Revista clínica de periodoncia, implantología y rehabilitación oral
version ISSN 0719-0107
DIAZ ZUNIGA, J et al. Virulence and variability on Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and their association to periodontitis. Rev. Clin. Periodoncia Implantol. Rehabil. Oral [online]. 2012, vol.5, n.1, pp. 40-45. ISSN 0719-0107. doi: 10.4067/S0719-01072012000100007.
Periodontitis represents a heterogenic group of periodontal infections elicited by bacteria residing at the subgingival biofilm. Although this biofilm is constituted by a broad variety of bacterial species, only a limited number has been associated with the periodontitis aetiology, among them Porphyromonas gingivalis and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans. Both P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans express a number of virulence factors that contribute to direct tissue damage and, based on them, distinct genotypes and serotypes have been described, each one with a potential variable pathogenicity. This review aimed to analyze the different virulence factors described for P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans and to discuss the variable immunogenicity and pathogenicity of their serotypes and genotypes. P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans express different virulence factors and they determine the initiation, progression, and severity of periodontitis. In P. gingivalis, distinct serotypes and/or genotypes are described based on fimbriae, LPS, and capsule. Additionally, in A. actinomycetemcomitans distinct serotypes and/or genotypes are described based on leucotoxin A, Cdt, and LPS. These distinct serotypes and genotypes induce a differential immunoinflammatory response and, thus, could be associated with variations in pathogenicity and reflected in clinic characteristics of the disease.
Keywords : Virulence; genotypes; serotypes; Porphyromonas gingivalis; Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans.