach, 4 males [CMNH].

172 Xylophanes crotonis (Walker, 1856)

La Paz: Murillo, Zongo Cuticucho, 10.iii.1983, 1 male (EF); Zongo-Pacollo, 9.ii.1991, 1 female (RM).

Cochabamba, J Steinbach, 17 males 1 female; Cochabamba, 1921, J Steinbach, 1 male; Chapare, Alto Palmar, 1100m, 1 female; Chapare, Yunga del Espíritu Santo, 1888-1889, P Germain, 1 male [CMNH].

173 Xylophanes rhodochlora Rothschild & Jordan, 1903

La Paz: Murillo, Zongo, 10.iii.1985, 1 male (EF).

Cochabamba: J Steinbach, 3 males [CMNH].

This is the first record of this species from Bolivia.

174 Xylophanes nabuchodonosor Oberthür, 1904

La Paz: Murillo, Zongo, 10.iii.1983, 1 male (EF); Caupolican, Mamacona, 15.viii.1982, 1 male (JPA). Cochabamba: Carrasco, Chapare, 7.xii.1996, 1 male (JM).

"Bolivia", 2 male [CMNH]. Cochabamba[: Chapare,] Yunga del Espíritu Santo, 1888-9, P Germain, 1 male (Holotype); Cochabamba, 3 males; J Steinbach, 72 males 7 females; 1921, J Steinbach, 4 males; Chapare, iv.1933, Fr. Steinbach, 1 male. Tucahaca, 1920, J Steinbach, 1 male. "Cuesta von Cillutincara", 3000m, 1 male (Syntype of Xylophanes caissa Gehlen, 1931); Chapare, Limbo, xi.1956, 1 male. Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, xii.1933, Fr. Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

175 Xylophanes rhodotus Rothschild, 1904

Cochabamba: Chapare, Yunga del Espíritu Santo, 1888-1889, P Germain, 1 male [CMNH].

176 Xylophanes titana Druce, 1878

Santa Cruz: Ichilo la Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 2 males 1 female (RR). La Paz: Larecaja, Tipuani, undated, 1 male (FG).

177 Xylophanes resta Rothschild & Jordan 1903

Santa Cruz: Manuel María Caballero, San Juan del Potrero, 23.iii.1996, 1 female (FC). La Paz: Murillo, Valle de Zongo, 8.iii.1983, 1 male; Chuchulluni, 8.iii.1983, 1 male; Sud Yungas Yanacachi, 18.ii.1989, 1 female (EF); 3.iv.1994, 1 male (HR); Murillo, Zongo-Pacollo, 9.iii.1991, 3 male (NB); 1.ii.1991, 2 males (RC); 9.ii.1991, 1 male (WA).

Cochabamba: 1921, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

178 Xylophanes schreiteri Clark, 1923

Listed by Haxaire & Herbin (1999), this species was captured on the road between Santa Cruz and Cochabamba, Comarapa (1000-1700m), Department of Cochabamba; and Ipati (1000m) and Valle Grande (2000-2400m), Department of Santa Cruz (J Haxaire, pers. comm.). Its occurrence at an unspecific location in the south of Bolivia described as the "very poorly wooded zone at high altitude (2400-2600m), with sparse vegetation composed for the most part of Mimosoideae and Schinus molle" was also noted (J Haxaire, pers. comm.).

179 Xylophanes tersa tersa (Linnaeus, 1771)

Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, 22.x.1988, 1 male; 2.xii.1987, 1 male; 8.i.1988, 1 male; 25.iii.1988, 1 male; 11.xi.1991, 1 female (PB); Ichilo, Buena Vista, 20.xii.1987, 2 males 2 females; 4.i.1990, 1 male; Parque Amboró, Río Saguayo, 27.xii.1987, 2 males (PB); Florida, Pampa Grande, 3.iv.96, 2 males; 12.vii.1994, 1 male (AL).

La Paz: Murillo, La Paz, 1 male [BMNH]; Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH]; Sud Yungas: Chulumani, 2000m, xii.1900, Simons, 1 female [BMNH]. Santa Cruz: Andrés Ibáñez, Santa Cruz, xi, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH]; Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 male [BMNH]; Sarah, 450m, xii.1910, J Steinbach, 1 male; iii.1909, 1 male; Warnes, x-xii.1914, 1 male [CMNH]. "Charaplaya", 16°S 65°W, 1300m, v.1901, Simons, 1 female [BMNH].

180 Xylophanes dolius Rothschild & Jordan, 1906

Listed by Haxaire & Herbin (1999), this species was captured on the road between Caranavi and Yocumo [Yacuma] (1300-1400m), Department of Beni, and at Yocumo [Yacuma] (300-800m), Department of Beni (J Haxaire, pers. comm.).

181 Xylophanes elara (Druce, 1878)

Santa Cruz: Guarayos, Perseverancia, 15.iii.1990, 1 male (PB).

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Buena Vista, 750m, viii.1906-iv.1907, Steinbach, 1 male 1 female [BMNH].

182 Xylophanes lichyi Kitching & Cadiou, 2000

"Bolivia", 1 female (Paratype) [BMNH]. [Santa Cruz: Ichilo,] Buenavista, 1923, J Steinbach, 1 male (Paratype); Santa Cruz[: Ichilo], Buena Vista, J Steinbach, 1 male (Paratype) [CMNH].

183 Xylophanes aglaor (Boisduval, [1875])

Santa Cruz: Ñuflo Chávez, Esperanza, 1926-1929, 1 male [BMNH].

Schreiber (1978) listed this species from Bolivia. However, Haxaire & Herbin (1999) implied this record was erroneous and did not include X. aglaor on their list. We can now confirm the presence of X. aglaor in Bolivia. (See also Protambulyx astygonus and Eumorpha translineatus.)

184 Xylophanes libya (Druce, 1878)

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, La Víbora, 7.iv.1991, 2 males (RR).

Cochabamba: Chapare, Incachaca, 2000m, 1925, J Steinbach, 1 male [CMNH].

185 Xylophanes loelia (Druce, 1878)

Listed by Haxaire & Herbin (1999), this species was captured at Yocumo [Yacuma] (300-800m), Department of Beni, and at Santa Cruz (350m), Department of Santa Cruz (J Haxaire, pers. comm.).

186 Xylophanes thyelia thyelia (Linnaeus, 1758)

Santa Cruz: Ichilo, Parque Nacional Amboró, Río Saguayo 27.xii.1987, 1 male (PB); La Víbora, 7.x.1991, 2 males 1 female; Guarayos, Perseverancia, 15.iii.1990, 1 female (PB).

"Bolivia", ex Germain, 1 male [CMNH]. La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 1 male [CMNH].

Gayana 65(2), 2001

186a Xylophanes jordani Clark, 1916

Schreiber (1978) listed this species from Bolivia but this is certainly erroneous (Haxaire & Herbin, 1999) and probably a misidentification of X. t. thyelia.

187 Xylophanes pyrrhus Rothschild & Jordan, 1906

La Paz: Caupolican, El Pinalito, 16.viii.1982, 1 male (JPA).

La Paz: Murillo, Río Zongo, 750m, Fassl, 2 males 1 female. Cochabamba: J Steinbach, 80m 7 females; 1921, J Steinbach, 2 males 2 females [CMNH].

188 Hyles annei (Guérin-Méneville, 1839)

La Paz: Murillo, La Paz, 2 females [BMNH].

189 Hyles lineata (Fabricius, 1775)

Listed by Haxaire & Herbin (1999), this species was captured on the road from Valle Grande to Padilla (2250m), Department of Santa Cruz (J Haxaire, pers. comm.).

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

The authors are indebted to the many individuals who have actively contributed to the collections of the MNK and CBF over the past two decades. We would like to make special mention of Paolo Bettella, who encouraged the initial development of the sphingid collection of the MNK and stimulated many students to co-operate by making local collections. Unfortunately, in February 1999, while this paper was in production, Paolo passed away as a consequence of malaria contracted during a trip to the north of the country. JL thanks James Aparicio, Director of the CBF, who facilitated her work in La Paz. Nature reserve, local and regional authorities in Bolivia provided fieldwork and collecting permissions when necessary. The European Commission funded Large-Scale Facility Bioresource awarded to The Natural History Museum (EU-DGXII TMR Programme) permitted JB to visit the Museum. The CMNH,

MNHU, ZSM and JMCC kindly granted access to their data and collections. We thank Gerardo Lamas (Museo de Historia Natural, Lima, Peru) for permission to quote the results of his research into the publication date of Pachygonidia hopfferi.

Fecha de recepción: 10.01.01
Fecha de aceptación: 20.09.01

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APPENDIX .1: List of localities

The numbers cross-refer to the map in Figure 1.
Department of Beni

José Ballivián province

1 Espíritu, includes:

`Espíritu, Cabaña'
`Espíritu, Cañada'

2 Quiquivi or Quiquibey
3 Reyes
4 Rurrenabaque

José Ballivián and Yacuma provinces

5 Beni Biological Station, includes:

`Espíritu, Yacuma'
`Río Yacuma'
`Yacuma'
`Yacuma, Estación Biológica del Beni'

Department of Chuquisaca

Hernando Siles province

6 Monteagudo

Tomina province

7 Road from Sucre to Camiri, 10 km past Padilla

Department of Cochabamba

Bolivar province

8 Balzapamba

Carrasco province

9 Valle de Sajta

Chapare province

10 Chapare

11 Yunga del Espíritu Santo and Incachaca.

Ceroado province

12 Cochabamba

Department of La Paz

Franztamayo province

13 Apolo, includes:

`Caupolican, El Pinalito'
`Caupolican, Mamacona'
`Caupolican, Mamacona, Apolo'
`Caupolican, Tipuani'

14 San Ernesto 15°S 68°W

Inquisivi province

15 [Río] Sacambaya

Larecaja province

16 Chimate
17 Guanay
18 Guanay, Mapiri and San Agustín
19 10 miles above Mapiri
20 Tipuani
21 Teoponte

Murillo province

22 Cota Cota
23 La Paz
24 Valle del Río Zongo, includes:

`Chuchulluni'
`Río Songo [Zongo]'
`Río Songo [Zongo] to Río Suapi'
`Valle del Zongo, Cuticucho'
`Valle del Zongo, Río Chuchulluni [or Chachallani]'
`Zongo Chancadora'
`Zongo, Cuticucho'
`Zongo Pacollo'
Nor Yungas province

25 Coroico, including `Yungas de Coroico'

Sud Yungas province

26 Chulumani
27 Road to Caranavi
28 Yanacachi

Department of Pando

Nicolas Suárez province

29 El Porvenir

Department of Santa Cruz

Andrés Ibáñez province

30 Andrés Ibáñez
31 Cotoca
32 Potrerillos del Güendá
33 Santa Cruz [de la Sierra]
34 Terebinto Chiquitos
35 San José [de] Chiquitos

Florida province

36 Agua Clara
37 Mataral
38 Pampa Grande
39 Samaipata
40 Santa Rosa de Lima

German Busch province

41 Mutún and Puerto Suárez

Guarayos province

42 Perseverancia

Ichilo province

43 Río Saguayo, Parque Nacional de Amboró
44 Buena Vista (which Steinbach misplaced in Sara[h] province)
45 El Chore
46 La Víbora

Manuel María Caballero province

47 San Juan del Potrer

Ñuflo Chávez

48 Esperanza

Sarah province

49 Sara[h] and Río Juntas

Velasco province

50 Parque Nacional Noel Kempff
51 [San Ignacio de] Velasco

Warnes province

52 Warnes

Department of Tarija

Oconnor province

53 Entrerríos

Gran Chaco

54 Yacuiba

Doubtful and inaccurate localities

Beni, Salinas
Chapare, Limbo
Charaplaya 65°W 15-16°S
Cochabamba, Alto Palmar
Cuatro ojos
Cuesta [de] (von) Cillutincara
Ichilo, Río Yapacani |
Lower Mamoré River
Peru-Bolivian boundary 14°15'-11°30'S

69°00'-
69°30'W

Río Solocame, 16°S 67°W
Santa Cruz, Encorado
Tucahaca
Yungas de La Paz