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Electronic Journal of Biotechnology

versión On-line ISSN 0717-3458

Electron. J. Biotechnol. v.7 n.2 Valparaíso ago. 2004

 

 

Electronic Journal of Biotechnology ISSN: 0717-3458  
© 2004 by Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso -- Chile Reception date: April, 25, 2004
SCIENTIFIC LETTERS

Comment on 'An evaluation of copper biosorption by a brown seaweed under optimized conditions' by Antunes, W.M., Luna, A.S., Henriques, C.A. and da Costa, A.C.A.

Yuh-Shan Ho
School of Public Health
Taipei Medical University
250 Wu-Hsing Street, Taipei 11014, Taiwan
Tel: 886 2 2736 1661 ext 6514Fax: 886 2 2738 4831
E-mail: ysho@tmu.edu.tw


Keywords: adsorption, kinetics, pseudo-second order.

Scientific Letter

In a recent publication by Antunes et al. (2003), and on section Kinetic modeling, the authors presented a pseudo first-order Lagergren model and a pseudo-second order model to describe the kinetic of copper biosorption by a brown seaweed by using Eqs. (7) to (10) without any citations. In fact, it is Lagergren (1898) who first presented the first order rate equation for the adsorption of ocalic acid and malonic acid onto charcoal. Lagergren's kinetics equation has been most widely used for the adsorption of an adsorbate from an aqueous solution. In order to distinguish kinetics equation based on adsorption capacity of solid from concentration of solution, Lagergren's first order rate equation has been called pseudo-first order since 1998 (Ho and McKay, 1998b; Ho and McKay, 1998c; Ho and McKay, 1998d; Ho and McKay, 1998e). In addition, citation review of Lagergren kinetic rate equation on adsorption reactions has been presented (Ho, 2004a). The correct reference style citing the original Lagergren's paper was first presented by Ho et al. in 1998. That is 'Lagergren, S. (1898), Zur theorie der sogenannten adsorption gelöster stoffe. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens. Handlingar, Band 24, No. 4, 1-39.' Its English translated style is 'Lagergren, S. (1898), About the theory of so-called adsorption of soluble substances. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens. Handlingar, Band 24, No. 4, 1-39' and the abbreviation style is 'Lagergren, S. (1898), Zur theorie der sogenannten adsorption gelöster stoffe. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens. Handlingar, Band 24, No. 4, 1-39'.

The second-order kinetic expression for the adsorption systems of divalent metal ions using sphagnum moss peat has been reported by Ho (1995). Again to distinguish kinetics equation based on adsorption capacity of solid from concentration of solution, Ho's second-order rate equation has been called pseudo-second order. The earlier application of the pseudo-second order equation to the kinetic studies of competitive heavy metal adsorption by sphagnum moss peat was undertaken by Ho et al. (1996). The modified model has also been reported in following years. The most cited related papers were published in Chemical Engineering Journal (Ho and McKay, 1998a), Water Research (Ho and McKay, 2000) Process Biochemistry (Ho and McKay, 1999e), and Process Safety and Environmental Protection (Ho and McKay, 1998b). In addition, similar cases occurred and has been acknowledge in Adsorption Science and Technology (Ho, 2002), Journal of Colloid and Interface Science (Ho, 2003b; Ho, 2004b), Journal of Chemical Technology and Biotechnology (Ho, 2003c), Biochemical Engineering Journal (Ho, 2003a), and Bioresource Technology (Ho, 2004c).

The pseudo-second order rate expression of Ho has been applied to the adsorption of metal ions, dyes, organic substances, and oil from aqueous solutions (Table 1). Moreover, discussion of the reaction order has been reported such as the comparison of chemisorption kinetic models (Ho and McKay, 1998e) and pseudo-second order model (Ho and McKay, 1999e). Furthermore, Ho's kinetic expression has also been applied to a multi-stage batch adsorption design (Ho and McKay, 1998f; 1999b) and pseudo-isotherm studies (Ho and Wang, 2004). Numerous applications of Ho's kinetic expression have been reported in recent years. A list of pseudo-second order systems is given in Table 1.

A research paper's contribution exists not only in its originality and creativity but also in its continuity and development for research that follows. The reference section can play a key role to researchers who are interested in a paper's statement or who would like to follow the study or find useful information from the paper (Ho, 2004a). I suggest that Ho's original pseudo-second order kinetic expression paper should be cited by Antunes et al. (2003).

Table 1. Pseudo-second order kinetic model of various related systems from the literature.

Sorbent

Sorbate

References

2-Mercaptobenzimidazole-clay

Hg(II)

Manohar et al. 2002

Activated carbon

Hg(II)

Krishnan and Anirudhan, 2002a

Activated carbon

Pb(II), Hg(II), Cd(II), Co(II)

Krishnan and Anirudhan, 2002b

Activated carbon

Cd(II)

Krishnan and Anirudhan, 2003

Activated carbon

Pb(II)

Krishnan et al. 2003

Activated carbon

Cd(II)

Özer and Tümen, 2003

Activated carbon

2,4-dichlorophenoxy-acetic acid (2,4-D)

Aksu and Kabasakal, 2004

Activated carbon

Cd(II), Ni(II)

Basso et al. 2002

Activated clay

Basic Red 18, Acid Blue 9

Ho et al., 2001

Aspergillus niger

Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II)

Kapoor et al.1999

Aspergillus niger

Basic Blue 9

Fu and Viraraghavan, 2000

Aspergillus niger

Acid Blue 29

Fu and Viraraghavan, 2001

Aspergillus niger

Congo Red

Fu and Viraraghavan, 2002

Baker's yeast

Cd(II)

Vasudevan et al. 2003

Banana stalk [Musa paradisiaca]

Hg(II)

Shibi and Anirudhan, 2002

Base-treated juniper fiber

Cd(II)

Min et al. 2004

Beech leaves

Cd(II)

Ho and McKay, 1999e

Bi2O3

Cr(VI)

Ho and McKay, 1999e

Blast furnace slag, Dust, Sludge, Carbon slurry

Phenols

Jain et al. 2004

Bottom ash

Cu(II) and Pb(II)

Ho and McKay, 1999e

Calcined alunite

Phosphorus

Özacar, 2003

Calcined Mg-Al-CO3 hydrotalcite

Cr(VI)

Lazaridis and Asouhidou, 2003

Chitin, Chitosan, Rhizopus arrhizus

Cr(VI), Cu(II)

Sağ and Aktay, 2002

Coir

Cu(II), Pb(II)

Quek et al. 1998a

Coir pith carbon

Congo Red

Namasivayam and Kavitha, 2002

Cypress leaves

Pb(II)

Ho and McKay, 1999e

Diatomaceous clay

Methylene Blue

Shawabkeh and Tutunji, 2003

Fly ash

Omega Chrome Red ME, o-cresol, p-nitrophenol

Ho and McKay, 1999d

Fly ash

Victoria Blue, OCL, PNP, OCRME

Ho and McKay, 1999e

Grafted silica

Pb(II), Cu(II)

Chiron et al. 2003

Iron oxide-coated sand

As(V), As(III)

Thirunavukkarasu et al. 2003

Microcystis

Ni(II), Cr(VI)

Singh et al. 2001

Microporous titanosilicate ETS-10

Pb(II)

Zhao et al. 2003

Mixed clay/carbon

Acid Blue 9

Ho and Chiang, 2001

Mucor rouxii

Pb(II), Cd(II), Ni(II), Zn(II)

Yan and Viraraghavan, 2003

Myriophyllum spicatum

Pb(II), Zn(II), Cd(II)

Keskinkan et al., 2003

Na-bentonite

Oil

Viraraghavan and Moazed, 2003

Peat

Basic Blue 69, Acid Blue 25

Ho and McKay, 1998c

Peat

Cu(II)

Gündoğan et al., 2004

Peat

Cu(II)

Petroni et al., 2004

Peat

Cu(II)

Ho and McKay, 1999e, Ho and McKay, 2002

Peat Pb(II) (Ho and McKay, 1999c)

Peat-resin particle

Basic Magenta, Basic Brilliant Green

Sun and Yang, 2003

Perlite

Cd(II)

Mathialagan and Viraraghavan, 2002

PHC and GAC

Cu(II)

Ho and McKay, 1999e

Phosphate

Pb(II), Cu(II), Zn(II)

Prasad and Saxena, 2004

Pith

Basic Red 22, Acid Red 114

Ho and McKay, 1999a

Pits

Methylene Blue

Banat et al., 2003

Pits

Phenol

Banat et al., 2004

Reed leaves

Cd(II)

Ho and McKay, 1999e

Rhizopus oligosporus

Cu(II)

Beolchini et al., 2003

Sago

Cu(II), Pb(II)

Quek et al., 1998b

Sawdust

Cd(II), Pb(II)

Taty-Costodes et al., 2003

Sawdust

Phenol

Jadhav and Vanjara, 2004

Schizomeris leibleinii

Pb(II)

Özer, 2003

Sepiolite

Acid Red 57, Acid Blue 294

Ozcan et al.,2004

Silicates

Phosphate

Shin et al., 2004

Spent grain

Pb(II), Cd(II)

Low et al., 2000

Sphagnum moss peat

Cu(II), Ni(II)

Ho et al., 1996

Sphagnum moss peat

Chrysoidine (BO2), Astrazon Blue (BB3), Astrazone Blue (BB69)

Ho and McKay, 1998d

Sphagnum moss peat

Cu(II), Ni(II), Pb(II)

Ho and McKay, 2000

Sugar beet pulp

Pb(II), Cu(II), Zn(II), Cd(II), Ni(II)

Reddad et al., 2002

Sugar beet pulp

Pb(II)

Reddad et al., 2004

TNSAC

Phosphate

Ho and McKay, 1999e

Tree fern

Cu(II)

Ho, 2003d

Tree fern Na(I) (Ho, 2003e)

Tree fern

Pb(II)

Ho et al., 2004

Vermiculite

Cd(II)

Mathialagan and Viraraghavan, 2003

Waste tyres, Sawdust

Cr(VI)

Hamadi et al., 2001

Wollastonite

Ni(II)

Ho and McKay, 1999e

 

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