Print version ISSN 0717-652XOn-line version ISSN 0717-6538
Gayana (Concepc.) vol.64 n.2 Concepción 2000
IXODES URIAE WHITE 1852 (ACARI: IXODIDAE) ASSOCIATED WITH
THE PAPUA PENGUIN, PYGOSCELIS PAPUA (FORSTER), IN THE
IXODES URIAE WHITE 1852 (ACARI: IXODIDAE) ASOCIADO CON EL
PINGUINO PAPUA, PYGOSCELIS PAPUA (FORSTER), EN LA PENINSULA
*Departamento de Zoología, Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y Oceanográficas, Universidad de Concepción, Casilla 160-C, Concepción, Chile. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Among the members of the family Ixodidae the genus Ixodes is the largest taxon and is represented by about 250 species (Keirans & Clifford 1978). Some of the Ixodes species are associated with different types of birds. The ticks of sea birds represent a very interesting ecological group since some are widely distributed and occur in both the northern and southern hemispheres.
Species of the genus Ixodes, like I. kohlsi and I. percavatus, have been mentioned as ectoparasites of the Little penguin Eudyptula minor in Australia (Reilly & Balmford 1975). According to Zumpt (1952) Ixodes (Ceratixodes) uriae (White 1852) presents an interesting distribution since is bipolar. In the North Hemisphere this species has been collected in Alaska, Canada, Iceland, Greenland, England, Scotland, Norway, Finland, Kola Peninsula, Hebrides, and Russia. On the other hand in the South Hemisphere it presents a circumpolar distribution, collected in Patagonia, Kergueleng, St. Paul and King Islands, Campbell and Nightingale, South Africa and Australia. Roberts (1964) reported this species associated with the "Tasmania penguin" in the King Island; however he mentioned that the most commnon hosts are sea birds like albatross, seagulls and petrels.
In Chile the tick species Ixodes auritulus and Ixodes uria [sic] have been recorded in birds and sea birds by Tagle (1971) but he does not give information about the distribution and specific hosts for both species. In the Antarctic these species have been found associated with penguins and other birds in the Graham Land. They are well distributed in the subantarctic islands, but there are not records of their presence in more meridional areas as other mites species (Gressitt 1972). However few other studies have been done in Chile regarding the ticks species. Among these are Donoso (1953) and Tagle (1971).
The objective of this short note is to present the record of Ixodes uriae associated with nests of the "papua penguin", Pygoscelis papua, in the Antarctic Peninsula.
One female was collected in the Doumer Island (64º52'24''S; 63º36'00''W), Antarctic Peninsula in january 1999 by Hugo I. Moyano, as part as the grant INACH 005-97 of the Instituto Antártico Chileno. The specimen was found walking in the snow close to the nests of Pygoscelis papua.
Females of I. uriae can be distinguished from I. auritulus because they have a 2/2 hypostomal dentition and no spurs on any coxae and females of I. auritulus have instead a 4/4 to 5/5 hypostomal dentition and two spurs on coxa I and one spur each on coxae II-IV. Scannning electron microscope photos and keys for males and females can be found in Keirans and Clifford 1978.
Thanks are due to Instituto Antártico Chileno, Grant INACH 005-97 and to Universidad de Concepción, Chile through Grant DIUC 97-113.041-1.0 for the fundings. Special thanks to Dr. Jim Keirans (USA) for helping with the identification of the species.
Fecha de recepción: 12.10.2000
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Gressitt, J.L. 1972. Animales Terrestres. pp. 410-434. In: Hatherton, T. (Ed.). La Antártida. Ed. Omega, S.S. Barcelona, 591 pp. [ Links ]
Keirans, J. & C. Clifford. 1978. The genus Ixodes in the United States: A Scanning Electron Microscope study and key to the adults. Journal of Medical Entomology, Supplement Nº 2: 149 pp. [ Links ]
Reilly, P.N. & P. Balmford. 1975. A breeding study of the Litle Penguin Eudyptula minor in Australia. pp. 161-187. In: Stonehouse, B. (Ed.). The Biology of penguins. The Macmillan Press Ltd. 555 pp. [ Links ]
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Tagle, I. 1971. Ixodoidea en Chile. Temas parasitológicos de actualidad. 46-49. Universidad de Chile, Santiago. [ Links ]
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