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Universum (Talca)

versión On-line ISSN 0718-2376

Resumen

SOLDI, Ana María. La vid y el vino en la costa central del Perú, siglos XVI y XVII. Universum [online]. 2006, vol.21, n.2, pp. 42-61. ISSN 0718-2376.  http://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0718-23762006000200004.

The cultivation of vineyards developed early in the coastal plains and middle valleys of the occidental slope of the Andes, where weather and soil were favorable. Spanish and creoles disregarded the royal and viceroyalty decrees which vainly tried to limit this crop and the production of local wines because they were a competition for the Spanish imported wines. This article is about an area -Pisco, Ica, and Nasca- where for a relatively brief time local indigenous lords, who were still "rich" and owned land, successfully dedicated to the cultivation of vineyards and the production of wines. There were also "indios naturales" ("common Indians") dedicated to this activity, even though they were compelled to leave this activity after a few years. During the last decade of the XVI century and the first decades of the XVII century, many of the properties of the indigenous lords of the second and third generations, were transferred to Spanish and creoles. This was done through sales or, in numerous cases, through donations or execution of wills in favor of different religious orders that were established in this area.  I have cited some cases of donations which favored the Company of Jesus (Jesuits). Part of my research has been dedicated to the fast multiplication of vineyards in the valleys and plains of Pisco, Ica, and Nasca, to the planting techniques, to the special care in the cultivation of grapes as well as to how the harvest was done. All the labor needed for these tasks were in charge of slaves that were imported in great numbers. Free artisans were the most valued and were well paid and they were in charge of the fabrication of the containers for keeping and transporting wine by land and sea. From the end of the XVI century until well into the XVIII century, in vast parts of the Peruvian territory, there were recurrent natural disasters. Volcanic eruptions, earthquakes and tsunamis greatly affected the vineyards and wine cellars causing the loss of crops which were not properly registered

Palabras llave : Vineyards and wine; Peru: XVI and XVII centuries; Cultivation of Vineyards; Society of Jesus.

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