Boletín de filología
versión ISSN 0718-9303
SANCHEZ CABEZAS, Gilberto. Mapuchisms in DRAE. Boletín de Filología [online]. 2010, vol.45, n.2, pp. 149-256. ISSN 0718-9303. doi: 10.4067/S0718-93032010000200008.
This article deals with lexical items coming from Mapuche (Mapudungun(n) present in the latest edition (twenty second) of Diccionario de la Real Academia Española (DRAE). The expression mapuchismo(s) is proposed to refer to them, following the already existing forms guaranismo, mayismo, nahuatlismo and quechuismo to refer to words coming from the corresponding Amerindian languages. Since contact was made between the Mapuche people and the Spanish conquistadores (1540), lexical items referring to the local natural environment and the indigenous culture were incorporated into Spanish. Because of this, an important part of the Spanish lexicon referring to flora (boldo, canchalagua, luma, mañío, peumo), fauna (chuncho, coipo, loica, peuco, tiuque, etc.), food (cancato, curanto, pirco, ulpo, etc.), the human body (charcha, guata, trutro o tuto), the geographical origin of inhabitants (colchagüino, curicano, penquista, rancagüino, temucano, etc.) is of indigenous origin. This lexicon has been used not only in the colloquial and domestic language, but also in the written educated formal variety: in colonial chronicles, in historical treatise, in scientific treatises (botanical, zoological, geographical), in literary works (from La Araucana up to now), in school textbooks, etc., and at present in mass media. The vernacular survives in the rich toponymy of the country (from the IV to the XI Regions) and even in anthroponymy (with names such as Caupolicán, Guacolda, Lautaro, Millaray, Tucapel). As far as it is possible, in this article, we intend to recover the original form of the lexical item, which is already altered in colonial writings, a fact that is also frequently observed at present. With this purpose in mind, vernacular language lexicons from the past and the present have been resorted to.
Palabras clave : mapuchisms in Spanish; autochthonous phytonymy and zoonymy; Mapuche culture.