Revista de la ciencia del suelo y nutrición vegetal
versión On-line ISSN 0718-2791
CEA, M; CARTES, P; PALMA, G y MORA, M.L. ATRAZINE EFFICIENCY IN AN ANDISOL AS AFFECTED BY CLAYS AND NANOCLAYS IN ETHYLCELLULOSE CONTROLLED RELEASE FORMULATIONS. R.C. Suelo Nutr. Veg. [online]. 2010, vol.10, n.1, pp. 62-77. ISSN 0718-2791. doi: 10.4067/S0718-27912010000100007.
Atrazine, a herbicide used for the control of broadleaf weeds of different crops, was incorporated in ethylcellulose controlled release formulations (CRFs) by using the solvent evaporation technique. Allophanic clays and nanoclays were incorporated as matrix modifying agents. The formulations were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and their behavior was determined in aqueous phase. Dissipation studies and soil columns experiments with CRFs were also carried out, and compared with commercial formulations (CFs). In addition, a short-term bioassay was performed to evaluate the effect of CRFs and CFs on the emergence and growth of field mustard (Brassica campestris L.) under greenhouse conditions. The matrix modifiers (clays and nanoclays) showed little influence on the particle morphology and atrazine encapsulation efficiency. Furthermore, these matrix modifiers had a slight effect on the atrazine release into water, its dissipation and its behavior in soil compared with the formulation without them. All CRFs increased the atrazine herbicidal activity and reduced their loss by leaching in soil. Although some similarities were found in the efficiency to reduce the seedling emergence between CRFs and CFs, a greater death of seedlings was observed in the CRFs, especially when nanoclays were added into the formulation. These facts denote an advantage of CRFs over CFs due to prolonged bio-efficiency, and longer applications intervals will be produced, minimizing the harmful impact on the environment.
Palabras clave : Atrazine; natural clays and nanoclays; controlled release; soil; herbicidal activity.