versión impresa ISSN 0716-9760
Biol. Res. v.37 n.2 Santiago 2004
Biol Res 37: 183-187, 2004
Alcohol and Mortality from All Causes
1Emile Roux Hospital, Public Assistance of Paris Hospitals France
In our prospective studies in France on 35 000 middle-aged men, we observed that only wine at moderate intake, was associated with a protective effect on all-cause mortality. The reason was that in addition to the known effect on cardiovascular diseases, a very moderate intake of wine, protected also from cancer and other causes as confirmed by Gronbaek in Denmark. Our recent results also indicate that the protective effect of a moderate intake of wine on all-cause mortality is observed at all levels of blood pressure and serum cholesterol.
The question raised by these two studies involves the kind of alcoholic beverage drank by these physicians. Could it be that they normally drank more wine than the general population? However, in USA, in the largest study ever performed on the effect of alcohol (238 206 subjects) (7) on mortality, but in motivated subjects, very moderate drinkers, a 20 % reduction in the mortality from all causes was registered, for 1 to 3 drinks per day, a result similar to that observed in the British (5) and American physicians (6). Thus, at least three large prospective studies have observed a similar reduction in mortality from all causes for a moderate intake of alcohol. The question raised is why large studies have observed a similar protective effect of alcohol on all-cause mortality and not the previous smaller studies? Such a discrepancy could be due to the size of the cohort or/and possibly the type of alcoholic beverage consumed. Unfortunately, none of these prospective studies have evaluated the type of the alcoholic beverage consumed.
Since French males are considered the largest consumers of wine in the world, we conducted a study in Eastern France that included 34 014 middle-aged men (40 - 60 years at baseline) in which we evaluated mortality in relation to their alcohol intake, with a follow-up of 10 - 15 years (9), In that study, every social class consumed wine, and the largest consumers were workers and tradesmen (48.9 and 47.6 g/day respectively). Higher classes such as high-level managers consumed only 36.2 g/day of wine. In that cohort, wine was the main alcohol consumed (82 % of the total alcoholic beverages). A moderate intake of wine (2 - 3 glasses per day) was associated with a 24 - 31 % reduction in all-cause mortality, in smokers, ex-smokers and non-smokers.
In a subsequent study (10) with 36 250 men, we evaluated separately the effect of wine, beer, and of wine + beer. Significant lower all-cause mortality was observed only with wine at a moderate intake (1 to 5 glasses/day). With beer, either representing more than 40 % of alcohol or less, there was no reduction of the all-cause mortality, at any level of alcohol consumption. The reduction of all-cause mortality in moderate wine drinkers could be attributed to a lower death from cancer (by 20 %) and from other causes (by 28 to 42 %) shown in Figure 1.
Relative risk of death from all-causes in relation to the intake of wine compared to abstainers, adjusted for age, smoking, BMI and education. Other causes were the sum of the causes of death with the exception of cancer, cardiovascular causes, cirrhosis and violent death.
The specificity of wine for lowering the risk of all-cause mortality and cancer has been confirmed recently by Gronbaek et al. (11). It was only in wine drinkers that the all-cause mortality was lowered by more than 20 % for an intake of up to 3 drinks per day. They also found that it was only wine but not spirits or beer that reduced cancer mortality by up to 20 % (3 glasses of wine/day). As for cancer, the subsequent question was to evaluate on what types of cancer wine may have protective effects. Gronbaek et al. have already shown that wine drinking does not increase the risk of upper digestive tract cancer (12) as compared to beer or spirits.
In our cohort from Eastern France mentioned above, in 946 cases of cancer we evaluated the effect of wine drinking compared to abstainers (Fig. 2). The risk of both lung cancer and of other cancers was lowered by about the same extent for 1 - 3 glasses of wine (other cancers), and for 3 - 5 glasses (lung cancers). Above 5 glasses /day the risk of cancer was increased by 50 %.
Since it is only wine that offers some protection on the risk of cancer, that protection does not seem to be due to alcohol per se. Among the phenolic substances contained in wine, resveratrol is
one substance that has been extensively studied in relation to cancer and other problems (13). It has been shown that resveratrol modulates lipoprotein metabolism, presents antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, inhibits platelet aggregation and cellular events associated with cancer i.e. initiation, promotion and progression (13).
Figure 4 shows the effects of alcoholic beverages on the risk of mortality from all causes in relation to smoking. Contrarily to what happens with cholesterol, in our cohort, smoking not only increases the risk of cardiovascular diseases but also increases the risk of death from all-causes by 4-fold in heavy smokers. The other drinkers present a similar risk than the non-drinkers while the wine drinkers present a lower risk of 18 to 29 %.
Even risk factors such as serum cholesterol and smoking do not seem to impede the protective effect of moderate wine drinking on all-cause mortality. Therefore, the protective effect of wine drinking on the effects of certain risk factors seems to be the direct explanation of the French Paradox, a low mortality rate despite a level of risk factors similar to that of countries such as USA and Great Britain.
1. RIMM EB, GIOVANNUCCI EL, WILLETT WC, COLDITZ GA, ASCHERIO A, ROSNER B, STAMPFER MJ.(1991) Prospective study of alcohol consumption and risk of coronary disease in men. Lancet 338:464-468 [ Links ]
2. KAGAN A, YANO K, RHOADS GG, McGEE DL (1981) Alcohol and cardiovascular disease: the Hawaiian experience. Circulation 64: III 27-31 [ Links ]
3. SHAPER AG, WANNAMETHEE G, WALKER M (1994) Alcohol and coronary heart disease: a perspective from the British Regional Heart Study. Int J Epidemiol 23:482-494 [ Links ]
4. LEINO EV, ROMELSJO A, SHOEMAKER C, AGER CR, ALLEBECK P, FERRER HP, FILLMORE KM, GOLDING JM, GRAVES KL, KNIEP S. (1998) Alcohol consumption and mortality. II. Studies of male populations. Addiction 93:205-218 [ Links ]
5. DOLL R, PETO R, HALL E, WHEATLEY K, GRAY R (1994) Mortality in relation to consumption of alcohol: 13 years' observations on male British doctors. BMJ 309:911-918 [ Links ]
6. CAMARGO CA JR, HENNEKENS CH, GAZIANO JM, GLYNN RJ, MANSON JE, STAMPFER MJ (1997) Prospective study of moderate alcohol consumption and mortality in US male physicians. Arch Intern Med 157:79-85 [ Links ]
7. THUN MJ, PETO R, LÓPEZ AD, MONACO JH, HENLEY SJ, HEATH CW JR, DOLL R. (1997) Alcohol consumption and mortality among middle-aged and elderly U.S. adults. N Engl J Med 337:1705-1714 [ Links ]
8. GRØNBÆK M, DEIS A, SØRENSEN TI, BECKER U, SCHNOHR P, JENSEN G (1995) Mortality associated with moderate intakes of wine, beer, or spirits. BMJ 310:1165-1169 [ Links ]
9. RENAUD SC, GUEGUEN R, SCHENKER J, d'HOUTAUD A (1998) Alcohol and mortality in middle-aged men from eastern France. Epidemiology 9: 184-188 [ Links ]
10. RENAUD SC, GUEGUEN R, SIEST G, SALAMON R (1999) Wine, beer, and mortality in middle-aged men from eastern France. Arch Intern Med 159:1865-1870 [ Links ]
11. GRØNBÆK M, BECKER U, JOHANSEN D, GOTTSCHAU A, SCHNOHR P, HEIN HO, JENSEN G, SØRENSEN TI. (2000) Type of alcohol consumed and mortality from all causes, coronary heart disease, and cancer. Ann Intern Med 133:411-419 [ Links ]
12. GRØNBÆK M, BECKER U, JOHANSEN D, TONNESEN H, JENSEN G, SØRENSEN TI (1998) Population based cohort study of the association between alcohol intake and cancer of the upper digestive tract. BMJ 317:844-847 [ Links ]
13. JANG M, CAI L, UDEANI GO, SLOWING KV, THOMAS CF, BEECHER CW, FONG HH, FARNSWORTH NR, KINGHORN AD, MEHTA RG, MOON RC, PEZZUTO JM. (1997) Cancer chemopreventive activity of resveratrol, a natural product derived from grapes. Science 275:218-220 [ Links ]
14. KUULASMAA K, TUNSTALL-PEDOE H, DOBSON A, FORTMANN S, SANS S, TOLONEN H, EVANS A, FERRARIO M, TUOMILEHTO J. (2000) Estimation of contribution of changes in classic risk factors to trends in coronary-event rates across the WHO MONICA Project populations. Lancet 355:675-687 [ Links ]
15. GRØNBÆK M, JENSEN MK, JOHANSEN D, SØRENSEN TIA, BECKER U (2004) Intake of Beer, Wine and Spirits and Risk of Heavy Drinking and Alcoholic Cirrhosis. Biol Res 37: 195-200 [ Links ]
16. LETENNEUR L (2004) Risk of Dementia and Alcohol and Wine Consumption: a Review of Recent Results. Biol Res 37: 189-193 [ Links ]
Corresponding author: Serge Renaud, Emile Roux Hospital, Public Assistance of Paris Hospitals France. Service du Dr. Oliver Henry 1, avenue de Verdun - 94456 Limeil-Brévannes Cedex-France. Phone: 06 83 06 9248 Fax: 01 45 95 8392. E-mail: email@example.com